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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22379, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521772

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal pain is a major concern in our life due to its negative effects on our ability to perform daily functions. During COVID-19 pandemic, several countries switched their teaching programs into e-learning, where students spend long hour using electronic devices. The use of these devices was associated with several musculoskeletal complains among the students. The aim of this study is to evaluate the different body aches associated with e-learning on university students. The subjects of this study were students from An-Najah University in Palestine. 385 questionnaires were filled using Google forms questionnaire and all the subjects were using e-learning due to COVID-19 pandemic. Our study showed that a large percentage of participants used electronic devices for e-learning during the pandemic. The Duration of these devices use was correlated with duration and degree of pain, and associated with the difficulty in ability to perform several daily activities. Furthermore, most of the students used the sitting position with supine bent forward during the device usage. Thus, the university students that participated in this study had an increase in body aches during the e-learning process, and the aches duration and severity increases if the duration of electronic devices usage increase.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/trends , Musculoskeletal Pain/etiology , Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Female , Humans , Learning/physiology , Male , Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology , Pain/etiology , Pain/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schools/trends , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505780

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has led millions of students worldwide to intensify their use of digital education. This massive change is not reflected by the scant scientific research on the effectiveness of methods relying on digital learning compared to other innovative and more popular methods involving face-to-face interactions. Here, we tested the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in Science and Technology compared to inquiry-based learning (IBL), another modern method which, however, requires students to interact with each other in the classroom. Our research also considered socio-cognitive factors-working memory (WM), socioeconomic status (SES), and academic self-concept (ASC)-known to predict academic performance but usually ignored in research on IBL and CAI. Five hundred and nine middle-school students, a fairly high sample size compared with relevant studies, received either IBL or CAI for a period varying from four to ten weeks prior to the Covid-19 events. After controlling for students' prior knowledge and socio-cognitive factors, multilevel modelling showed that CAI was more effective than IBL. Although CAI-related benefits were stable across students' SES and ASC, they were particularly pronounced for those with higher WM capacity. While indicating the need to adapt CAI for students with poorer WM, these findings further justify the use of CAI both in normal times (without excluding other methods) and during pandemic episodes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Learning/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Academic Performance , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435620

ABSTRACT

Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, discussions about online learning referred to the use of e-learning platforms and social networks as auxiliary tools in the educational process. Due to the pandemic, universities were forced to adopt an exclusive online teaching process and most universities today use platforms dedicated to online learning such as Moodle platforms. In this context, we were interested in analyzing the attitude of students regarding the way social networks could be integrated into the educational process, and if the positive attitude of students towards social networks and their use for academic purposes, proven in previous studies, remains positive under the conditions generated by the pandemic. In this regard, the present study aimed at identifying the attitude of Romanian students towards the use of Facebook and Instagram as educational tools and the circumstances in which students believe these platforms could be used by them and their teachers. An online survey was conducted on 872 students from public higher education institutions in Romania. Based on the exploratory factor analysis and the parametric test, the empirical results show that students have a slightly positive attitude towards using Facebook in the educational process, but they have a more reticent, less positive attitude towards using Instagram. Thus, the most appropriate contexts in which these platforms could be used are represented by extracurricular activities. A higher preference for the use of Facebook rather than Instagram, was identified among master and PhD students. No major differences were revealed in student subgroups sorted by gender or study domain.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Learning/physiology , Male , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5924-5930, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432426

ABSTRACT

The introduction of trained sniffer dogs for COVID-19 detection could be an opportunity, as previously described for other diseases. Dogs could be trained to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the whiff of COVID-19. Dogs involved in the study were three, one male and two females from different breeds, Black German Shepherd, German Shepherd, and Dutch Shepherd. The training was performed using sweat samples from SARS-CoV2 positive patients and from SARS-Cov2 free patients admitted at the University Hospital Campus Bio-medico of Rome. Gauze with sweat was collected in a glass jar with a metal top and put in metal boxes used for dog training. The dog training protocol was performed in two phases: the olfactory conditioning and the olfactory discrimination research. The training planning was focused on the switch moment for the sniffer dog, the moment when the dog was able to identify VOCs specific for COVID-19. At this time, the dog was able to identify VOCs specific for COVID-19 with significant reliability, in terms of the number of correct versus incorrect (p < 0.0001) reporting. In conclusion, this protocol could provide a useful tool for sniffer dogs' training and their introduction in a mass screening context. It could be cheaper and faster than a conventional testing method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Learning/physiology , Smell/physiology , Working Dogs/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweat/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/isolation & purification
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5924-5930, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274731

