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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8893, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245029

ABSTRACT

It has been revealed that SARS-CoV-2 can be efficiently isolated from clinical specimens such as nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs or saliva in cultured cells. In this study, we examined the efficiency of viral isolation including SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains between nasal/nasopharyngeal swab or saliva specimens. Furthermore, we also examined the comparison of viral isolation rates by sample species using simulated specimens for COVID-19. As a result, it was found that the isolation efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva specimens was significantly lower than that in the nasal/nasopharyngeal swab specimens. In order to determine which component of saliva is responsible for the lower isolation rate of saliva specimens, we tested the abilities of lactoferrin, amylase, cathelicidin, and mucin, which are considered to be abundant in saliva, to inhibit the infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses (SARS-CoV-2pv). Lactoferrin and amylase were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2pv infection. In conclusion, even if the same number of viral genome copies was detected by the real-time RT-PCR test, infection of SARS-CoV-2 present in saliva is thought to be inhibited by inhibitory factors such as lactoferrin and amylase, compared to nasal/nasopharyngeal swab specimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Lactoferrin , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Nasopharynx , Cell Culture Techniques , Specimen Handling
2.
Biometals ; 36(3): 385-390, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244446
3.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291254

ABSTRACT

A limited number of effective therapies are currently available to treat human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses, which are responsible for nearly a third of global cases of the common cold. The possibility of new emerging coronaviruses demands powerful new antiviral strategies. Lactoferrin is a well-known protein that possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, and it has previously shown antiviral activity against several viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. To increase this antiviral activity, here we present bovine liposomal lactoferrin. Liposomal encapsulation of the compound was proven to increase permeability, bioavailability, and time release. In the present work, we compare the antiviral activity of free and liposomal bovine lactoferrin against HCoV229E and SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in human primary bronchial epithelial cells, and we demonstrated that the liposomal form exerts a more potent antiviral activity than its free form at non-cytotoxic doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , RNA Viruses , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Liposomes
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(25): 6704-6707, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Early human milk provides protection against viral infections due to its high nutritional value, abundance of maternal antibodies and the specific role of lactoferrin (Lf). Lf blocks the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells by binding to specific cell receptors and has been proposed as a preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. This preliminary report aimed to investigate concentrations of Lf in early milk of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers versus non-infected controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cohort of 13 SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers and 15 controls, breast milk concentrations of Lf were determined by ELISA on day 3 postpartum. Additionally, colostrum samples of infected mothers were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG determination using RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: No differences were found in breast milk Lf concentrations between SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers and controls. In a subgroup analysis, however, symptomatic mothers (n = 7) presented with lower breast milk Lf concentrations, as compared to asymptomatic mothers (p = .041) and healthy controls (p = .029). All milk samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Early human milk of infected mothers displayed IgA and IgG SARS-CoV-2 specific reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed a different early breast milk Lf "profile" between COVID-19 symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers with the latter being at non-COVID levels (control group). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any breast milk sample. Early human milk Lf levels are potentially influenced by the severity of maternal COVID-19 infection during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Milk, Human/chemistry , Lactoferrin , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G
5.
Nutrients ; 15(5)2023 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271274

ABSTRACT

As lactoferrin is a nutritional supplement with proven antiviral and immunomodulatory abilities, it may be used to improve the clinical course of COVID-19. The clinical efficacy and safety of bovine lactoferrin were evaluated in the LAC randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. A total of 218 hospitalized adult patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were randomized to receive 800 mg/die oral bovine lactoferrin (n = 113) or placebo (n = 105), both given in combination with standard COVID-19 therapy. No differences in lactoferrin vs. placebo were observed in the primary outcomes: the proportion of death or intensive care unit admission (risk ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.63-1.79)) or proportion of discharge or National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) ≤ 2 within 14 days from enrollment (RR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.70-1.04)). Lactoferrin showed an excellent safety and tolerability profile. Even though bovine lactoferrin is safe and tolerable, our results do not support its use in hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Lactoferrin , Double-Blind Method , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155227

