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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(9): e28890, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730757

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine which of 4 laryngoscopes, including A-LRYNGO, a newly developed channel-type video-laryngoscope with an embedded artificial intelligence-based glottis guidance system, is appropriate for tracheal intubation training in novice medical students wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).Thirty healthy senior medical school student volunteers were recruited. The participants underwent 2 tests with 4 laryngoscopes: Macintosh, McGrath, Pentax Airway-Scope and A-LRYNGO. The first test was conducted just after a lecture without any hands-on workshop. The second test was conducted after a one-on-one hands-on workshop. In each test, we measured the time required for tracheal intubation, intubation success rate, etc, and asked all participants to complete a short questionnaire.The time to completely insert the endotracheal tube with the Macintosh laryngoscope did not change significantly (P = .177), but the remaining outcomes significantly improved after the hands-on workshop (all P < .05). Despite being novice practitioners with no intubation experience and wearing PPE, the, 2 channel-type video-laryngoscopes were associated with good intubation-related performance before the hands-on workshop (all P < .001). A-LRYNGO's artificial intelligence-based glottis guidance system showed 93.1% accuracy, but 20.7% of trials were guided by the vocal folds.To prepare to manage the airway of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, a channel-type video-laryngoscope is appropriate for tracheal intubation training for novice practitioners wearing PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopes , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Equipment Design , Female , Glottis , Humans , Male , Manikins , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical
3.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(3): 385-389, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical voice assessment prior to thyroid and parathyroid surgery is essential, but the paradigm of indirect laryngoscopy (IDL), when indicated, has been challenged by the risk of aerosolised SARS-Cov-2 during endoscopy of the aerodigestive tract. Translaryngeal ultrasound (TLUS) to assess the vocal cords has been proposed as a safe, non-invasive and sensitive alternative. The aim of this review was to verify TLUS as a viable tool for perioperative laryngeal assessment. METHOD: A literature review was performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus with the following search strategy: (vocal cord OR vocal fold OR glottic OR glottis OR vocal ligaments OR rima glottidis) AND (ultras* OR sonograph* OR echography OR echotomography). RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included in this review. All studies compared TLUS to IDL in visualizing the vocal cords in adults. Ten studies compared pre-operative TLUS to IDL where 50.6-100% of vocal cords were successfully visualized. Nine studies compared post-operative TLUS to IDL and reported visualization between 39.6% and 100%. Pre- and post-operative negative predictive values ranged from 60% to 100%. CONCLUSION: Whilst promising, successful visualization of the cords is limited by inter-user variability, older age and male gender. Thus, we see the role of TLUS as an alternative to IDL in the post-operative setting in the young patient following uncomplicated surgery with a normal voice on clinical examination, to confirm recurrent laryngeal nerve integrity while minimizing the risk of aerosolization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Adult , Humans , Laryngoscopy/methods , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Ultrasonography/methods , Vocal Cord Paralysis/diagnostic imaging , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Vocal Cords/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 69(1): 12-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We explored the experience of clinicians from the Spanish Society of Anesthesiology (SEDAR) in airway management of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: An software-based survey including a 32-item questionnaire was conducted from April 18 to May 17, 2020. Participants who have been involved in tracheal intubations in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were included anonymously after obtaining their informed consent. The primary outcome was the preferred airway device for tracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included the variations in clinical practice including the preferred video laryngoscope, plans for difficult airway management, and personal protective equipment. RESULTS: 1125 physicians completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 40,9%. Most participants worked in public hospitals and were anesthesiologists. The preferred device for intubation was the video laryngoscope (5.1/6), with the type of device in decreasing order as follows: Glidescope, C-MAC, Airtraq, McGrath and King Vision. The most frequently used device for intubation was the video laryngoscope (70,5%), using them in descending order as follow: the Airtraq, C-MAC, Glidescope, McGrath and King Vision. Discomfort of intubating wearing personal protective equipment and the frequency of breaching a security step was statistically significant, increasing the risk of cross infection between patients and healthcare workers. The opinion of senior doctors differed from younger physicians in the type of video-laryngoscope used, the number of experts involved in tracheal intubation and the reason that caused more stress during the airway management. CONCLUSIONS: Most physicians preferred using a video-laryngoscope with remote monitor and disposable Macintosh blade, using the Frova guide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Physicians , Airway Management , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27529, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is recommended to use visual laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in a Corona Virus Disease 2019 patient to keep the operator farther from the patient. How the position of the operator affects the distance in this setting is not ascertained. This manikin study compares the distances between the operator and the model and the intubation conditions when the operator is in sitting position and standing position, respectively.Thirty one anesthesiologists with minimum 3-years' work experiences participated in the study. The participant's posture was photographed when he performed tracheal intubation using UE visual laryngoscope in standing and sitting position, respectively. The shortest distance between the model's upper central incisor and operator's face screen (UF), the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen, the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor were measured. The success rate of intubation, the duration of intubation procedure, the first-attempt success rate, the Cormack-Lehane grade, and operator comfort score were also recorded.When the operator performed the procedure in sitting position, the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen distance was significantly longer (9.5 [0.0-17.2] vs 24.3 [10.3-33.0], P ≤ .001) and the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor angle was significantly larger (45.2 [16.3-75.5] vs 17.7 [0.0-38.9], P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in UF distance when the operator changed the position. Cormack-Lehane grade was significantly improved when it was assessed using visual laryngoscope. Cormack-Lehane grade was not significantly different when the operator assessed it in sitting and standing position, respectively. No significant differences were found in the success rate, duration for intubation, first-attempt success rate, and operator comfort score.The operator is kept farther from the patient when he performs intubation procedure in sitting position. Meanwhile, it does not make the procedure more difficult or uncomfortable for the operator, though all the participants prefer to standing position.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopes , Sitting Position , Standing Position , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Male , Manikins , Patient Positioning
7.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 288, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: VieScope is a new type of laryngoscope, with a straight, transparent and illuminated blade, allowing for direct line of sight towards the larynx. In addition, VieScope is disposed of after single patient use, which can avoid cross-contaminations of contagious material. This has gained importance especially when treating patients with highly contagious infectious diseases, such as during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. In this context, VieScope has not been evaluated yet in a clinical study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study compared intubation with VieScope to video-laryngoscopy (GlideScope) in normal and difficult airway in a standardized airway manikin in a randomized controlled simulation trial. Thirty-five medical specialists were asked to perform endotracheal intubation in full personal protective equipment (PPE). Primary endpoint was correct tube position. First-pass rate (i.e., success rate at the first attempt), time until intubation and time until first correct ventilation were registered as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: For correct tracheal tube placement, there was no significant difference between VieScope and GlideScope in normal and difficult airway conditions. VieScope had over 91% fist-pass success rate in normal airway setting. VieScope had a comparable success rate to GlideScope in difficult airway, but had a significantly longer time until intubation and time until ventilation. CONCLUSION: VieScope and GlideScope had high success rates in normal as well as in difficult airway. There was no unrecognized esophageal intubation in either group. Overall time for intubation was longer in the VieScope group, though in an acceptable range given in literature. Results from this simulation study suggest that VieScope may be an acceptable alternative for tracheal intubation in full PPE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register www.drks.de (Registration date: 09/11/2020; TrialID: DRKS00023406 ).


