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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062823, 2022 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore general practitioners' (GPs) perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening (CCS) for women from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study involving semi-structured interviews, with interview guide informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. SETTING: Adelaide, South Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve GPs with experience in providing CCS to women from CALD backgrounds participated. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: 'importance of clinician-patient relationship', 'patients' cultural understanding regarding health care and CCS', 'communication and language' and 'health system related'. Each theme had several subthemes. GPs' professional relationship with their patients and repeated advice from other clinicians, together with the provision of opportunistic CCS, were described as facilitators, and encompassed the theme of 'importance of clinician-patient relationship'. This theme also raised the possibility of self-collection human papilloma virus tests. Lack of awareness and knowledge, lower priority for cancer screening and patients' individual circumstances contributed to the theme of 'patients' cultural understanding regarding health care and CCS', and often acted as barriers to CCS. 'Communication and language' consisted of language difficulties, interpreter use and use of appropriate resources. Language difficulties were a barrier to the provision of CCS, and GPs used interpreters and written handouts to help overcome this. The theme of 'health system related' involved the increased time needed for CCS consults for CALD women, access to appointments, funding, health promotion and effective use of practice management software. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that multiple, inter-related barriers and facilitators influence CALD women's engagement with CCS, and that GPs needed to manage all of these factors in order to encourage CCS participation. More efforts are needed to address the barriers to ensure that GPs have access to appropriate resources, and CALD patients have access to GPs they trust.


Subject(s)
Communication Disorders , General Practitioners , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Qualitative Research , Language , Cultural Diversity
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140642

ABSTRACT

Processing information in a learned foreign language can alter one's judgment or cognitive evaluation of stimuli. Documented consequences include a reduction in perceived negativity and perceived severity of crime or diseases. The global COVID-19 pandemic has offered a unique opportunity to investigate this phenomenon in a real-life public health communication context. The aim of this study is to investigate how foreign language processing influences people's reaction towards freedom-restrictive messages. In our experimental study (N = 605), we presented participants with pandemic mitigation instructions in their native language versus a learned foreign language and assessed their perceived sense of control, cognitive evaluation of the instructions, and the intention to adhere to them. The results indicated that the use of a foreign language influenced people's perceived sense of control in a way that might intuitively be surprising: foreign language enhanced sense of control. This positively influenced the cognitive evaluation of the instructions' effectiveness and the intention to comply with them. The present research demonstrates that foreign language processing influences individuals' responses to specific, real-life instructions. Our results provide important contributions to the literature on foreign language effects and public communication and enable practitioners to more accurately predict recipient responses to global crisis communications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Internal-External Control , Emotions/physiology
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2025, 2022 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. Social media has affected public's daily lives in ways no one ever thought possible. Both TikoTok and its Chinese version Douyin are the most popular short video posting platform. This study aimed to evaluate the quality, accuracy, and completeness of videos for gastric cancer on TikTok and Douyin. METHODS: The terms "gastric cancer" was searched on TikTok in both English and Japanese, and on Douyin in Chinese. The first 100 videos in three languages (website's default setting) were checked. QUality Evaluation Scoring Tool (QUEST) and DISCERN as the instrument for assessing the quality of the information in each video. Content was analysed under six categories (aetiology, anatomy, symptoms, preventions, treatments, and prognosis). The educational value and completeness were evaluated with a checklist developed by the researchers. RESULTS: A total of 78 videos in English, 63 in Japanese, and 99 in Chinese were analyzed. The types of sources were as follows: 6.4% in English, 4.8% in Japanese, and 57.6% in Chinese for health professionals; 93.6% in English, 95.2% in Japanese, and 3.0% in Chinese for private users; none in English and Japanese, but 39.4% in Chinese for other sources. In all, 20.5% in English, 17.5% in Japanese, and 93.9% in Chinese of videos had useful information about gastric cancer. Among the useful videos, the videos published in Chinese had the highest QUEST(p < 0.05) and DISCERN scores(p < 0.05), followed by those published in Japanese. Among the educational videos, prognosis in English (37.5%), symptoms in Japanese (54.5%), and prevention in Chinese (47.3%) were the most frequently covered topic. CONCLUSIONS: TikTok in English and Japanese might not fully meet the gastric cancer information needs of public, but Douyin in Chinese was the opposite.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Social Media , Humans , Information Dissemination , Video Recording , Language
4.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(6): 2825-2834, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133697

