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PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234585


We examine patterns of reported crime in Santa Monica, California before and after the passage of Proposition 47, a 2014 initiative that reclassified some non-violent felonies as misdemeanors. We also investigate impacts of the opening of four new light rail stations in 2016 and of increased community-based policing starting in late 2018. Our statistical analyses of reclassified crimes-larceny, fraud, possession of narcotics, forgery, receiving/possessing stolen property-and non-reclassified ones are based on publicly available reported crime data from 2006 to 2019. These analyses examine reported crime at various levels: city-wide, within eight neighborhoods, and within a 450-meter radius of the new transit stations. Monthly reported reclassified crimes increased city-wide by approximately 15% after enactment of Proposition 47, with a significant drop observed in late 2018. Downtown exhibited the largest overall surge. Reported non-reclassified crimes fell overall by approximately 9%. Areas surrounding two new train stations, including Downtown, saw significant increases in reported crime after train service began. While reported reclassified crimes increased after passage of Proposition 47, non-reclassified crimes, for the most part, decreased or stayed constant, suggesting that Proposition 47 may have impacted reported crime in Santa Monica. Reported crimes decreased in late 2018 concurrent with the adoption of new community-based policing measures. Follow-up studies needed to confirm long-term trends may be challenging due to the COVID-19 pandemic that drastically changed societal conditions. While our research detects changes in reported crime, it does not provide causative explanations. Our work, along with other considerations relevant to public utility, respect for human rights, and existence of socioeconomic disparities, may be useful to law enforcement and policymakers to assess the overall effect of Proposition 47.

Crime/legislation & jurisprudence , Crime/statistics & numerical data , California , Humans , Law Enforcement/methods , Legislation as Topic
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 30-33, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221085


The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of the US generic drug supply chain to foreign production. Many policies have been proposed to mitigate this vulnerability. In this article, we argue that nonprofit drug manufacturers have the potential to make important contributions.

Drug Industry/economics , Drugs, Generic/supply & distribution , Organizations, Nonprofit/economics , Prescription Drugs/supply & distribution , Legislation as Topic , United States
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 626-628, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207328


The future of Roe v Wade is uncertain. If it is overturned, protection of reproductive rights will be determined by the acts of individual state governments, some of which have already signaled that they will ban or severely restrict access to abortion. Health care professionals working in states that maintain the laws that applied in the time before the overturn of Roe may wish to provide assistance-anything from consultation to shipping medications-to women living in more restrictive venues. However, it is important for health care professionals to be aware of the legal consequences of those acts, as well as ethical considerations, when deciding whether to adhere to or to defy laws that they believe threaten the well-being of women. It is likely that legal consequences will vary with the type of act in which a physician engages. This article will review legal considerations, to the extent that they can be known at this point, as well as the ethics of civil disobedience.

Abortion, Legal/legislation & jurisprudence , Supreme Court Decisions , Female , Humans , Legislation as Topic , Politics , Pregnancy , United States
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(9): e00185020, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-797718


Medidas de distanciamento social vêm sendo amplamente adotadas para mitigar a pandemia da COVID-19. No entanto, pouco se sabe quanto ao seu impacto no momento da implementação, abrangência e duração da vigência das medidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as medidas de distanciamento social implementadas pelas Unidades da Federação (UF) brasileiras, incluindo o tipo de medida e o momento de sua adoção. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com caracterização do tipo, momento cronológico e epidemiológico da implementação e abrangência das medidas. O levantamento das medidas foi realizado por meio de buscas em sites oficiais das Secretarias de Governo e no Diário Oficial de cada UF. Os números de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 foram obtidos de uma plataforma de informações oficiais. Consideramos as seguintes categorias de medidas de distanciamento social: suspensão de eventos, suspensão de aulas, quarentena para grupos de risco, paralisação econômica (parcial ou plena), restrição de transporte e quarentena para a população. O momento de implementação considerou a data cronológica e também o momento epidemiológico, levando em conta o tempo após o décimo caso ou primeiro óbito por COVID-19 em cada UF. Todas as UF implementaram medidas de distanciamento, em sua maioria durante a segunda quinzena de março de 2020. Paralisação econômica foi implementada precocemente, anterior ao décimo caso por 67% e anterior ao primeiro óbito por COVID-19 por 89% das UF. As medidas de distanciamento social foram amplamente implementadas no Brasil, de maneira precoce, antes ou na fase inicial da curva de crescimento exponencial de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 na grande maioria das UF.