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , Airway Management/instrumentation , Disposable Equipment , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Male , Manikins , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Video Recording
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526692

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early endotracheal intubation improves neurological outcomes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, although cardiopulmonary resuscitation is initially carried out by personnel with limited experience in a significant proportion of cases. Videolaryngoscopes might decrease the number of attempts and time needed, especially among novices. We sought to compare videolaryngoscopes with direct laryngoscopes in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation scenarios. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four medical students were recruited to serve as novice users. Following brief, standardized training, students executed endotracheal intubation with the King Vision®, Macintosh and VividTrac® laryngoscopes, on a cardiopulmonary resuscitation trainer in normal and difficult airway scenarios. We evaluated the time to and proportion of successful intubation, the best view of the glottis, esophageal intubation, dental trauma and user satisfaction. RESULTS: In the normal airway scenario, significantly shorter intubation times were achieved using the King Vision® than the Macintosh laryngoscope. In the difficult airway scenario, we found that the VividTrac® was superior to the King Vision® and Macintosh laryngoscopes in the laryngoscopy time. In both scenarios, we noted no difference in the first-attempt success rate, but the best view of the glottis and dental trauma, esophageal intubation and bougie use were more frequent with the Macintosh laryngoscope than with the videolaryngoscopes. The shortest tube insertion times were achieved using the King Vision® in both scenarios. CONCLUSION: All providers achieved successful intubation within three attempts, but we found no device superior in any of our scenarios regarding the first-attempt success rate. The King Vision® was superior to the Macintosh laryngoscope in the intubation time in the normal airway scenario and noninferior in the difficult airway scenario for novice users. We noted significantly less esophageal intubation using the videolaryngoscopes than using the Macintosh laryngoscope in both scenarios. Based on our results, the KingVision® might be recommended over the VividTrac® and Macintosh laryngoscopes for further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopes , Male , Reference Standards , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(3): e309-e311, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517954

