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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(3): 175-182, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772113

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical features of confirmed COVID-19 cases cover a wide spectrum. Aims: To study the clinical, radiological and virological features of the first 150 patients with COVID-19 in Lebanon. Methods: Our university hospital was designated as the primary COVID-19 care centre in Lebanon. Between 21 February 2020, the date of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Lebanon, and 3 April 2020, our team treated 150 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. In this prospective descriptive study, we present our experience in treating these patients, specifically the diagnostic criteria, outcome, and demographic, clinical, radiological and biological characteristics. Results: Ninety-five (63.33%) of the patients were male and 55 (36.67%) were female. Most patients (58%) were aged > 50 years, and 8 (5.33%) were healthcare workers. Diagnosis was based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and patients were classified as mild, moderate or critical. Fifteen (10%) patients had a critical presentation and fever was the most prominent symptom at presentation. One hundred and thirty-eight (92%) patients underwent radiological evaluation. The most common laboratory findings were lymphocytopenia (34.38%), followed by neutropenia (28.13%), but leukocytosis was not prevalent (1.56%). Old age and comorbidity were significant indicators in patient risk stratification. Chest computed tomography was an invaluable method of diagnosis and management. Our radiological findings were consistent with the published literature. Conclusion: Our study underlines the variable presentation of COVID-19, the difference in severity, and the diverse methods of diagnosis. This suggests the need for a tailored approach, taking into consideration the wide spectrum of presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Fever , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258913, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of lives globally. However, the disease has presented more extreme challenges for developing countries that are experiencing economic crises. Studies on COVID-19 symptoms and gut health are scarce and have not fully analyzed possible associations between gut health and disease pathophysiology. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate a potential association between gut health and COVID-19 severity in the Lebanese community, which has been experiencing a severe economic crisis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive Lebanese patients. Participants were interviewed and gut health, COVID-19 symptoms, and different metrics were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Analysis of the data showed that 25% of participants were asymptomatic, while an equal proportion experienced severe symptoms, including dyspnea (22.7%), oxygen need (7.5%), and hospitalization (3.1%). The mean age of the participants was 38.3 ±0.8 years, and the majority were males (63.9%), married (68.2%), and currently employed (66.7%). A negative correlation was found between gut health score and COVID-19 symptoms (Kendall's tau-b = -0.153, P = 0.004); indicating that low gut health was associated with more severe COVID-19 cases. Additionally, participants who reported unhealthy food intake were more likely to experience severe symptoms (Kendall's tau-b = 0.118, P = 0.049). When all items were taken into consideration, multiple ordinal logistic regression models showed a significant association between COVID-19 symptoms and each of the following variables: working status, flu-like illness episodes, and gut health score. COVID-19 severe symptoms were more common among patients having poor gut health scores (OR:1.31, 95%CI:1.07-1.61; P = 0.008), experiencing more than one episode of flu-like illness per year (OR:2.85, 95%CI:1.58-5.15; P = 0.001), and owning a job (OR:2.00, 95%CI:1.1-3.65; P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study that showed the impact of gut health and exposure to respiratory viruses on COVID-19 severity in Lebanon. These findings can facilitate combating the pandemic in Lebanon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Severity of Illness Index
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1590, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has hit the world in an unprecedented way causing serious repercussions on several aspects of our life. Multiple determinants have affected various nations' level of success in their responses towards the pandemic. The Arab Levant region in the Middle East, notoriously known for repeated wars and conflicts, has been affected, similarly to other regions, by this pandemic. The combination of war, conflict, and a pandemic brings too much of a burden for any nation to handle. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of data obtained from the health departments of various Arab Levant Countries (ALC) was performed. ALC include Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine. The data collected involves incidence, recovery rate, case fatality rate and number of tests performed per million population, Global Health Security index, government stringency index, and political stability index. The information obtained was compared and analyzed among the ALC and compared to global figures. An extensive electronic literature search to review all relevant articles and reports published from the region was conducted. The 2019 Global Health Security (GHS) index was obtained from the "GHS index" website which was made by John Hopkins University's center for health security, the Nuclear threat Initiative (NTI) and the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Government stringency index and political stability index were obtained from the University of Oxford and the website of "The Global Economy", respectively. Other world governance indicators such as government effectiveness were obtained from the World Bank website. RESULTS: In terms of incidence of COVID-19, Iraq has the highest with 9665 per one million population, Syria the lowest at 256 per million. Deaths per million population was highest in Iraq at 237, and the lowest in Syria at 12. As for number of tests per million population, Lebanon ranked first at 136,033 with Iraq fourth at 59,795. There is no data available for the tests administered in Syria and subsequently no value for tests per million population. In terms of recoveries from COVID-19 per million population, Iraq had the highest number at 7903 per million, and Syria the lowest at 68 per million. When compared as percent recovery per million, Palestine ranked first (84%) and Syria last (27%). The government response stringency index shows that Jordan had the highest index (100) early in the pandemic among the other countries. Palestine's index remained stable between 80 and 96. The other countries' indices ranged from 50 to 85, with Lebanon seeing a drop to 24 in mid-August. Even with improved stringency index, Iraq reported an increased number of deaths. CONCLUSION: In countries devastated by war and conflict, a pandemic such as COVID-19 can easily spread. The Arab Levant countries represent a breeding ground for pandemics given their unstable political and economic climate that has undoubtedly affected their healthcare systems. In the era of COVID-19, looking at healthcare systems as well as political determinants is needed to assess a country's readiness towards the pandemic. The unrest in Lebanon, the uprising in Iraq, the restrictions placed on Syria, and the economic difficulties in Palestine are all examples of determinants affecting pandemic management. Jordan, on the contrary, is a good example of a stable state, able to implement proper measures. Political stability index should be used as a predictor for pandemic management capacity, and individual measures should be tailored towards countries depending on their index.