Medidas de distanciamiento social están siendo ampliamente adoptadas para mitigar la pandemia de la COVID-19. No obstante, poco se sabe en cuanto al momento de implementación, alcance y duración de la vigencia de las medidas en su impacto. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las medidas de distanciamiento social, implementadas por las Unidades de la Federación (UF) brasileñas, incluyendo el tipo de medida y el momento de su implementación. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con caracterización del tipo, momento cronológico y epidemiológico de la implementación y alcance de las medidas. La obtención de las medidas se realizó a través de búsquedas en sitios oficiales de las Secretarías de Gobierno y Boletín Oficial de cada UF. Los números de casos y óbitos por COVID-19 se obtuvieron de una plataforma de información oficial. Consideramos las siguientes categorías de medidas de distanciamiento social: suspensión de eventos, suspensión de clases, cuarentena para grupos de riesgo, paralización económica (parcial o plena), restricción de transporte y cuarentena para la población. El momento de implementación consideró la fecha cronológica y también el momento epidemiológico, considerando el tiempo tras el 10º caso o 1er óbito por COVID-19 en cada UF. Todas las UF implementaron medidas de distanciamiento, en su mayoría durante la segunda quincena de marzo de 2020. Se implementó la paralización económica precozmente, anterior al 10º caso por 67% y anterior al 1er óbito por COVID-19 por 89% de las UF. Las medidas de distanciamiento social fueron ampliamente implementadas en Brasil, de manera precoz, antes o en la fase inicial de la curva de crecimiento exponencial de casos y óbitos por COVID-19 en la gran mayoría de las UF.

Social distancing measures have been widely adopted to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the timing of measures' implementation, scope, and duration in relation to their impact. The study aimed to describe the social distancing measures implemented by Brazil's states and the Federal District, including the types of measures and the timing of their implementation. This is a descriptive study of the measures' type, chronological and epidemiological timing of the implementation, and scope. The survey of measures used searches in official websites of the government departments and each state's Government Register. The official number of COVID-19 cases and deaths were obtained from an official a data platform. We considered the following categories of social distancing measures: suspension of events, school closure, quarantine of risk groups, economic lockdown (partial or full), restrictions on transportation, and quarantine of the population. The implementation's timing considered both the chronological date and the epidemiological timing, based on the time since the 10th case or 1st death from COVID-19 in each state. All the states implemented distancing measures, mostly during the latter half of March 2020. Economic lockdown was implemented early, prior to the 10th case by 67% of the states and prior to the 1st death from COVID-19 by 89% of the states. Early social distancing measures were widely implemented in Brazil, before or in the initial phase of the exponential growth curve of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the great majority of states.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Quarantine , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Legislation as Topic
J Hist Behav Sci ; 57(1): 60-74, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635393


In this wide-ranging conversation, historians David Serlin (UC San Diego) and Jennifer Tucker (Wesleyan University) discuss the role of material culture and visual media in shaping how museums communicate histories of science and technology. Tucker describes recent a public history project focused on 19th-century histories of firearms and gun regulation in light of contemporary debates about the Second Amendment "right to bear arms." Serlin and Tucker conclude by speculating about possible curatorial directions for a future public history exhibit focused on the social and cultural impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020.

COVID-19/history , Firearms/history , Firearms/legislation & jurisprudence , Information Dissemination/methods , Legislation as Topic/history , Museums/organization & administration , Social Media , Communication , History, 19th Century , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(3): 542-544, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739174


The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented financial strain on otolaryngologists. Otolaryngologists employed by small practices may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ongoing losses because these organizations often have limited financial reserves. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of federal direct aid provided to small practices (defined as ≤15 clinicians) employing otolaryngologists, using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Physician Compare National Downloadable File and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Provider Relief Fund database. As of June 18, 2020, the HHS had allocated nearly $80 million to 966 (88.9%) of 1087 small practices employing 2455 otolaryngologists. The median amount of aid per clinician was $7909 (interquartile range, $4409-$12,710). These findings suggest that the majority of small practices have received direct aid through the HHS Provider Relief Fund, but aid amounts have thus far been modest relative to the fixed costs of practice.

COVID-19 , Financial Management , Otolaryngology/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Financial Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Legislation as Topic , Retrospective Studies , United States