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2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275216, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054364

ABSTRACT

In this paper we model the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 in Mexico by introducing a new stochastic approximation constructed from first principles, where the number of new infected individuals caused by a single infectious individual per unit time (a day), is a random variable of a time-dependent Poisson distribution. The model, structured on the basis of a Latent-Infectious-(Recovered or Deceased) (LI(RD)) compartmental approximation together with a modulation of the mean number of new infections (the Poisson parameters), provides a good tool to study theoretical and real scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 76: 165-173, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894778

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Even with an efficacious vaccine, protective behaviors (social distancing, masking) are essential for preventing COVID-19 transmission and could become even more important if current or future variants evade immunity from vaccines or prior infection. METHODS: We created an agent-based model representing the Chicago population and conducted experiments to determine the effects of varying adult out-of-household activities (OOHA), school reopening, and protective behaviors across age groups on COVID-19 transmission and hospitalizations. RESULTS: From September-November 2020, decreasing adult protective behaviors and increasing adult OOHA both substantially impacted COVID-19 outcomes; school reopening had relatively little impact when adult protective behaviors and OOHA were maintained. As of November 1, 2020, a 50% reduction in young adult (age 18-40) protective behaviors resulted in increased latent infection prevalence per 100,000 from 15.93 (IQR 6.18, 36.23) to 40.06 (IQR 14.65, 85.21) and 19.87 (IQR 6.83, 46.83) to 47.74 (IQR 18.89, 118.77) with 15% and 45% school reopening. Increasing adult (age ≥18) OOHA from 65% to 80% of prepandemic levels resulted in increased latent infection prevalence per 100,000 from 35.18 (IQR 13.59, 75.00) to 69.84 (IQR 33.27, 145.89) and 38.17 (IQR 15.84, 91.16) to 80.02 (IQR 30.91, 186.63) with 15% and 45% school reopening. Similar patterns were observed for hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: In areas without widespread vaccination coverage, interventions to maintain adherence to protective behaviors, particularly among younger adults and in out-of-household settings, remain a priority for preventing COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Infection , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chicago/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Household Work
4.
J Infect Dis ; 226(3): 463-473, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672211

ABSTRACT

Some risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been identified, including age, race, and obesity. However, 20%-50% of severe cases occur in the absence of these factors. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that infects about 50% of all individuals worldwide and is among the most significant nongenetic determinants of immune system. We hypothesized that latent CMV infection might influence the severity of COVID-19. Our analyses demonstrate that CMV seropositivity is associated with more than twice the risk of hospitalization due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Immune profiling of blood and CMV DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients for whom respiratory tract samples were available revealed altered T-cell activation profiles in absence of extensive CMV replication in the upper respiratory tract. These data suggest a potential role for CMV-driven immune perturbations in affecting the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and may have implications for the discrepancies in COVID-19 severity between different human populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Latent Infection , Cytomegalovirus , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
N Engl J Med ; 386(3): 230-240, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease affects more than 40.5 million people worldwide and results in 306,000 deaths annually. Echocardiographic screening detects rheumatic heart disease at an early, latent stage. Whether secondary antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in preventing progression of latent rheumatic heart disease is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of secondary antibiotic prophylaxis in Ugandan children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age with latent rheumatic heart disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either injections of penicillin G benzathine (also known as benzathine benzylpenicillin) every 4 weeks for 2 years or no prophylaxis. All the participants underwent echocardiography at baseline and at 2 years after randomization. Changes from baseline were adjudicated by a panel whose members were unaware of the trial-group assignments. The primary outcome was echocardiographic progression of latent rheumatic heart disease at 2 years. RESULTS: Among 102,200 children and adolescents who had screening echocardiograms, 3327 were initially assessed as having latent rheumatic heart disease, and 926 of the 3327 subsequently received a definitive diagnosis on the basis of confirmatory echocardiography and were determined to be eligible for the trial. Consent or assent for participation was provided for 916 persons, and all underwent randomization; 818 participants were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, and 799 (97.7%) completed the trial. A total of 3 participants (0.8%) in the prophylaxis group had echocardiographic progression at 2 years, as compared with 33 (8.2%) in the control group (risk difference, -7.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -10.2 to -4.7; P<0.001). Two participants in the prophylaxis group had serious adverse events that were attributable to receipt of prophylaxis, including one episode of a mild anaphylactic reaction (representing <0.1% of all administered doses of prophylaxis). CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age with latent rheumatic heart disease, secondary antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the risk of disease progression at 2 years. Further research is needed before the implementation of population-level screening can be recommended. (Funded by the Thrasher Research Fund and others; GOAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03346525.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Heart Disease/drug therapy , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Intention to Treat Analysis , Latent Infection/drug therapy , Male , Mass Screening , Penicillin G Benzathine/administration & dosage , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnostic imaging , Uganda
6.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625634