Subject(s)
Arabs , COVID-19 , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syria/epidemiology
4.
J Med Life ; 14(4): 523-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464169

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis is a necessary treatment for end-stage kidney disease patients. It imposes undergoing three sessions of dialysis per week in a specialized center. Amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, precautionary measures were mandatory in all dialysis facilities and may have negatively impacted patients' well-being. This study aimed to uncover the scale of this effect. We performed a cross-sectional study of all patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in two dialysis units (one urban and another rural). Patients with Alzheimer's disease were excluded. Patients filled a questionnaire including information on socio-demographics, factors related to the dialysis facility, and the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on their mental health. A total of 72 patients responded. Their median age was 70 (60.79) years. Of them, 68% were males, 71% were married, and 10% were living alone. Following the pandemic, 35% felt more anxious, with a higher incidence of anxiety in the rural unit (p=0.021). Half of them felt very limited in their relationships, and 29% were isolated from their families. In total, 98% of patients were satisfied with the staff support. The imposed preventive measures were perceived as very strict in 27% of the surveyed patients. The majority of the urban group were bothered for not eating during the session, and they felt significantly more stress than the rural group (p=0.001). The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased anxiety among hemodialysis patients from a rural setting. Stress was more prevalent in the urban group and most probably related to limitations in eating during sessions. The majority were satisfied with staff support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1053, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463234

