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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21514, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation. A wide range of adipokines activities suggests they influence pathogenesis and infection course. The aim was to assess concentrations of chemerin, omentin, and vaspin among COVID-19 patients with an emphasis on adipokines relationship with COVID-19 severity, concomitant metabolic abnormalities and liver dysfunction. Serum chemerin, omentin and vaspin concentrations were measured in serum collected from 70 COVID-19 patients at the moment of admission to hospital, before any treatment was applied and 20 healthy controls. Serum chemerin and omentin concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers (271.0 vs. 373.0 ng/ml; p < 0.001 and 482.1 vs. 814.3 ng/ml; p = 0.01, respectively). There were no correlations of analyzed adipokines with COVID-19 severity based on the presence of pneumonia, dyspnea, or necessity of Intensive Care Unit hospitalization (ICU). Liver test abnormalities did not influence adipokines levels. Elevated GGT activity was associated with ICU admission, presence of pneumonia and elevated concentrations of CRP, ferritin and interleukin 6. Chemerin and omentin depletion in COVID-19 patients suggests that this adipokines deficiency play influential role in disease pathogenesis. However, there was no relationship between lower adipokines level and frequency of COVID-19 symptoms as well as disease severity. The only predictive factor which could predispose to a more severe COVID-19 course, including the presence of pneumonia and ICU hospitalization, was GGT activity.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/blood , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Lectins/blood , Serpins/blood , Aged , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320579

ABSTRACT

Early and persistent activation of complement is considered to play a key role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Complement activation products orchestrate a proinflammatory environment that might be critical for the induction and maintenance of a severe inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 by recruiting cells of the cellular immune system to the sites of infection and shifting their state of activation towards an inflammatory phenotype. It precedes pathophysiological milestone events like the cytokine storm, progressive endothelial injury triggering microangiopathy, and further complement activation, and causes an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To date, the application of antiviral drugs and corticosteroids have shown efficacy in the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but failed to ameliorate disease severity in patients who progressed to severe COVID-19 pathology. This report demonstrates that lectin pathway (LP) recognition molecules of the complement system, such as MBL, FCN-2 and CL-11, bind to SARS-CoV-2 S- and N-proteins, with subsequent activation of LP-mediated C3b and C4b deposition. In addition, our results confirm and underline that the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds directly to the LP- effector enzyme MASP-2 and activates complement. Inhibition of the LP using an inhibitory monoclonal antibody against MASP-2 effectively blocks LP-mediated complement activation. FACS analyses using transfected HEK-293 cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein confirm a robust LP-dependent C3b deposition on the cell surface which is inhibited by the MASP-2 inhibitory antibody. In light of our present results, and the encouraging performance of our clinical candidate MASP-2 inhibitor Narsoplimab in recently published clinical trials, we suggest that the targeting of MASP-2 provides an unsurpassed window of therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Lectins/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 671052, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231338

ABSTRACT

We do not understand why non-white ethnicity and chronic kidney disease increase susceptibility to COVID-19. The lectin pathway of complement activation is a key contributor to innate immunity and inflammation. Concentrations of plasma lectin pathway proteins influence pathway activity and vary with ethnicity. We measured circulating lectin proteins in a multi-ethnic cohort of chronic kidney disease patients with and without COVID19 infection to determine if lectin pathway activation was contributing to COVID19 severity. We measured 11 lectin proteins in serial samples from a cohort of 33 patients with chronic kidney impairment and COVID19. Controls were single plasma samples from 32 patients on dialysis and 32 healthy individuals. We demonstrated multiple associations between recognition molecules and associated proteases of the lectin pathway and COVID-19, including COVID-19 severity. Some of these associations were unique to patients of Asian and White ethnicity. Our novel findings demonstrate that COVID19 infection alters the concentration of plasma lectin proteins and some of these changes were linked to ethnicity. This suggests a role for the lectin pathway in the host response to COVID-19 and suggest that variability within this pathway may contribute to ethnicity-associated differences in susceptibility to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin , Lectins/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/ethnology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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