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is urgent need to find a swift and cheap way to safely perform routine endoscopic procedures during the otolaryngological and anesthesiological practice. We want to share our experience of a novel device, inspired by the pediatric head box experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five otolaryngologists and four anesthesiologists were asked to visualize the glottic plane by using the device. A total of 15 attempts was allowed to reach the vocal folds within 60 seconds after entering the box. Student's t-test for unpaired samples was used to compare groups. RESULTS: Transnasal laryngoscopy through our endobox could be successfully performed by all the physicians involved and the mean number of attempts before visualizing and passing the glottis for the first time was 2.8 (range 1-5) in the otolaryngologists' group versus 3.2 (range 1-6) in the anesthesiologists' group (P=0.583). Out of the 15 attempts, the group of otolaryngologists reached the glottis 10.2 times, on average, against 9.7 in the other group (P=0.692). CONCLUSIONS: Our endobox seems a practical and feasible strategy to control droplets diffusion during standard ear, nose, and throat and anesthesiological practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aerosols , Child , Glottis , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Otolaryngologists , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(5): 389-394, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency has augmented demand of tracheostomies in intubated patients. Herein, we analyse our experience with suspension laryngoscopy-assisted percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (SL-PDT) to assess the safety for both healthcare personnel and patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent SL-PDT in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) between March 13 and April 17, 2020 (first peak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). RESULTS: We included 28 SL-PDTs conducted in the ICU by a single operator using standard personal protective equipment (PPE) for high-risk procedures. The average procedure time was 30 minutes. Intraoperative complications were few, mild and promptly resolved. No operators were infected after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: SL-PDT is a safe and quick technique: it is preferable to open surgical procedures, where air-flow cessation cannot be achieved and droplet emission is high. The cost/benefit ratio is low. A disadvantage is the need for an ENT surgeon who is familiar with direct laryngoscopy, with the main difficulty being the exposure of the upper airways. Minimal air leakage and good control of occasional bleeding makes it a safe procedure for the patient and medical personnel alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 72(2): 291-301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease-19 is a high-risk procedure that should be performed with personal protective equipment (PPE). The influence of PPE on operator's performance during tracheal intubation remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of simulation studies to evaluate the influence of wearing PPE as compared to standard uniform regarding time-to-intubation (TTI) and success rate. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to device used and operator's experience. RESULTS: The TTI was prolonged when wearing PPE (eight studies): Standard Mean Difference (SMD) -0.54, 95% Confidence Interval [-0.75, -0.34], p <  0.0001. Subgroup analyses according to device used showed similar findings (direct laryngoscopy, SMD -0.63 [-0.88, -0.38], p < 0.0001; videolaryngoscopy, SMD -0.39 [-0.75, -0.02], p =  0.04). Considering the operator's experience, non-anesthesiologists had prolonged TTI (SMD -0.75 [-0.98, -0.52], p < 0.0001) while the analysis on anesthesiologists did not show significant differences (SMD -0.25 [-0.51, 0.01], p = 0.06). The success rate of tracheal intubation was not influenced by PPE: Risk Ratio (RR) 1.02 [1.00, 1.04]; p = 0.12). Subgroup analyses according to device demonstrated similar results (direct laryngoscopy, RR 1.03 [0.99, 1.07], p = 0.15, videolaryngoscopy, RR 1.01 [0.98, 1.04], p =  0.52). Wearing PPE had a trend towards negative influence on success rate in non-anesthesiologists (RR 1.05 [1.00, 1.10], p = 0.05), but not in anesthesiologists (RR 1.00 [0.98, 1.03], p = 0.84). Trial-sequential analyses for TTI and success rate indicated robustness of both results. CONCLUSIONS: Under simulated conditions, wearing PPE delays the TTI as compared to dressing standard uniform, with no influence on the success rate. However, certainty of evidence is very low. Performing tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy seems influenced to a greater extent as compared to videolaryngoscopy. Similarly, wearing PPE affects more the non-anesthesiologists subgroup as compared to anesthesiologists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy , Personal Protective Equipment
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052977, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455721