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first detected case in Lebanon on 21 February 2020 engendered implementation of a nationwide lockdown alongside timely contact-tracing and testing. OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to calculate the serial interval of SARS-CoV-2 using contact tracing data collected 21 February to 30 June 2020 in Lebanon to guide testing strategies. METHODS: rRT-PCR positive COVID-19 cases reported to the Ministry of Public Health Epidemiological Surveillance Program (ESU-MOH) are rapidly investigated and identified contacts tested. Positive cases and contacts assigned into chains of transmission during the study time-period were verified to identify those symptomatic, with non-missing date-of-onset and reported source of exposure. Selected cases were classified in infector-infectee pairs. We calculated mean and standard deviation for the serial interval and best distribution fit using AIC criterion. RESULTS: Of a total 1788 positive cases reported, we included 103 pairs belonging to 24 chains of transmissions. Most cases were Lebanese (98%) and male (63%). All infectees acquired infection locally. Mean serial interval was 5.24 days, with a standard deviation of 3.96 and a range of - 4 to 16 days. Normal distribution was an acceptable fit for our non-truncated data. CONCLUSION: Timely investigation and social restriction measures limited recall and reporting biases. Pre-symptomatic transmission up to 4 days prior to symptoms onset was documented among close contacts. Our SI estimates, in line with international literature, provided crucial information that fed into national contact tracing measures. Our study, demonstrating the value of contact-tracing data for evidence-based response planning, can help inform national responses in other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 704678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394843

ABSTRACT

Lebanon is in the midst of a rapidly escalating, unprecedented humanitarian crisis that is plunging the country deep into poverty and threatens population well-being, economic development, social welfare and national and regional stability. The dire situation is due to the compounding effects of the August 2020 Beirut blast, massive economic collapse and the COVID-19 pandemic, in a setting of longstanding entrenched political corruption and a dysfunctional, mismanaged crisis response by the state. This current emergency occurs on the background of a turbulent history and complex regional geopolitical context - including the Syrian refugee crisis, the ongoing influence of foreign actors and their local proxies, the United-States-imposed sanctions, endemic corruption, a culture of nepotism and entitlement among the political dynasties, dysfunctional power-sharing and deep-seated sectarian divides. With over half the population now living in poverty, a generation of children are among those at risk. This Perspective provides a brief overview of Lebanon's current complex humanitarian crisis, discusses the impacts of the evolving situation on youth and proposes a suite of recommendations to mitigate the effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389140

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374475

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had serious repercussions on the global economy, work force, and food systems. In Lebanon, the pandemic overlapped with an economic crisis, which threatened to exacerbate food insecurity (FI). The present study aims to evaluate the trends and projections of FI in Lebanon due to overlapping health and economic crises. Data from Gallup World Poll (GWP) 2015-2017 surveys conducted in Lebanon on nationally representative adults (n = 3000) were used to assess FI trends and explore its sociodemographic correlates. Predictive models were performed to forecast trends in FI (2018-2022), using GWP data along with income reduction scenarios to estimate the impact of the pandemic and economic crises. Pre crises, trend analyses showed that FI could reach 27% considering wave year and income. Post crises, FI was estimated to reach on average 36% to 39%, considering 50-70% income reduction scenarios among Lebanese population. FI projections are expected to be higher among females compared to males and among older adults compared to younger ones (p < 0.05). These alarming findings call for emergency food security policies and evidence-based programs to mitigate the burden of multiple crises on the FI of Lebanese households and promote resilience for future shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Recession/trends , Food Insecurity/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Recession/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Supply/economics , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Resilience, Psychological , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the absence of a universally accepted association between smoking and COVID-19 health outcomes, we investigated this relationship in a representative cohort from one of the world's highest tobacco consuming regions. This is the first report from the Middle East and North Africa that tackles specifically the association of smoking and COVID-19 mortality while demonstrating a novel sex-discrepancy in the survival rates among patients. METHODS: Clinical data for 743 hospitalized COVID-19 patients was retrospectively collected from the leading centre for COVID-19 testing and treatment in Lebanon. Logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age and stratified by sex were used to assess the association between the current cigarette smoking status of patients and COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: In addition to the high smoking prevalence among our hospitalized COVID-19 patients (42.3%), enrolled smokers tended to have higher reported ICU admissions (28.3% vs 16.6%, p<0.001), longer length of stay in the hospital (12.0 ± 7.8 vs 10.8 days, p<0.001) and higher death incidences as compared to non-smokers (60.5% vs 39.5%, p<0.001). Smokers had an elevated odds ratio for death (OR = 2.3, p<0.001) and for ICU admission (OR = 2.0, p<0.001) which remained significant in a multivariate regression model. Once adjusted for age and stratified by sex, our data revealed that current smoking status reduces survival rate in male patients ([HR] = 1.9 [95% (CI), 1.029-3.616]; p = 0.041) but it does not affect survival outcomes among hospitalized female patients([HR] = 0.79 [95% CI = 0.374-1.689]; p = 0.551). CONCLUSION: A high smoking prevalence was detected in our hospitalized COVID-19 cohort combined with worse prognosis and higher mortality rate in smoking patients. Our study was the first to highlight potential sex-specific consequences for smoking on COVID-19 outcomes that might further explain the higher vulnerability to death from this disease among men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Smoking/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Factors , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Rate
12.
Future Oncol ; 17(31): 4071-4079, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337604

