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1.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(3): 512-547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775505

ABSTRACT

AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether there is an interaction between the COVID-19 pandemic, demographic characteristics and erectile/sexual (E/S) function in individuals from Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study which included Latin American individuals over 18 years old, recruited through social media and interviewed between July and August 2020 by online surveys (Google Forms) in Portuguese and Spanish languages. The E/S function was evaluated through the following questionnaires: Simplified International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); while post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic was assessed through the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R). The data was analyzed by T Student, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, with significance determined by the Wald test (p<0.05), using the R software v4.0. RESULTS: Out of the 2016 individuals that responded to the survey, 1986 were included and 743 of them presented E/S dysfunction. PTSD occurrence was greater among people with E/S dysfunction when compared to those without E/S dysfunction, in the total score (males: IES-R=26.54[±19.17] and females: IES-R=35.92[±19.25]) and also in the three domains. It was found that those who do not live with a partner were 74% more likely to have E/S dysfunction, but living with a partner during the pandemic had a greater impact on E/S function. CONCLUSION: A negative interaction between the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and erectile/sexual function of the Latin American population was observed, with greater implications among the individuals who live with their partners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erectile Dysfunction , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Erectile Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265529, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770751

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, and almost 396 million people have been infected around the globe. Latin American countries have been deeply affected, and there is a lack of data in this regard. This study aims to identify the clinical characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and factors associated with ICU admission due to COVID-19. Furthermore, to describe the functional status of patients at hospital discharge after the acute episode of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, multinational observational cohort study of subjects admitted to 22 hospitals within Latin America. Data were collected prospectively. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize patients, and multivariate regression was carried out to identify factors associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 3008 patients were included in the study. A total of 64.3% of patients had severe COVID-19 and were admitted to the ICU. Patients admitted to the ICU had a higher mean (SD) 4C score (10 [3] vs. 7 [3)], p<0.001). The risk factors independently associated with progression to ICU admission were age, shortness of breath, and obesity. In-hospital mortality was 24.1%, whereas the ICU mortality rate was 35.1%. Most patients had equal self-care ability at discharge 43.8%; however, ICU patients had worse self-care ability at hospital discharge (25.7% [497/1934] vs. 3.7% [40/1074], p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that patients with SARS CoV-2 in the Latin American population had a lower mortality rate than previously reported. Systemic complications are frequent in patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, as previously described in high-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
4.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 45, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been felt acutely in Latin America with several countries having among the highest numbers of SARS-CoV-2 cases and related deaths. Individuals living with underlying health conditions have an increased risk of severe disease or death from COVID-19. Patient advocacy organizations often provide supportive services to these individuals and can offer a unique perspective of the patient experience. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of COVID-19 on access to health services in Latin America, as reported by patient advocacy organizations representing individuals living with autoimmune, chronic, and noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2020 with patient advocacy organizations in Latin America to measure perceived effects from COVID-19 and reported access to health services among individuals living with autoimmune, chronic, and noncommunicable diseases. An original, online survey was developed and deployed in Spanish and Portuguese. Univariate and bivariate analysis was conducted across two main subject areas: perceived patient effects from COVID-19 and patient access to health services. The main outcomes of analysis considered patient access to care during COVID-19 based on type of chronic illness and geographical region in Latin America. RESULTS: A total of 81 survey responses were analyzed. A majority (83%) of patient advocacy organizations reported their patients experienced delays receiving their treatment and care services; 52% experienced delays of 30 days or more. Telemedicine was considered available, but not accessible to patients (37%) and a majority (76%) of patients faced challenges with electronic prescriptions. Patients were not likely to receive a multi-month prescription from their doctor (38%) or successfully fill it at the pharmacy (26%). CONCLUSIONS: According to responses from patient advocacy organizations, individuals living with noncommunicable diseases in Latin America have faced unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. As countries re-evaluate their health systems, it is critical that chronic diseases are considered so that all can fully realize the right to health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Advocacy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10 Suppl 1: S19, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venezuelan migration is the second largest international displacement in contemporary history. Yet, amid global