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia is indicated in patients with an increased risk of pulmonary aspiration. The main objective of the technique is to reduce the critical time period between loss of airway protective reflexes and rapid inflation of the cuff of the endotracheal tube to minimise the chance of aspiration of gastric contents. The COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the importance of first-pass intubation success to ensure patient and healthcare worker safety. The aim of this study is to compare the first-pass intubation success rate (FPS) using the videolaryngoscopy compared with conventional direct laryngoscopy in surgical patients with a high risk of pulmonary aspiration. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The LARA trial is a multicentre, patient-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Consecutive patients requiring tracheal intubation are randomly allocated to either the McGrath MAC videolaryngoscope or direct laryngoscopy using the Macintosh laryngoscope. The expected rate of FPS is 92% in the McGrath group and 82% in the Macintosh group. Each group must include a total of 500 patients to achieve 90% power for detecting a difference at the 5% significance level. Successful intubation with the FPS is the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints are the time to intubation, the number of intubation attempts, the necessity of airway management alternatives, the visualisation of the glottis using the Cormack and Lehane Score and the Percentage Of Glottic Opening Score and definite adverse events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project is approved by the local ethics committee of the Medical Association of the Rhineland Palatine state (registration number: 2020-15502) and medical ethics committee of the University of Freiburg (registration number: 21-1303). The results of this study will be made available in form of manuscripts for publication and presentations at national and international meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04794764.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Laryngoscopy , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E1971-E1979, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the ability of ultra-short echo time (UTE)-MRI to detect subglottic stenosis (SGS) and evaluate response to balloon dilation. To correlate measurements from UTE-MRI with endotracheal-tube (ETT)-sizing and to investigate whether SGS causes change in airway dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Animal research study. METHODS: Eight adult New-Zealand white rabbits were used as they approximate neonatal airway-size. The airways were measured using ETT-sizing and 3D UTE-MRI at baseline, 2 weeks post-cauterization induced SGS injury, and post-balloon dilation treatment. UTE-MR images were acquired to determine airway anatomy and motion. Airways were segmented from MR images. Cross-sectional area (CSA), major and minor diameters (Dmajor and Dminor ), and eccentricity were measured. RESULTS: Post-injury CSA at SGS was significantly reduced (mean 38%) compared to baseline (P = .003) using UTE-MRI. ETT-sizing correlated significantly with MRI-measured CSA at the SGS location (r = 0.6; P < .01), particularly at the post-injury timepoint (r = 0.93; P < .01). Outer diameter from ETT-sizing (OD) correlated significantly with Dmajor (r = 0.63; P < .01) from UTE-MRI at the SGS location, especially for the post-injury timepoint (r = 0.91; P < .01). Mean CSA of upper trachea did not change significantly between end-expiration and end-inspiration at any timepoint (all P > .05). Eccentricity of the upper trachea increased significantly post-balloon dilation (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: UTE-MRI successfully detected SGS and treatment response in the rabbit model, with good correlation to ETT-sizing. Balloon dilation increased CSA at SGS, but not to baseline values. SGS did not alter dynamic motion for the trachea in this rabbit model; however, tracheas were significantly eccentric post-balloon dilation. UTE-MRI can detect SGS without sedation or ionizing radiation and may be a non-invasive alternative to ETT-sizing. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E1971-E1979, 2021.