ABSTRACT

Aims: This paper reports the results of a survey assessing the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among patients with cancer. Patients and methods: In total, 111 adult patients with cancer from a single institution were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their knowledge about the vaccine, their readiness to be vaccinated and the determinants of their decision. Results: 61.3% of the patients considered themselves more vulnerable to COVID-19 than the general population. Television, radio and newspapers were the major sources of information about the vaccine. A total of 55% of the patients were ready to be vaccinated and 14.4% refused the vaccine. The main reason for refusal was incompatibility with patients' disease or treatment. Conclusion: Most of the patients in this institutional sample accepted the COVID-19 vaccine. Better communication of information with patients is needed to decrease vaccine hesitancy.


Lay abstract Major cancer societies consider vaccinating patients with cancer against COVID-19 a priority. The investigators conducted a survey assessing perceptions of the vaccine among patients with cancer. A total of 111 patients were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating their knowledge about the vaccine, their readiness to be vaccinated and the determinants of their decision. Most (61.3%) patients considered themselves more susceptible to COVID-19 than the general population. Television, radio and newspapers were the major sources of information about the vaccine. The majority of patients (55%) were ready to be vaccinated and 14.4% refused the vaccine. The main reason for refusal was incompatibility with patients' disease or treatment. Better communication with patients is needed to decrease vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, University , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Young Adult
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286068

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252830, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259249

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Misinformation surrounding COVID-19 poses a global public health problem that adversely affects governments' abilities to mitigate the disease and causes accidental deaths and self-harm due to false beliefs about the virus, prevention measures, vaccines and cures. We aim to examine the relationship between exposure to and trust in COVID-19 news (from Television, social media, interpersonal communication) and information sources (healthcare experts, government, clerics) and belief in COVID-19 myths and false information, as well as critical verification practices before posting on social media. METHODS: We use a cross-sectional researcher-administered phone survey of adults living in Lebanon between March 27 and April 23, 2020. RESULTS: The sample included 56.1% men and 43.9% women, 37.9% with a university degree, 63.0% older than 30, and 7% with media literacy training. Those who trust COVID-19 news from social media [95%CI:(1.05-1.52)] and interpersonal communication [95%CI:(1.25-1.82)], and those who trust information from clerics [95%CI:(1.25-1.82)] were more likely to believe in COVID-19 myths and false information. University graduates [95%CI:(0.25-0.51)] and those who trust information from government [95%CI:(0.65-0.89] were less likely to believe in myths and false information. Those who believe in COVID-19 myths and false information [95%CI:(0.25-0.70)] were less likely to engage in critical social media posting practices. Only those who underwent media literacy training [95%CI:(1.24-6.55)] were more likely to engage in critical social media posting practices. CONCLUSION: Higher education and trust in information from government contributed to decreasing belief in COVID-19 myths and false information. Trust in news from social media, interpersonal communication and clerics contributed to increasing belief in COVID-19 myths and false information, which in turn contributed to less critical social media posting practices, thereby exacerbated the infodemic. Media literacy training contributed to increasing critical social media posting practices, thereby played a role in mitigating the infodemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Deception , Social Media , Trust , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the efficacy of ivermectin, an FDA-approved drug, in producing clinical benefits and decreasing the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic subjects that tested positive for this virus in Lebanon. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 100 asymptomatic Lebanese subjects that have tested positive for SARS-CoV2. Fifty patients received standard preventive treatment, mainly supplements, and the experimental group received a single dose (according to body weight) of ivermectin, in addition to the same supplements the control group received. RESULTS: There was no significant difference (p = 0.06) between Ct-values of the two groups before the regimen was started (day zero), indicating that subjects in both groups had similar viral loads. At 72 h after the regimen started, the increase in Ct-values was dramatically higher in the ivermectin than in the control group. In the ivermectin group, Ct increased from 15.13 ± 2.07 (day zero) to 30.14 ± 6.22 (day three; mean ± SD), compared to the control group, where the Ct values increased only from 14.20 ± 2.48 (day zero) to 18.96 ± 3.26 (day three; mean ± SD). Moreover, more subjects in the control group developed clinical symptoms. Three individuals (6%) required hospitalization, compared to the ivermectin group (0%). CONCLUSION: Ivermectin appears to be efficacious in providing clinical benefits in a randomized treatment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects, effectively resulting in fewer symptoms, lower viral load and reduced hospital admissions. However, larger-scale trials are warranted for this conclusion to be further cemented.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/drug effects
16.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(2): 51-59, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243326