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians and researchers have increasingly used remote online assessments to pursue their activities, but mostly with tests not validated for videoconference administration. This study aims to validate the remote online administration of picture description in Canadian French neurotypical speakers and to explore the thematic unit (TU) checklist recently developed. METHOD: Spoken discourse elicited through the picture description task of the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) was collected from Canadian French neurotypical speakers from Québec aged between 50 and 79 years old. Forty-seven participants completed the task in person, and 49 participants completed the task by videoconference. Videos of each discourse sample were transcribed using CHAT conventions. Microstructural variables were extracted using the CLAN (Computerized Language ANalysis) program, whereas thematic informativeness was scored for each sample using TUs. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare both groups on each TU; t tests were also performed on the total score of TUs and microstructural variables. RESULTS: Groups were matched on sex, age, and education variables. The t tests revealed no intergroup difference for the total TU score and for the microstructural variables (e.g., mean length of utterances and number of words per minute). Chi-square tests showed no significant intergroup difference for all 16 TUs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support remote online assessment of the picnic scene of the WAB-R picture description in Canadian French neurotypical speakers. These results also validate the 16 TUs most consistently produced. The use of videoconference could promote and improve the recruitment of participants who are usually less accessible, such as people using assistive mobility technologies. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21476961.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Language , Pandemics , Canada , Videoconferencing
5.
Virol J ; 19(1): 189, 2022 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115806

ABSTRACT

The term, "aerosol-generating procedures" (AGPs), was proposed during the prior SARS-CoV-1 epidemic in order to maximise healthcare worker and patient protection. The concept of AGPs has since expanded to include routine therapeutic processes such as various modes of oxygen delivery and non-invasive ventilation modalities. Evidence gained during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought into question the concept of AGPs with regard to intubation, airway management, non-invasive ventilation and high flow nasal oxygen delivery. Although encounters where these procedures occur may still be associated with increased risk of infectious transmission, this is a function of the clinical context and not because the procedure itself is aerosol-generating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Language , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Health Personnel , Oxygen
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115230