ABSTRACT

The Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus 3 is a neurotropic human alpha herpes virus responsible for chickenpox/varicella and shingles/Herpes zoster (HZ). This review will focus on HZ. Since HZ is secondary to varicella, its incidence increases with age. In children and youngsters, HZ is rare and associated to metabolic and neoplastic disorders. In adults, advanced age, distress, other infections (such as AIDS or COVID-19), and immunosuppression are the most common risk factors. HZ reactivation has recently been observed after COVID-19 vaccination. The disease shows different clinical stages of variable clinical manifestations. Some of the manifestations bear a higher risk of complications. Among the possible complications, postherpetic neuralgia, a chronic pain disease, is one of the most frequent. HZ vasculitis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Renal and gastrointestinal complications have been reported. The cornerstone of treatment is early intervention with acyclovir or brivudine. Second-line treatments are available. Pain management is essential. For (secondary) prophylaxis, currently two HZV vaccines are available for healthy older adults, a live attenuated VZV vaccine and a recombinant adjuvanted VZV glycoprotein E subunit vaccine. The latter allows vaccination also in severely immunosuppressed patients. This review focuses on manifestations of HZ and its management. Although several articles have been published on HZ, the literature continues to evolve, especially in regard to patients with comorbidities and immunocompromised patients. VZV reactivation has also emerged as an important point of discussion during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially after vaccination. The objective of this review is to discuss current updates related to clinical presentations, complications, and management of HZ.


Subject(s)
Disease Management , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human/pathogenicity , Herpesvirus Vaccines/immunology , Herpes Zoster/complications , Herpes Zoster/physiopathology , Herpesvirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Herpesvirus Vaccines/classification , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Latent Infection/virology , Morbidity , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/virology , Risk Factors , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
9.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(6): 1238-1240, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report two cases of herpes simplex virus keratitis reactivation following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccination. METHODS: Two patients (one male, age 42 years, and one female, age 29 years) who are known to have herpetic keratitis presented to our emergency room in a time frame between 4 days and 4 weeks of receiving the vaccine. One patient presented with necrotizing stromal keratitis; the other presented with endotheliitis and epithelial keratitis. PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) was obtained from the two patients, and all cases received systemic acyclovir. RESULTS: PCR for HSV came positive in both cases. Patients responded well to the provided treatment. CONCLUSION: Ocular herpetic infection may be activated by COVID-19 (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine. Treating physician should be alert to such associations, and patients should be followed closely. No direct causality has been proven, but further reporting and investigating similar conditions is recommended.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Keratitis, Herpetic/etiology , Latent Infection/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Humans , Keratitis, Herpetic/diagnosis , Keratitis, Herpetic/drug therapy , Latent Infection/diagnosis , Latent Infection/drug therapy , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(9): 74, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315363

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the current data on infections associated with rituximab use published over the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: New literature was available on rates of serious infections, Hepatitis B reactivation and screening, and infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Rates of infection varied by study and population, however, higher risk of infection in patients with underlying rheumatologic diseases was seen in those who required a therapy switch, had a smoking history, and those undergoing retreatment who had a serious infection with their first course of therapy. With regards to HBV, the proportion of patients screened continues to be inadequate. Despite the upfront cost, HBV screening and prophylaxis were found to be cost effective. There is still limited data regarding COVID-19 severity in the setting of rituximab, however, rituximab, especially in combination with steroids, may lead to more severe disease and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Latent Infection/diagnosis , Latent Infection/drug therapy , Latent Infection/epidemiology , Latent Infection/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289029