Subject(s)
Laryngostenosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy , Rabbits
15.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 28, 2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Routine preoperative methods to assess airway such as the interincisor distance (IID), Mallampati classification, and upper lip bite test (ULBT) have a certain risk of upper respiratory tract exposure and virus spread. Condyle-tragus maximal distance(C-TMD) can be used to assess the airway, and does not require the patient to expose the upper respiratory tract, but its value in predicting difficult laryngoscopy compared to other indicators (Mallampati classification, IID, and ULBT) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe the value of C-TMD to predict difficult laryngoscopy and the influence on intubation time and intubation attempts, and provide a new idea for preoperative airway assessment during epidemic. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing general anesthesia and tracheal intubation were enrolled. IID, Mallampati classification, ULBT, and C-TMD of each patient were evaluated before the initiation of anesthesia. The primary outcome was intubation time. The secondary outcomes were difficult laryngoscopy defined as the Cormack-Lehane Level > grade 2 and the number of intubation attempts. RESULTS: Three hundred four patients were successfully enrolled and completed the study, 39 patients were identified as difficult laryngoscopy. The intubation time was shorter with the C-TMD>1 finger group 46.8 ± 7.3 s, compared with the C-TMD<1 finger group 50.8 ± 8.6 s (p<0.01). First attempt success rate was higher in the C-TMD>1 finger group 98.9% than in the C-TMD<1 finger group 87.1% (P<0.01). The correlation between the C-TMD and Cormack-Lehane Level was 0.317 (Spearman correlation coefficient, P<0.001), and the area under the ROC curve was 0.699 (P<0.01). The C-TMD < 1 finger width was the most consistent with difficult laryngoscopy (κ = 0.485;95%CI:0.286-0.612) and its OR value was 10.09 (95%CI: 4.19-24.28), sensitivity was 0.469 (95%CI: 0.325-0.617), specificity was 0.929 (95%CI: 0.877-0.964), positive predictive value was 0.676 (95%CI: 0.484-0.745), negative predictive value was 0.847 (95%CI: 0.825-0.865). CONCLUSION: Compared with the IID, Mallampati classification and ULBT, C-TMD has higher value in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and does not require the exposure of upper respiratory tract. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on October 21, 2019 in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1900026775 ).


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Predictive Value of Tests , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 493-508, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262904

ABSTRACT

Anatomically, the airway is ever changing in size, anteroposterior alignment, and point of most narrow dimension. Special considerations regarding obesity, chronic and acute illness, underlying developmental abnormalities, and age can all affect preparation and intervention toward securing a definitive airway. Mechanical ventilation strategies should focus on limiting peak inspiratory pressures and optimizing lung protective tidal volumes. Emergency physicians should work toward minimizing risk of peri-intubation hypoxemia and arrest. With review of anatomic and physiologic principles in the setting of a practical approach toward evaluating and managing distress and failure, emergency physicians can successfully manage critical pediatric airway encounters.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Airway Management , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Craniofacial Abnormalities/complications , Critical Care , Equipment Design , Functional Residual Capacity , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopes , Laryngoscopy/methods , Larynx/anatomy & histology , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Video Recording
17.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 270-272, 2021 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325945

ABSTRACT

In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope. Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8- 148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001). A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice.