calls for the inclusion of migrants and refugees in COVID-19 vaccination priority groups, little is known about how Latin American countries are prioritising COVID-19 vaccination for Venezuelans. This rapid scoping review addresses this gap, taking up a Latin American Social Medicine approach to assess the region's sociopolitical context and explore the extent to which Venezuelan migrants are considered in COVID-19 vaccination strategies in Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a three-phased rapid scoping review assessing peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, and government documents addressing COVID-19 vaccine access for displaced Venezuelans in Latin America. Documents published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese between January 2020 and June 2021 were included. Peer-reviewed literature search yielded 142 results and 13 articles included in the analysis; Gray literature screening resulted in 68 publications for full-text review and 37 were included; and official Ministry of Health policies in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru were reviewed in-depth. Screening and data extraction used a combination of online platforms (Covidence, Google Forms, Zotero, and Excel) and the team met twice weekly to review, compare, discuss, analyse, and interpret data across a 6-week period. FINDINGS: Findings from country-level policies revealed a heterogeneous and shifting policy landscape amid the COVID-19 pandemic, which strongly juxtaposed calls for a rights-based, social justice approach to COVID-19 vaccination evidenced in the peer-reviewed and gray literature. For example, under extreme resource constraints resulting from a chronically underfunded health system and mass Venezuelan migration. Colombia's vaccination plan excluded migrants with irregular migration status. Countries prioritised COVID-19 vaccines to certain "at-risk" groups defined by individual epidemiological factors rather than social vulnerability, limiting vaccine access for displaced Venezuelans in the region. Country-level policies differentiated, at times arbitrarily, between refugees, irregular migrants, and regular migrants, with important implications for vaccine access. While international right to health legislation prohibits discrimination based on migration status and urges states to refrain from denying access to preventive health services, these results suggest the need for further guidance on terminology to better contend with migrants' social vulnerabilities. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 is rapidly evolving and there is an urgent need for rights-based approaches to vaccination that consider sociopolitical contexts, especially impacts of mass migration. Findings underscore the need to better integrate Venezuelan migrants into vaccination strategies, not only as a matter of social justice, but a pragmatic public health strategy. FUNDING: Funding provided by the Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Insight Development Grant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vaccination/methods
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 393, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly influenced the routine of healthcare workers. This study investigated the impact of the pandemic on dental practice and dentists' feelings in Latin America. METHODS: A survey was conducted with dentists from 11 Spanish-speaking Latin American countries in September-December 2020. Professionals were invited by email and via an open campaign promoted on social media. The questions investigated dental care routines, practice changes, and feelings about the pandemic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify frequencies and distributions of variables. Proportions were compared using chi-square tests. RESULTS: A total of 2127 responses were collected from a sample with diverse demographic, sex, work, and education characteristics. The impact of COVID-19 was considered high/very high by 60% of respondents. The volume of patients assisted weekly was lower compared with the pre-pandemic period (mean reduction = 14 ± 15 patients). A high rate of fear to contracting the COVID-19 at work was observed (85%); 4.9% of participants had a positive COVID-19 test. The main professional challenges faced by respondents were reduction in the number of patients or financial gain (35%), fear of contracting COVID-19 (34%), and burden with or difficulty in purchasing new personal protective equipment (22%). The fear to contracting COVID-19 was influenced by the number of weekly appointments. A positive test by the dentists was associated with their reports of having assisted COVID-19 patients. The most cited feelings about the pandemic were uncertainty, fear, worry, anxiety, and stress. Negative feelings were more prevalent for professionals who did not receive training for COVID-19 preventive measures and those reporting higher levels of fear to contract the disease. CONCLUSION: This multi-country survey indicated a high impact of the pandemic on dental care routines in Latin America. A massive prevalence of bad feelings was associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dentists , Emotions , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(1): 37-45, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has been hit hard by COVID-19 due to political instability, flawed health systems, and structural inequalities. The repercussion of the pandemic on vulnerable populations, like people living with HIV (PLWH), is complex. This review aims to explore the interactions between the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics in this region. RECENT FINDINGS: Data regarding the interactions of HIV and COVID-19 in LAC is scarce. Only case reports or small case series have been published regarding the clinical course of COVID-19 in PLWH and regarding the clinical course of COVID-19 in PLWH, which appears to be similar to the general population. The pandemic has disrupted prevention and treatment of PLWH. However, there have been country efforts to counteract those effects. There are some lessons from the HIV response which have been effectively applied in the region to address COVID-19. COVID-19 has had an unprecedented impact on the cascade-of-care among PLWH in LAC. There is a need for longitudinal studies that assess clinic implication of these pandemic interactions in LAC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742446