ABSTRACT

Notwithstanding mass vaccination against specific SARS-CoV-2 variants, there is still a demand for complementary nutritional intervention strategies to fight COVID-19. The bovine milk protein lactoferrin (LF) has attracted interest of nutraceutical, food and dairy industries for its numerous properties-ranging from anti-viral and anti-microbial to immunological-making it a potential functional ingredient in a wide variety of food applications to maintain health. Importantly, bovine LF was found to exert anti-viral activities against several types of viruses, including certain SARS-CoV-2 variants. LF's potential effect on COVID-19 patients has seen a rapid increase of in vitro and in vivo studies published, resulting in a model on how LF might play a role during different phases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Aim of this narrative review is two-fold: (1) to highlight the most relevant findings concerning LF's anti-viral, anti-microbial, iron-binding, immunomodulatory, microbiota-modulatory and intestinal barrier properties that support health of the two most affected organs in COVID-19 patients (lungs and gut), and (2) to explore the possible underlying mechanisms governing its mode of action. Thanks to its potential effects on health, bovine LF can be considered a good candidate for nutritional interventions counteracting SARS-CoV-2 infection and related COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cattle
7.
Food Funct ; 13(23): 11954-11972, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119428

ABSTRACT

Lactoferrin (Lf) is a natural iron-binding globular glycoprotein, present mainly in milk. It maintains human health through its multifunctional activities, including immunomodulation, iron metabolism, and antioxidant and prebiotic efficacy. It also shows anti-microbial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities against a broad spectrum of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. In addition, several investigations established that Lf is involved in bone metabolism, neural development, and metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies on the health benefits of Lf and its bioavailability. Furthermore, we briefly describe the production, industrial applications and future prospects of Lf.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , Humans , Animals , Lactoferrin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Milk/metabolism , Iron/metabolism
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 958581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022744

ABSTRACT

In addition to vaccines, there is an urgent need for supplemental antiviral therapeutics to dampen the persistent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), that is responsible for proteolytic priming of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, appears as a rational therapeutic target. Accordingly, selective inhibitors of TMPRSS2 represent potential tools for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Previously, we identified the human milk glycoprotein lactoferrin as a natural inhibitor of plasminogen conversion to plasmin, a serine protease homologous to TMPRSS2. Here, we tested whether lactoferrin and lactoferricin, a biologically active natural peptide produced by pepsin-mediated digestion of lactoferrin, together with synthetic peptides derived from lactoferrin, were able to block TMPRSS2 and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly, we revealed that both lactoferricin and the N-terminal synthetic peptide pLF1 significantly inhibited: i) proteolytic activity of TMPRSS2 and plasmin, ii) proteolytic processing of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and iii) SARS-CoV-2 infection of SARS-CoV-2-permissive cells. Thus, natural and synthetic peptides derived from lactoferrin represent feasible candidates for supporting prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lactoferrin , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors , Fibrinolysin , Humans , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Pandemics , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 2187696, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020478

ABSTRACT

Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a multifunctional protein widely associated with anticancer activity. Prostate cancer is the second most frequent type of cancer worldwide. This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of bLf on cell viability, cell cycle progression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and rate of apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line (DU-145). MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion were used to analyze cell viability. Morphological changes were analyzed through optical microscopy after 24 h and 48 h of bLf treatment. FITC-bLf internalization and cellular damage were observed within 24 h by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle analyses were performed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide. For caspases 3/7 activation and reactive oxygen species production evaluation, cells were live-imaged using the high-throughput system Operetta. The cell viability assays demonstrated that bLf induces cell death and morphological changes after 24 h and 48 h of treatment compared to control on DU-145 cells. The bLf internalization was detected in DU-145 cells, G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle, caspase 3/7 activation, and increased oxidative stress on bLf-treated cells. Our data support that bLf has an important anticancer activity, thus offering new perspectives in preventing and treating prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Lactoferrin , Prostatic Neoplasms , Apoptosis , Cell Survival , Humans , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
10.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969398