ABSTRACT

There has been increasing interest over the past decade with regard to the health and wellbeing implications of time spent outdoors in nature for children. Universal systematic reviews of evidence report benefits to physical health, social-emotional mental health and wellbeing, cognition and academic learning. Internationally, there is indicative evidence to suggest outdoor engagement with nature may also impact children's language and communication skills, skills that are critical to development, education, social relationships and life opportunities. Yet, at present such evidence has not been synthesised. Despite evidence for the benefits of the outdoors, the amount of time children are spending outdoors is in rapid decline, and has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Alongside this are increasing numbers of children starting primary education with significant speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) which remain persistent over time. With established wide-reaching benefits of nature to children's physical and mental health and psychological development, there is a need to further explore the more specific impacts of the natural environment on children's language, communication and social skills, which could provide a unique opportunity to consider nature as a universal public health intervention for SLCN. The current review will aim to synthesise existing qualitative and quantitative evidence of the impact of time spent in natural outdoor spaces on the language, communication and social skills of 2-11-year-old children. Literature will be searched across seven databases and considered for inclusion against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Potential implications of the review include informing public health practice and policy for child development and education, informing priorities for speech, language, and communication interventions, and providing directions for future international research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Skills , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Humans , Language , Pandemics , Review Literature as Topic
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 387, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Communication between people who are deaf and sign and people who use a spoken language is possible by means of an interpreter. Interpreting in real time can be performed at a distance, which differs from interpreting face-to-face. Due to COVID-19, interpretation at a distance has increased. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to map the existing literature to identify key characteristics by addressing the following question: What is known about interpreted mediated interactions between people using a signed respective spoken language across distances in real time? DESIGN: Eight online databases, complemented by a search in one nonindexed journal of relevance to the review, were used to identify original studies published in 2010-2020, and 17 publications met the inclusion criteria. Charting of the data revealed insight from 17 original studies that were extracted, summarized, and reported. RESULTS: Four key characteristics were identified: (1) advantages and challenges in remote interpreting; (2) the need for training in remote interpreting and video relay service (VRS); (3) regulations and organizational structures of VRS; and (4) the interpreter as an active party in VRS. CONCLUSION: Remote interpreting has several challenges but also advantages. Knowledge of these kinds of interactions is limited, and further research must be initiated and realized, not least due to technological developments and the increased number of interpreting events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deafness , Communication , Humans , Language , Sign Language
8.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0262776, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe pneumonia (SP) has a high mortality and is responsible for significant healthcare cost. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) have been widely used in China as a novel and promising treatment option for SP. Therefore, this study will assess and rank the effectiveness of CHIs to provide more sights for the selection of SP treatment. METHOD: Seven databases will be searched, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, and the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP) from their inception up to October, 2021. The literatures screening, data extraction and the quality assessment of included studies will be conducted independently by two reviewers. Then Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) will be performed by WinBUGS 14.0 and STATA 14.0 software. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability values will be applied to rank the examined treatments. The risk of bias of each included study will be evaluated using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (ROB 2). Publication bias will be reflected by a funnel plot. RESULTS: The results of this NMA will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal publication. CONCLUSION: Our study findings maybe reveal which CHI or CHIs will be better in the treatment of SP and provide more therapy strategies for clinical practitioners and patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021244587. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) can integrate direct evidence with indirect evidence of severe pneumonia treated by Chinese herbal injections to generate a clinically useful ranking of these regimens. This NMA will address Chinese herbal injections for SP and its findings may help to provide more sights for selection of SP treatment. Evidence drawn from an NMA is limited and should be interpreted with caution. We only included studies in Chinese and English languages, which may increase the publication bias.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pneumonia , Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections , Language , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082186

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to severe consequences for people's mental health. The pandemic has also influenced our language use, shaping our word formation habits. The overuse of new metaphorical meanings has received particular attention from the media. Here, we wanted to investigate whether these metaphors have led to the formation of new semantic associations in memory. A sample of 120 university students was asked to decide whether a target word was or was not related to a prime stimulus. Responses for pandemic pairs in which the target referred to the newly acquired metaphorical meaning of the prime (i.e., "trench"-"hospital") were compared to pre-existing semantically related pairs (i.e., "trench"-"soldier") and neutral pairs (i.e., "trench"-"response"). Results revealed greater accuracy and faster response times for pandemic pairs than for semantic pairs and for semantic pairs compared to neutral ones. These findings suggest that the newly learned pandemic associations have created stronger semantic links in our memory compared to the pre-existing ones. Thus, this work confirms the adaptive nature of human language, and it underlines how the overuse of metaphors evoking dramatic images has been, in part, responsible for many psychological disorders still reported among people nowadays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Semantics , Reaction Time/physiology
10.
Bioethics ; 36(7): 816-817, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078347
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e167, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069842