ABSTRACT

To determine whether or not digital inequalities exist, the frequency, duration, satisfaction, importance, and perceived competence of eighteen groups of digital tools during the COVID-19 pandemic confinement were examined. An online survey was administered to 2882 Latin American university students (49% female; M = 21.3 years). The following items are checked: (1) increased digital inequalities during the pandemic; (2) adequate reliability and validity of the Digital Technology Survey (DTS) instrument; (3) patterns of digital inequalities to the detriment of men, lower strata and unemployed people; and (4) evidence that the importance of digital activities as a causal factor on satisfaction with such digital activities as an outcome is mediated by the purpose of use and communication recipients, but not by strata or employment status, nor moderated by gender. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies, the limitations of the study and future perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digital Divide , COVID-19/epidemiology , Digital Technology , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Universities
11.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(1): 6909, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and/or anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure) and diet quality during confinement due to COVID-19 in rural populations in Latin America. METHODS: This was a multicentric, cross-sectional study. An online survey was applied, which included the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale for assessing the presence of anhedonia, the Food Intake Questionnaire and sociodemographic questions. RESULTS: The study included 10 552 people from 11 countries; 708 participants were living in rural areas. More than half of the participants were quarantined at the time of the survey. Diet quality was inversely associated with anhedonia (p<0.001) and anxiety (p=0.003). In addition, a healthier diet was associated with being female (p=0.030), having a higher level of education (p=0.008) and country of residence (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Among the rural population during the COVID pandemic, this study found a worse diet quality was associated with symptoms of anhedonia and anxiety, as well as lower level of education and being male. Proposals to improve the quality of the diet could include interventions aimed at people's mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Diet , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(3): 454-462, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731610

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions such as stay-at-home orders continue to be the main policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic in countries with limited or slow vaccine rollout. Often, nonpharmaceutical interventions are managed or implemented at the subnational level, yet little information exists on within-country variation in nonpharmaceutical intervention policies. We focused on Latin America, a COVID-19 epicenter, and collected and analyzed daily subnational data on public health measures in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru to compare within- and across-country nonpharmaceutical interventions. We showed high heterogeneity in the adoption of these interventions at the subnational level in Brazil and Mexico; consistent national guidelines with subnational heterogeneity in Argentina and Colombia; and homogeneous policies guided by centralized national policies in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Our results point to the role of subnational policies and governments in responding to health crises. We found that subnational responses cannot replace coordinated national policy. Our findings imply that governments should focus on evidence-based national policies while coordinating with subnational governments to tailor local responses to changing local conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2100251, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731565

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The HOLA COVID-19 study sought to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on oncology practices across Latin America (LATAM), challenges faced by physicians, and how practices and physicians adapted while delivering care to patients with cancer. METHODS: This international cross-sectional study of oncology physicians in LATAM included a 43-item anonymous online survey to evaluate changes and adaptations to clinical practice. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of caring for patients with COVID-19 and changes to clinical practice. RESULTS: A total of 704 oncology physicians from 19 countries completed the survey. Among respondents, the most common specialty was general oncology (34%) and 56% of physicians had cared for patients with COVID-19. The majority of physicians (70%) noted a decrease in the number of new patients evaluated during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with prepandemic, and 73% reported adopting the use of telemedicine in their practice. More than half (58%) of physicians reported making changes to the treatments that they offered to patients with cancer. In adjusted models, physicians who had cared for patients with COVID-19 had higher odds of changing the type of chemotherapy or treatments that they offered (adjusted odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.53) and of delaying chemotherapy start (adjusted odds ratio 2.05; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.81). Physicians identified significant delays in access to radiation and surgical services, diagnostic tests, and supportive care. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted global cancer care. Although changes to health care delivery are a necessary response to this global crisis, our study highlights the significant disruption and changes to the treatment plans of patients with cancer in LATAM resulting from the COVID-19 health care crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Environ Manage ; 309: 114698, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693286