ABSTRACT

The association of hyperinflammation and hyperferritinemia with adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients suggests an integral role for iron homeostasis in pathogenesis, a commonly described symptom of respiratory viral infections. This dysregulated iron homeostasis results in viral-induced lung injury, often lasting long after the acute viral infection; however, much remains to be understood mechanistically. Lactoferrin is a multipurpose glycoprotein with key immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral functions, which can be found in various secreted fluids, but is most abundantly characterized in milk from all mammalian species. Lactoferrin is found at its highest concentrations in primate colostrum; however, the abundant availability of bovine-dairy-derived lactoferrin (bLf) has led to the use of bLf as a functional food. The recent research has demonstrated the potential value of bovine lactoferrin as a therapeutic adjuvant against SARS-CoV-2, and herein this research is reviewed and the potential mechanisms of therapeutic targeting are considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pandemics , Animals , Homeostasis , Iron/metabolism , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/therapeutic use , Mammals/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Food Biochem ; 46(10): e14352, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961634

ABSTRACT

Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex ocular surface inflammatory disease. Its occurrence varies widely over the world, ranging from 5% to 34%. The use of preservatives, specifically benzalkonium chloride, in the ocular drops worsens the DED conditions. Furthermore, the Covid-19 pandemic increased screen time and the use of face masks and shields. As a result, the number of people suffering from dry eye disease (DED) has increased significantly in recent years. The main objective of our study is to find a solution to manage the dry eye disease (DED) preferably from natural source without any adverse events. In this study, the beneficial effects of capsanthin from Capsicum annum (CCA) were evaluated on benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced dry eye disease (DED) in Albino Wistar rats. Oral supplementation of CCA resulted in a statistically significant decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) (p < .0001), increase in tear break-up time (TBUT) (p < .01), decline in Schirmer test results (p < .01), and decrease in corneal surface inflammation (p < .01). Capsanthin ameliorated in reducing oxidative stress by increasing serum antioxidant levels such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), nitric oxide (NO), and lactoferrin (LTF) and inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) (p < .0001). Capsanthin treatment significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6), and pro-inflammatory mediator, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Furthermore, the lacrimal gland expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) was suppressed by CCA treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a preservative widely used in the topical ocular drug delivery system (ODDS), causes undesirable effects such as dry eye disease as well as ameliorating intraocular pressure leading to optical nerve damage and irreversible vision loss. Capsanthin from Capsicum annum (CCA) can be used to treat symptoms related to dry eye disease such as inflammation, eye irritation, visual disturbance, ocular discomfort with potential damage to the ocular surface. The CCA may be beneficial in the treatment of glaucoma, an elevated intraocular pressure. Capsanthin from C. annum can be useful in managing DED by increasing tear break-up time (TBUT), declining in Schirmer test results and decreasing in corneal surface inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capsicum , Dry Eye Syndromes , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Benzalkonium Compounds , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dry Eye Syndromes/chemically induced , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Dry Eye Syndromes/genetics , Fruit/metabolism , Gene Expression , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Pandemics , Rats , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Xanthophylls
12.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 100(4): 338-348, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932794

ABSTRACT

Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein with antibacterial and antiviral activities. We evaluated whether bLF can prevent viral infections in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. To assess antiviral responses, we measured the levels of interferon (IFN) expression, IFN-stimulated gene expression, and infection with a pseudotyped virus bearing either severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein after treatment of cells with both bLF and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, an analog of double-stranded RNA that mimics viral infection. Combination treatment of cells with both bLF and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid increased mRNA and protein expression of several IFN genes (IFNB, IFNL1, and IFNL2) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, IFITM1, and IFITM3) in Caco-2 cells. However, treatment with bLF alone did not induce an antiviral response. Furthermore, combination treatment suppressed infection of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus more efficiently than did bLF treatment alone, even though combination treatment increased the expression of mRNA encoding ACE2. These results indicate that bLF increases the antiviral response associated with the double-stranded RNA-stimulated signaling pathway. Our results also suggest that bLF and double-stranded RNA analogs can be used to treat viral infections, including those caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Humans , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Poly I-C , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Oral Biosci ; 64(1): 108-113, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926686