ABSTRACT

The introduction of trained sniffer dogs for COVID-19 detection could be an opportunity, as previously described for other diseases. Dogs could be trained to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the whiff of COVID-19. Dogs involved in the study were three, one male and two females from different breeds, Black German Shepherd, German Shepherd, and Dutch Shepherd. The training was performed using sweat samples from SARS-CoV2 positive patients and from SARS-Cov2 free patients admitted at the University Hospital Campus Bio-medico of Rome. Gauze with sweat was collected in a glass jar with a metal top and put in metal boxes used for dog training. The dog training protocol was performed in two phases: the olfactory conditioning and the olfactory discrimination research. The training planning was focused on the switch moment for the sniffer dog, the moment when the dog was able to identify VOCs specific for COVID-19. At this time, the dog was able to identify VOCs specific for COVID-19 with significant reliability, in terms of the number of correct versus incorrect (p < 0.0001) reporting. In conclusion, this protocol could provide a useful tool for sniffer dogs' training and their introduction in a mass screening context. It could be cheaper and faster than a conventional testing method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Learning/physiology , Smell/physiology , Working Dogs/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweat/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/isolation & purification
7.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1534-1539, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153258

ABSTRACT

Patient-provider communication is a hallmark of high-quality care and patient safety; however, the pace and increasingly complex challenges that face overextended teams strain even the most dedicated clinicians. The COVID-19 pandemic has further disrupted communication between clinicians and their patients and families. The dependence on phone communication and the physical barriers of protective gear limit nonverbal communication and diminish clinicians' ability to recognize and respond to emotion. Developing new approaches to teach communication skills to trainees who are often responsible for communicating with patients and their families is challenging, especially during a pandemic or other crisis. "Just-in-time" simulation-simulation-based training immediately before an intervention-provides the scaffolding and support trainees need for conducting difficult conversations, and it enhances patients' and families' experiences. Using a realistic scenario, the author illustrates key steps for effectively using just-in-time simulation-based communication training: assessing the learner's understanding of the situation; determining what aspects of the encounter may prove most challenging; providing a script as a cognitive aid; refreshing or teaching a specific skill; preparing learners emotionally through reflection and mental rehearsal; coaching on the approach, pace, and tone for a delivery that conveys empathy and meaning; and providing specific, honest, and curious feedback to close a performance gap. Additionally, the author acknowledges that clinical conditions sometimes require learning by observing rather than doing and has thus provided guidance for making the most of vicarious observational learning: identify potential challenges in the encounter and explicitly connect them to trainee learning goals, explain why a more advanced member of the team is conducting the conversation, ask the trainee to observe and prepare feedback, choose the location carefully, identify everyone's role at the beginning of the conversation, debrief, share reactions, and thank the trainee for their feedback and observations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/standards , Learning/physiology , Observation/methods , Patient-Centered Care/standards , Training Support/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition/physiology , Communication , Computer Simulation , Emotions/physiology , Empathy/physiology , Feedback , Humans , Male , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244968, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021676

ABSTRACT

Human language permits us to call to mind objects, events, and ideas that we cannot witness directly. This capacity rests upon abstract verbal reference: the appreciation that words are linked to mental representations that can be established, retrieved and modified, even when the entities to which a word refers is perceptually unavailable. Although establishing verbal reference is a pivotal achievement, questions concerning its developmental origins remain. To address this gap, we investigate infants' ability to establish a representation of an object, hidden from view, from language input alone. In two experiments, 15-month-olds (N = 72) and 12-month-olds (N = 72) watch as an actor names three familiar, visible objects; she then provides a novel name for a fourth, hidden fully from infants' view. In the Semantic Priming condition, the visible familiar objects all belong to the same semantic neighborhood (e.g., apple, banana, orange). In the No Priming condition, the objects are drawn from different semantic neighborhoods (e.g., apple, shoe, car). At test infants view two objects. If infants can use the naming information alone to identify the likely referent, then infants in the Semantic Priming, but not in the No Priming condition, will successfully infer the referent of the fourth (hidden) object. Brief summary of results here. Implications for the development of abstract verbal reference will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Cognition/physiology , Language Development , Language , Learning/physiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male
9.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 566-576, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942364

ABSTRACT

Using data from a computer-based formative feedback system, we compare learning gains in the 8 weeks of school closures related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland with learning gains in the 8 weeks before these school closures. The school performance in mathematics and language of N = 28,685 pupils is modelled in second-order piecewise latent growth models with strict measurement invariance for the two periods under investigation. While secondary school pupils remain largely unaffected by the school closures in terms of learning gains, for primary school pupils learning slows down and at the same time interindividual variance in learning gains increases. Distance learning arrangements seem an effective means to substitute for in-person learning, at least in an emergency situation, but not all pupils benefit to the same degree.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/trends , Educational Status , Learning , Schools/trends , Academic Performance/psychology , Academic Performance/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Humans , Learning/physiology , Male , Pandemics , Switzerland/epidemiology
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