ABSTRACT

A literature review was carried out to analyze the current status of microplastic research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Specifically, this work focused on publications pertaining to (1) occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the environment, including water, sediments, and soil and (2) the environmental impact of MPs, particularly their presence and effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The review included peer-reviewed articles from Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar and two iberoamerican open access databases (Redalyc and SciELO). It was found that LAC has only contributed to 5% of the global scientific output on microplastics, and overall the highest contributor within the region was Brazil (52%), followed by Chile (16%) and Mexico (13%). An additional section analyzing the barriers to conducting microplastic research in LAC and their exacerbation by the current COVID-19 pandemic was included to provide additional context behind the relatively low scientific production and improve recommendations encouraging research in this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microplastics , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) pandemic has struck Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) particularly hard. One of the crucial areas in the international community's response relates to accelerating research and knowledge sharing. The aim of this article is to map and characterise the existing empirical research related to COVID-19 in LAC countries and contribute to identify opportunities for strengthening future research. METHODS: In this scoping review, articles published between December 2019 and 11 November 2020 were selected if they included an empirical component (explicit scientific methods to collect and analyse primary data), LAC population was researched, and the research was about the COVID-19 pandemic, regardless of publication status or language. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Scielo, CENTRAL and Epistemonikos were searched. All titles and abstracts, and full texts were screened by two independent reviewers. Data from included studies was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second independent reviewer. RESULTS: 14,406 records were found. After removing duplicates, 5,458 titles and abstracts were screened, of which 2,323 full texts were revised to finally include 1,626 empirical studies. The largest portion of research came from people/population of Brazil (54.6%), Mexico (19.1%), Colombia (11.2%), Argentina (10.4%), Peru (10.3%) and Chile (10%), while Caribbean countries concentrated 15.3%. The methodologies most used were cross-sectional studies (34.7%), simulation models (17.5%) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (13.6%). Using a modified version of WHO's COVID-19 Coordinated Global Research Roadmap classification, 54.2% were epidemiological studies, followed by clinical management (22.3%) and candidate therapeutics (12.2%). Government and public funds support were reported in 19.2% of studies, followed by universities or research centres (9%), but 47.5% did not include any funding statement. CONCLUSION: During the first part of the COVID-19 pandemic, LAC countries have contributed to the global research effort primarily with epidemiological studies, with little participation on vaccines research, meaning that this type of knowledge would be imported from elsewhere. Research agendas could be further coordinated aiming to enhance shared self-sufficiency regarding knowledge needs in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Empirical Research , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 47(3): 101075, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683040

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures have disrupted lifestyle habits and self-care. Gender differences in health behavior during the pandemic have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate gender related differences in the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on patients with cardiometabolic diseases. A cross-sectional survey was administered to cardiometabolic patients in 13 Latin American countries between June 15th and July 15th, 2020. The study included 4216 participants, of which 2147 (50.9%) were women. Women reported healthier eating habits as well as lower tobacco and alcohol consumption than men but exercised less and reported increased symptoms of depression. Low income and symptoms of depression were associated with sedentarism in women. The interplay between psychological factors and sedentarism could increase the risk of cardiovascular events in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(2): 129-136, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677246