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the role of certain salivary components, such as TNF-⍺, IL-6, IL-10, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgG, IgA, and IgM, in airway defense during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is essential. The salivary immune barrier of patients with COVID-19 may play a role in their prognosis. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on saliva composition. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out with male and female firefighters aged 24-48 years. The study sample (n = 34) was divided into 3 groups: asymptomatic volunteers with a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 (group 1, Control, n = 21); patients with symptoms of COVID-19 of less than 7 days' duration and a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR (group 2, COVID-19, n = 13); and recovered patients from group 2 who were free of COVID-19 symptoms for at least 2 months (group 3, post-COVID-19 recovery, n = 13). All groups underwent real-time PCR to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2, as well as analysis of the salivary concentrations of TNF-⍺, IL-6, IL-10, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgG, IgA, and IgM by the ELISA method. RESULTS: Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly decreased in the infected group (COVID-19) when compared to those not infected by SARS-CoV-2 (control) (p = 0.032). IgA concentrations were decreased in the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups compared to the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.016, respectively). Comparison of the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups also revealed an increase in IgM concentrations during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 alters the composition of the salivary immune barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lactoferrin , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Muramidase , Saliva , Tumor Necrosis Factors/metabolism , Young Adult
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 878201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892654

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) (COVID-19) causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. Severe illness of COVID-19 largely occurs in older people and recent evidence indicates that demented patients have higher risk for COVID-19. Additionally, COVID-19 further enhances the vulnerability of older adults with cognitive damage. A balance between the immune and inflammatory response is necessary to control the infection. Thus, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs are hopeful therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19. Accumulating evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf) is active against SARS-CoV-2, likely due to its potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions that ultimately improves immune system responses. Remarkably, salivary Lf levels are significantly reduced in different Alzheimer's disease (AD) stages, which may reflect AD-related immunological disturbances, leading to reduced defense mechanisms against viral pathogens and an increase of the COVID-19 susceptibility. Overall, there is an urgent necessity to protect AD patients against COVID-19, decreasing the risk of viral infections. In this context, we propose bovine Lf (bLf) as a promising preventive therapeutic tool to minimize COVID-19 risk in patients with dementia or AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19/complications , Cattle , Humans , Lactoferrin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855645

ABSTRACT

The present investigation focuses on the analysis of the interactions among human lactoferrin (LF), SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in order to assess possible mutual interactions that could provide a molecular basis of the reported preventative effect of lactoferrin against CoV-2 infection. In particular, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the pairwise interactions among the three proteins were measured via two independent techniques, biolayer interferometry and latex nanoparticle-enhanced turbidimetry. The results obtained clearly indicate that LF is able to bind the ACE2 receptor ectodomain with significantly high affinity, whereas no binding to the RBD was observed up to the maximum "physiological" lactoferrin concentration range. Lactoferrin, above 1 µM concentration, thus appears to directly interfere with RBD-ACE2 binding, bringing about a measurable, up to 300-fold increase of the KD value relative to RBD-ACE2 complex formation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809909

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Pelargonium sidoides extracts and lactoferrin are two important natural, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral agents, which can interfere with the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches have been applied to check for the occurrence of interactions of the Pelargonium sidoides compounds with lactoferrin and with SARS-CoV-2 components. (2) Methods: Computational methods have been applied to confirm the hypothesis of a direct interaction between PEL compounds and the lactoferrin protein and between Pelargonium sidoides compounds and SARS-CoV-2 Spike, 3CLPro, RdRp proteins, and membrane. Selected high-score complexes were structurally investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulation, while the interaction energies were evaluated using the molecular mechanics energies combined with generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation method. (3) Results: Computational analyses suggested that Pelargonium sidoides extracts can interact with lactoferrin without altering its structural and dynamical properties. Furthermore, Pelargonium sidoides compounds should have the ability to interfere with the Spike glycoprotein, the 3CLPro, and the lipid membrane, probably affecting the functional properties of the proteins inserted in the double layer. (4) Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Pelargonium sidoides may interfere with the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2, especially in the early stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pelargonium , Humans , Lactoferrin , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pelargonium/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(4): 2791-2802, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699602