En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo. Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopes/economics , Laryngoscopy/education , Pediatrics/education , Simulation Training/methods , Argentina , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Health Care Costs , Humans , Infant , Internship and Residency/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/economics , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/methods , Learning Curve , Manikins , Pediatrics/economics , Time Factors , Video Recording
18.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysphonia is a feature of the COVID-19 disease with different prevalence rates of occurrence among various nations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dysphonia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Salahaddin General Hospital during the period from January to March 2021. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with or without dysphonia were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The severity, duration, laryngoscopic finding, and fate of the dysphonia were registered too. RESULTS: Out of 94 subjects, there were 21 (22.3%) with dysphonia. The age was ranged from 23 to 101 years, with nearly equal gender distribution. Non-smokers were found in 52.1% of the cases. Dyspnea (100%), fever (100%), and cough (98.9%) were the most common presenting symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between the dysphonic and non-dysphonic groups regarding fatigue, nasal obstruction, and diarrhea (P-value<0.05). Mild dysphonia was found in 10 (47.6%) of the dysphonic cases. The most common laryngoscopic finding was the bowing of the vocal cords (5/18). Most of the patients (11/18) were with dysphonia for more than a month duration. Similar numbers were not recovered for a one-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dysphonia was 22.3%. Dyspnea, fever, and cough were the commonest symptoms. Fatigue, nasal obstruction, and diarrhea affected dysphonia. Bowing of the vocal cords was the most common abnormality. Most of the cases were with mild dysphonia, persisting for more than a month, and were not resolved during the follow-up period of one month.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, General , Humans , Iraq , Laryngoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
Laryngoscope ; 131(12): 2759-2765, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spreads through respiratory fluids. We aim to quantify aerosolized particles during laryngology procedures to understand their potential for transmission of infectious aerosol-based diseases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quantification of aerosol generation. METHODS: Airborne particles (0.3-25 µm in diameter) were measured during live-patient laryngology surgeries using an optical particle counter positioned 60 cm from the oral cavity to the surgeon's left. Measurements taken during the procedures were compared to baseline concentrations recorded immediately before each procedure. Procedures included direct laryngoscopy with general endotracheal anesthesia (GETA), direct laryngoscopy with jet ventilation, and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser use with or without jet ventilation, all utilizing intermittent suction. RESULTS: Greater than 99% of measured particles were 0.3 to 1.0 µm in diameter. Compared to baseline, direct laryngoscopy was associated with a significant 6.71% increase in cumulative particles, primarily 0.3 to 1.0 µm particles (P < .0001). 1.0 to 25 µm particles significantly decreased (P < .001). Jet ventilation was not associated with a significant change in cumulative particles; when analyzing differential particle sizes, only 10 to 25 µm particles exhibited a significant increase compared to baseline (+42.40%, P = .002). Significant increases in cumulative particles were recorded during CO2 laser use (+14.70%, P < .0001), specifically in 0.3 to 2.5 µm particles. Overall, there was no difference when comparing CO2 laser use during jet ventilation versus GETA. CONCLUSIONS: CO2 laser use during laryngology surgery is associated with significant increases in airborne particles. Although direct laryngoscopy with GETA is associated with slight increases in particles, jet ventilation overall does not increase particle aerosolization. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:2759-2765, 2021.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Laryngoscopy/adverse effects , Operating Rooms , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aerosols/analysis , Anesthesia, Endotracheal/adverse effects , High-Frequency Jet Ventilation/adverse effects , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Laryngoscopy/methods , Lasers, Gas/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Suction/adverse effects
20.
Chest ; 160(6): 2112-2122, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For patients with COVID-19 who undergo emergency endotracheal intubation, data are limited regarding the practice, outcomes, and complications of this procedure. RESEARCH QUESTION: For patients with COVID-19 requiring emergency endotracheal intubation, how do the procedural techniques, the incidence of first-pass success, and the complications associated with the procedure compare with intubations of critically ill patients before the COVID-19 pandemic? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients with COVID-19 at Montefiore Medical Center who underwent first-time endotracheal intubation by critical care physicians between July 19, 2019, and May 1, 2020. The first COVID-19 patient was admitted to our institution on March 11, 2020; patients admitted before this date are designated the prepandemic cohort. Descriptive statistics were used to compare groups. A Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical variables. For continuous variables, a two-tailed Student t test was used for parametric variables or a Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for nonparametric variables. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred sixty intubations met inclusion criteria (782 prepandemic cohort, 478 pandemic cohort). Patients during the pandemic were more likely to be intubated for hypoxemic respiratory failure (72.6% vs 28.1%; P < .01). During the pandemic, operators were more likely to use video laryngoscopy (89.4% vs 53.3%; P < .01) and neuromuscular blocking agents (86.0% vs 46.2%; P < .01). First-pass success was higher during the pandemic period (94.6% vs 82.9%; P < .01). The rate of associated complications was higher during the pandemic (29.5% vs 15.2%; P < .01), a finding driven by a higher rate of hypoxemia during or immediately after the procedure (25.7% vs 8.2%; P < .01). INTERPRETATION: Video laryngoscopy and neuromuscular blockade were used increasingly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite a higher rate of first-pass success during the pandemic, the incidence of complications associated with the procedure was higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Laryngoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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