ABSTRACT

In this study, we tested the validity across two scales addressing conspiratorial thinking that may influence behaviours related to public health and the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the COVIDiSTRESSII Global Survey data from 12 261 participants, we validated the 4-item Conspiratorial Thinking Scale and 3-item Anti-Expert Sentiment Scale across 24 languages and dialects that were used by at least 100 participants per language. We employed confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance test and measurement alignment for internal consistency testing. To test convergent validity of the two scales, we assessed correlations with trust in seven agents related to government, science and public health. Although scalar invariance was not achieved when measurement invariance test was conducted initially, we found that both scales can be employed in further international studies with measurement alignment. Moreover, both conspiratorial thinking and anti-expert sentiments were significantly and negatively correlated with trust in all agents. Findings from this study provide supporting evidence for the validity of both scales across 24 languages for future large-scale international research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Attitude , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 6(4): e247-e256, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health literacy encompasses various levels of communication for an individual, provider, and an organization. Validated and reliable tools have been developed to assess health literacy; however, there is a paucity of tools available to assess health literacy in native languages for indigenous and racial/ethnic minority populations. OBJECTIVE: This article shares the process taken to translate and evaluate validation and reliability of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults for use with the Samoan population. METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling was used to collect data from 1,543 adults age 45 years and older in American Samoa. A confirmatory factor analysis using a two-factor model for validation was conducted. KEY RESULTS: The validation results indicated a "good fit" in multiple indices and Cronbach's alpha indicated high internal consistency in both the English and Samoan languages. CONCLUSIONS: Developing culturally validated and reliable health literacy assessment tools is important to help health care professionals decrease health disparities and address inadequate health literacy in all cultures. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2022;6(4):e247-e256.] Plain Language Summary: The INSPIRE project studied the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA) tested on the American Samoan population age 50 years and older. The results would show if the STOFHLA is a valid tool to measure functional health literacy in American Samoa adults.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Adult , Ethnicity , Health Literacy/methods , Humans , Language , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066072

ABSTRACT

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most complex groups of neurobehavioral and developmental conditions. The reason is the presence of three different impaired domains, such as social interaction, communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Some children with ASD may not be able to communicate using language or speech. Many experts propose that continued therapy in the form of software training in this area might help to bring improvement. In this work, we propose a design of software speech therapy system for ASD. We combined different devices, technologies, and features with techniques of home rehabilitation. We used TensorFlow for Image Classification, ArKit for Text-to-Speech, Cloud Database, Binary Search, Natural Language Processing, Dataset of Sentences, and Dataset of Images with two different Operating Systems designed for Smart Mobile devices in daily life. This software is a combination of different Deep Learning Technologies and makes Human-Computer Interaction Therapy very easy to conduct. In addition, we explain the way these were connected and put to work together. Additionally, we explain in detail the architecture of software and how each component works together as an integrated Therapy System. Finally, it allows the patient with ASD to perform the therapy anytime and everywhere, as well as transmitting information to a medical specialist.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child Development Disorders, Pervasive , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Child , Humans , Language , Linguistics , Natural Language Processing
14.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(12): 773-778, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism has been recognized as a frequent complication of COVID-19 infection influencing the clinical course and outcomes of these patients. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the mortality risk in COVID-19 Italian patients complicated by acute pulmonary embolism in the short-term period. METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Preferred Report Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. PubMed-MEDLINE and Scopus databases were systematically searched for articles, published in the English language and enrolling Italian cohorts with confirmed COVID-19 infection from inception through 20 October 2021. Mortality risk data were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects models with odds ratio as the effect measure with 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Higgins and Thomson I2 statistic. RESULTS: Eight investigations enrolling 1.681 patients (mean age 64.9 years, 1125 males) met the inclusion criteria and were considered for the analysis. A random-effect model showed that acute pulmonary embolism was present in 19.0% of Italian patients with COVID-19 infection. Moreover, these patients were at higher mortality risk compared with those without (odds ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.47, P  = 0.001, I2  = 0%). Sensitivity analysis confirmed yielded results. CONCLUSION: In Italian patients with COVID-19 infection, acute pulmonary embolism was present in about one out of five and significantly associated with a higher mortality risk in the short-term period. The identification of acute pulmonary embolism in these patients remains critical to promptly identify vulnerable populations who would require prioritization in treatment and prevention and close monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Language , Acute Disease , Odds Ratio
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274727, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054346