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a worldwide public health problem due to its high incidence and accompanying mortality, morbidity, and financial burden. It is a major cause of admission to paediatric intensive care units; despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment, both incidence and mortality are high in low-income and middle-income countries. There are several barriers in addressing the enormous burden of paediatric sepsis in these countries, which include: lack of data of incidence and mortality; unfamiliarity of sepsis by the lay public, leading to failure to seek care early, and by health professionals, leading to failure to treat emergently; and insufficient government funding for sepsis care programmes leading to inadequate staffing, material, and financial resources, and therefore, poor health systems. Socioeconomic inequalities, such as inequity and marked variation in income and education, high rates of malnutrition, high percentage of young population, and health systems that do not meet the population's demands also represent barriers in the care of children with sepsis in Latin America. In this Viewpoint, we draw attention to the problem of paediatric sepsis in Latin America and call for action to reduce the disease burden by proposing some solutions.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Health Priorities , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/prevention & control , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Latin America/epidemiology , Social Class
18.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 63: 102203, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676688

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has widespread economic and social effects on Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean (CA). This region, which has a high prevalence of chronic diseases, has been one of the most affected during the pandemic. Multiple symptoms and comorbidities are related to distinct COVID-19 outcomes. However, there has been no explanation as to why different patients present with different arrays of clinical presentations. Studies report that similar to comorbidities, each country in LA and the CA has its own particular health issues. Moreover, economic and social features have yet to be studied in detail to obtain a complete perspective of the disease in the region. Herein, the impact of demographic and economic characteristics in LA and the CA on COVID-19 are presented in combination with symptoms and comorbidities related to the disease as important aspects that can influence management and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Morbidity , Pandemics
19.
Dent Med Probl ; 59(1): 5-11, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dentistry is one of the professions that are most exposed to the contagion with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). However, the prevalence and positivity rates of COVID­19 are low in dentists, indicating that the current measures of infection control may be sufficient to prevent infection in dental settings. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether the preventive measures for COVID­19 during the mandatory social isolation were followed by dental students and dentists in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross­sectional study was conducted using anonymous virtual surveys in a convenience sample of 2,036 dental students and dentists from 21 Latin American and Caribbean coun­ tries. The variables were the preventive measures for COVID­19 and the sociodemographic characteristics. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The final sample included 2,036 dental students and dentists. The self­perceived level of know­ ledge about COVID­19 was found to be associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), the type of aca­ demic training, having a specialty in the case of professionals, the place of origin, and having met someone with COVID­19 (p < 0.05). The self­perceived level of concern regarding COVID­19 was associated with sex, BMI and having met someone with COVID­19 (p < 0.05). The number of days in the mandatory social isolation was associated with age, the type of academic training, having a specialty, the place of origin, and having met someone with COVID­19 (p < 0.05). The confinement level was associated with age, sex, BMI, the type of academic training, and having met someone with COVID­19 (p < 0.05). Following the preven­ tive measures for COVID­19 was associated with age, the type of academic training, having a specialty, the place of origin, and having met someone with COVID­19 (p < 0.05). The use of face masks, hand washing and social distancing were associated with age, BMI, the type of academic training, the place of origin, and having met someone with COVID­19 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dental students and dentists followed the preventive measures for COVID­19 during the mandatory social isolation period in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dentists , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Students, Dental
20.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(2): 211-220, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the abrupt establishment of the COVID-19 pandemic, treatment for immunological diseases may be influenced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunobiologics play a pivotal role in the management of severe symptoms of allergy, and an opinion regarding the continuity of this treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic must be issued. AREAS COVERED: In Brazil and other countries, patients with severe asthma have been included in the priority groups for COVID-19 vaccination, even those who are undergoing immunobiological therapy. Data are insufficient to support the influence of this therapy on severe COVID-19. Therapeutic strategies for asthma and guidelines/statements of the main societies of Allergy in Latin America on the continuity of treatment with immunobiologics during the COVID-19 pandemic were obtained from the institutional websites and papers published up to September 2021. EXPERT OPINION: Although the association between asthma and COVID-19 has been under investigation, immunobiological treatment should follow the consensus-based statements recommending the maintenance of the therapy unless the patient is infected by the SARS-CoV-2. However, it must be closely followed by the medical assistant.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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