ABSTRACT

In stark contrast to the rapid development of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is still lacking. Furthermore, despite virologic suppression and CD4 T-cell count normalization with antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) still exhibit increased morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Such differences in health outcomes are related to higher risk behaviors, but also to HIV-related immune activation and viral coinfections. Among these coinfections, cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection is a well-known inducer of long-term immune dysregulation. Cytomegalovirus contributes to the persistent immune activation in PLWH receiving ART by directly skewing immune response toward itself, and by increasing immune activation through modification of the gut microbiota and microbial translocation. In addition, through induction of immunosenescence, CMV has been associated with a decreased response to infections and vaccines. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the influence of CMV on the immune system, the mechanisms underlying a reduced response to vaccines, and discuss new therapeutic advances targeting CMV that could be used to improve vaccine response in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytomegalovirus/pathogenicity , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunosenescence , Inflammation , Latent Infection/immunology , Latent Infection/virology , Mice , Vaccines/administration & dosage
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111438, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049770

ABSTRACT

Roles of environmental factors in transmission of COVID-19 have been highlighted. In this study, we sampled the high-touch environmental surfaces in the quarantine room, aiming to detect the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the environmental surfaces during the incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Fifteen sites were sampled from the quarantine room, distributing in the functional areas such as bedroom, bathroom and living room. All environmental surface samples were collected with sterile polyester-tipped applicator pre-moistened in viral transport medium and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 34.1% of samples were detected positively for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rates of Patient A, B and C, were 46.2%, 0% and 61.5%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was detected positively in bedroom and bathroom, with the positive rate of 50.0% and 46.7%, respectively. In contrast, living room had no positive sample detected. Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 distributes widely during the incubation period of COVID-19, and the positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces are relatively high in bathroom and bedroom.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollution , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Latent Infection/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Latent Infection/epidemiology , Latent Infection/prevention & control , Male , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties , Toilet Facilities/standards
16.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(3): 296-299, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic reactivation of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Data on severe Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and concomitant reactivation of herpesviruses are lacking. METHODS: We selected patients admitted to ICU for confirmed COVID-19 who underwent systematic testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human-herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) DNAemia while in the ICU. We retrospectively analysed frequency, timing, duration and co-occurrence of viral DNAemia. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were included. Viremia with EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 was detected in 28 (82%), 5 (15%), and 7 (22%) patients, respectively. EBV reactivation occurred early after ICU admission and was associated with longer ICU length-of-stay. CONCLUSIONS: While in the ICU, critically ill patients with COVID-19 are prone to develop reactivations due to various types of herpesviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Latent Infection/complications , Virus Activation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Infection ; 49(3): 539-542, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has posed formidable public health and clinical challenges. The use of immunosuppressive agents, such as high dose corticosteroids and cytokine inhibitors (e.g., Tocilizumab) has been suggested to contrast the hyperinflammatory process involved in the pathogenesis of the severe disease, with conflicting evidence. Among the drawbacks of immunosuppressive therapy, the risk of reactivation of latent infections, including parasitic infestations, is to be considered. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 59-year-old Italian patient treated with high dose intravenous dexamethasone and two intravenous doses of Tocilizumab for interstitial bilateral pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed itching, abdominal pain, and an increased eosinophil count. Stool examination confirmed the presence of S. stercoralis larvae. The patient was treated with a 4-day course of Ivermectin with full recovery. DISCUSSION: We report the first case of S. stercoralis infection following an 11-day treatment with high-dose steroids and Tocilizumab for severe COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of strongyloidiasis as a complication of the treatment for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Latent Infection/etiology , Strongyloidiasis/etiology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Latent Infection/diagnosis , Latent Infection/drug therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
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