ABSTRACT

Does listening to a foreign-accented speaker bias native speakers' behavior? We investigated whether the accent, i.e., a foreign accent versus a native accent, in which a social norm is presented affects native speakers' decision to respect the norm (Experiments 1 and 2) and the judgement for not respecting it (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we presented 128 native Spanish speakers with new social norms, adapted from the measures imposed by the Spanish Government to fight the Covid-19 pandemic (e.g., 'To avoid the spread of the Covid-19 virus, keep your distance'), whereas in Experiment 2, we presented 240 native Spanish speakers with everyday social norms learned from childhood (e.g., 'Not littering on the street or in public places'), that have an intrinsic cultural and linguistic link. In Experiment 1, the norms were uttered either in a native accent, or in a foreign accent unfamiliar to our participants to avoid stereotypes. In Experiment 2, we added an accent negatively perceived in Spain to assess the role of language attitudes on decision making. Overall, accent did not directly impact participants' final decisions, but it influenced the decision-making process. The factors that seem to underlie this effect are emotionality and language attitudes. These findings add up to the recent Foreign Accent effect observed on moral judgements and further highlight the role of the speaker's identity in decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Language , Pandemics , Speech
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273636, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054329

ABSTRACT

Some individuals seek support around loneliness on social media forums. In this work, we aim to determine differences in the use of language by users-in different age groups and genders (female, male), who publish posts on Twitter expressing loneliness. We hypothesize that these differences in the use of language will reflect how these users express themselves and some of their support needs. Interventions may vary depending on the age and gender of an individual, hence, in order to identify high-risk individuals who express loneliness on Twitter and provide appropriate interventions for these users, it is important to understand the variations in language use by users who belong to different age groups and genders and post about loneliness on Twitter. We discuss the findings from this work and how they can help guide the design of online loneliness interventions.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Social Media , Female , Humans , Language , Male
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1833, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 Vaccines Acceptance scale (VAC-COVID-19) is an international measure designed to evaluate vaccination acceptance against the COVID-19 virus. The current scale was translated from English to Arabic and validated within the Palestinian context. AIMS: Our study aimed to test the factorial structure and the psychotic properties of the VAC-COVID-19 within the Palestinian context using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) through 484 participants selected using online method techniques. FINDINGS: The VAC-COVID-19 was a reliable and valid method in assessing COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among Palestinians. Results of CFA indicated a stable construct of a two-factor solution in assessing COVID-19 vaccination acceptance in a Palestinian context. (1) Reasons for not receiving the vaccination, and (2) for receiving the vaccination. CONCLUSION: The VAC-COVID-19 was a valid method to assess vaccination acceptance in the Arabic language within the Palestinian context. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct similar studies with diverse samples in Palestinian society; it would be prudent to target at-risk populations needed to develop the scale and its factorial structure. The VAC-COVID-19 can be a useful measure to assess vaccination acceptance among Palestinians, enabling health providers to implement interventions to modify negative attitudes toward not receiving vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Arabs , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Language , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
18.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 122: 106932, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Establishing equitable access to COVID-19 clinical trials is an important step in mitigating outcomes disparities. Historically, language has served as a barrier to equitable clinical trial participation. METHODS: A centralized research infrastructure was established at our institution to screen potential trial participants and to promote efficient and equitable access to COVID-19 clinical trials. Rates of eligibility and enrollment in COVID-19 clinical trials by primary language between April 9 and July 31, 2020 (during the first regional COVID-19 surge) were evaluated using logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for potential confounders including age, sex, and time. RESULTS: A total of 1245 patients were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 during the study period and screened for clinical trial eligibility. Among all screened patients, 487 (39%) had a non-English primary language. After adjustment, patients with a non-English primary language had 1.98 times higher odds (CI 1.51 to 2.59) of being eligible for 1 or more COVID-19 clinical trials. Among eligible patients, those with a non-English primary language had 1.83 times higher odds (CI 1.36 to 2.47) of enrolling in COVID-19 clinical trials than patients with English as the primary language. CONCULSION: These findings suggest that there are modifiable barriers that can be addressed to lessen the impact of language discordance on access to clinical trials and provide an opportunity to further investigate factors associated with clinical trial participation for patients whose primary language is not English.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Eligibility Determination , Logistic Models
19.
J Health Commun ; 27(6): 427-438, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028857