ABSTRACT

Mass casualty incidents can be devastating events associated with a large number of fatalities, morbidities, and long-lasting sequelae. The negative outcomes can be further amplified if the incident occurred during a pandemic surge, such as what occurred in Beirut, Lebanon with the August 4, 2020 Beirut Port explosion. To decrease the mortality and morbidity and avoid inefficiency, management depends on having an established coordinated multidisciplinary approach from transport and triage to emergency department care and in-hospital management. In this article, the mass casualty management and the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will be discussed based on the American University of Beirut Medical Center experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Casualty Incidents , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 241, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global threat. Healthcare professionals including dentists are facing real challenges during this pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and prevention measures of Lebanese dentists towards COVID-19 and determinants of high level of knowledge and prevention practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2020 in Lebanon on a random sample of 323 Lebanese dentists. Data were collected through an online survey questionnaire. A multivariate linear regression model was used to evaluate factors associated with COVID-19 knowledge. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with high level of prevention measures towards COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean COVID-19 knowledge index was 24.5 over 38 with only 15% achieving high knowledge level. The mean prevention measures index was 11.4 over 16 with only 35% achieving high prevention level. Higher knowledge index was associated with younger age, being employed, and considering dentist's role significant in teaching others about COVID-19. General dental practitioners, dentists living with family members and concerned about their family members to get infected because of their occupational exposure were more likely to report higher level of adopted prevention measures. Higher knowledge was associated with high level of prevention measures. CONCLUSIONS: Given the rapid evolution of information related to COVID-19 pandemic, dentists should be regularly educated through trainings, workshops, and updates of national guidelines for dental healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dentists , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Subst Abus ; 42(3): 264-265, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217741

ABSTRACT

Lebanon, a small middle-income nation in western Asia, has been crippled by decades of political turmoil and armed conflict. A "quadruple crisis" hit the country over the past years, starting with the protracted humanitarian Syrian refugee crisis, followed by a severe socioeconomic collapse, the global COVID-19 pandemic, and lastly the Beirut port catastrophic blast. With the exposure to repetitive traumatic events and associated organic brain injury, the Lebanese population has become at a higher risk of addiction, among other psychiatric comorbidities. With the scarce statistics about the topic and limited addiction services in the country, collaborative local efforts and international help are urgently needed to fight the upcoming substance use epidemic. Raising awareness, providing adequate training, and securing resources for the management of both addiction and trauma are of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Disasters , Economic Recession , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Refugees
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