ABSTRACT

Bovine lactoferrin (bLF), a naturally occurring glycoprotein found in milk, has bioactive characteristics against many microbes, viruses, and other pathogens. Bovine lactoferrin strongly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro through direct entry inhibition and immunomodulatory mechanisms. This study reports on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of commercially available bLF and common dairy ingredients in the human lung cell line H1437 using a custom high-content imaging and analysis pipeline. We also show for the first time that bLF has potent efficacy across different viral strains including the South African B.1.351, UK B.1.1.7, Brazilian P.1, and Indian Delta variants. Interestingly, we show that bLF is most potent against the B.1.1.7 variant [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 3.7 µg/mL], suggesting that this strain relies on entry mechanisms that are strongly inhibited by bLF. We also show that one of the major proteolysis products of bLF, lactoferricin B 17-41, has a modest anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity that could add to the clinical significance of this protein for SARS-CoV-2 treatment as lactoferricin is released by pepsin during digestion. Finally, we show that custom chewable lactoferrin tablets formulated in dextrose or sorbitol have equivalent potency to unformulated samples and provide an option for future human clinical trials. Lactoferrin's broad inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 variants in conjunction with the low cost and ease of production make this an exciting clinical candidate for treatment or prevention of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Milk , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575478

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Vero Cells
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480796

ABSTRACT

Lactoferrins are an iron-binding glycoprotein that have important protective roles in the mammalian body through their numerous functions, which include antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities. Among these, their antimicrobial activity has been the most studied, although the mechanism behind antimicrobial activities remains to be elucidated. Thirty years ago, the first lactoferrin-derived peptide was isolated and showed higher antimicrobial activity than the native lactoferrin lactoferricin. Since then, numerous studies have investigated the antimicrobial potencies of lactoferrins, lactoferricins, and other lactoferrin-derived peptides to better understand their antimicrobial activities at the molecular level. This review defines the current antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities of lactoferrins, lactoferricins, and lactoferrin-derived peptides. The primary focus is on their different mechanisms of activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The role of their structure, amino-acid composition, conformation, charge, hydrophobicity, and other factors that affect their mechanisms of antimicrobial activity are also reviewed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Lactoferrin/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477947

ABSTRACT

Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional cationic glycoprotein synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils, possesses an in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we conducted an in vivo preliminary study to investigate the antiviral effect of oral and intranasal liposomal bovine Lf (bLf) in asymptomatic and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. From April 2020 to June 2020, a total of 92 mild-to-moderate (67/92) and asymptomatic (25/92) COVID-19 patients were recruited and divided into three groups. Thirty-two patients (14 hospitalized and 18 in home-based isolation) received only oral and intranasal liposomal bLf; 32 hospitalized patients were treated only with standard of care (SOC) treatment; and 28, in home-based isolation, did not take any medication. Furthermore, 32 COVID-19 negative, untreated, healthy subjects were added for ancillary analysis. Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients obtained an earlier and significant (p < 0.0001) SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion compared to the SOC-treated and untreated COVID-19 patients (14.25 vs. 27.13 vs. 32.61 days, respectively). Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients showed fast clinical symptoms recovery compared to the SOC-treated COVID-19 patients. In bLf-treated patients, a significant decrease in serum ferritin, IL-6, and D-dimers levels was observed. No adverse events were reported. These observations led us to speculate a potential role of bLf in the management of mild-to-moderate and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactoferrin , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cattle , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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