ABSTRACT

Psychological reactance theory (PRT) posits that when individuals' perceived freedoms are threatened or restricted, they become aversively aroused and are motivated to reestablish those freedoms, leading to a state of psychological reactance. Applying PRT, this study examined the effects of controlling language, fear, and disgust appeals on responses to COVID-19 vaccination promotion messages. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions across controlling language (high/low), fear appeals (high/low), and disgust appeals (high/low), wherein they viewed two messages, with responses measured after each message. Results showed persuasion was diminished when the levels of any of these three variables were elevated, as in conditions of either high controlling language, high fear appeals, or high disgust appeals. Relative to low levels of these variables, high levels resulted in greater freedom threat perceptions, reactance, source derogation, and less positive attitudes toward the message. A 2-way interaction between fear and disgust appeals on source derogation and message attitudes in the low controlling language condition was significant-participants reported the least source derogation and most positive attitudes toward the message in response to the low controlling language, low fear, and low disgust appeals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disgust , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Language , COVID-19/prevention & control , Persuasive Communication , Fear , Vaccination
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(8): e37547, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large number of wearable activity monitor models are released and used each year by consumers and researchers. As more studies are being carried out on children and adolescents in terms of sedentary behavior (SB) assessment, knowledge about accurate and precise monitoring devices becomes increasingly important. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this systematic review was to investigate and communicate findings on the accuracy and precision of consumer-grade physical activity monitors in assessing the time spent in SB in children and adolescents. METHODS: Searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, SPORTDiscus (full text), ProQuest, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, DART Europe E-theses Portal, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations electronic databases were performed. All relevant studies that compared different types of consumer-grade monitors using a comparison method in the assessment of SB, published in European languages from 2015 onward were considered for inclusion. The risk of bias was estimated using Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Status Measurement Instruments. For enabling comparisons of accuracy measures within the studied outcome domain, measurement accuracy interpretation was based on group mean or percentage error values and 90% CI. Acceptable limits were predefined as -10% to +10% error in controlled and free-living settings. For determining the number of studies with group error percentages that fall within or outside one of the sides from previously defined acceptable limits, two 1-sided tests of equivalence were carried out, and the direction of measurement error was examined. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies complied with the predefined inclusion criteria, and 3 studies provided acceptable data for quantitative analyses. In terms of the presented accuracy comparisons, 14 were subsequently identified, with 6 of these comparisons being acceptable in terms of quantitative analysis. The results of the Cochran Q test indicated that the included studies did not share a common effect size (Q5=82.86; P<.001). I2, which represents the percentage of total variation across studies due to heterogeneity, amounted to 94%. The summary effect size based on the random effects model was not statistically significant (effect size=14.36, SE 12.04, 90% CI -5.45 to 34.17; P=.23). According to the equivalence test results, consumer-grade physical activity monitors did not generate equivalent estimates of SB in relation to the comparison methods. Majority of the studies (3/7, 43%) that reported the mean absolute percentage errors have reported values of <30%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that has attempted to synthesize available evidence on the accuracy and precision of consumer-grade physical activity monitors in measuring SB in children and adolescents. We found very few studies on the accuracy and almost no evidence on the precision of wearable activity monitors. The presented results highlight the large heterogeneity in this area of research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021251922; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=251922.


Subject(s)
Fitness Trackers , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Databases, Factual , Exercise , Humans , Language
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