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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is paucity of data on determinants of length of COVID-19 admissions and long COVID, an emerging long-term sequel of COVID-19, in Ghana. Therefore, this study identified these determinants and discussed their policy implications. METHOD: Data of 2334 patients seen at the main COVID-19 treatment centre in Ghana were analysed in this study. Their characteristics, such as age, education level and comorbidities, were examined as explanatory variables. The dependent variables were length of COVID-19 hospitalisations and long COVID. Negative binomial and binary logistic regressions were fitted to investigate the determinants. RESULT: The regression analyses showed that, on average, COVID-19 patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus spent almost 2 days longer in hospital (p = 0.00, 95% CI = 1.42-2.33) and had 4 times the odds of long COVID (95% CI = 1.61-10.85, p = 0.003) compared to those with no comorbidities. In addition, the odds of long COVID decreased with increasing patient's education level (primary OR = 0.73, p = 0.02; secondary/vocational OR = 0.26, p = 0.02; tertiary education OR = 0.23, p = 0.12). CONCLUSION: The presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus determined both length of hospitalisation and long COVID among patients with COVID-19 in Ghana. COVID-19 prevention and management policies should therefore consider these factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211066667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the safety, utilization, ability to reduce length of hospitalization and overall outcomes of a COVID-19 virtual ward providing ongoing treatment at home. METHOD: A retrospective single-center study of patients discharged to the COVID-19 virtual "step down" ward between January 27th 2021 and March 2nd 2021. The referral process, length of hospitalization, length of stay on the virtual ward, readmissions, and ongoing treatment requirements including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, and/or steroids were all noted. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients were referred to the virtual ward. 43 referrals were accepted, 39 of which were from the respiratory ward. Four patients were readmitted, all due to hypoxia. All readmissions occurred within 5 days of discharge. 72% (n = 31) were discharged home with an ongoing oxygen requirement. 14.3% of patients were discharged with antibiotics only, 9.5% with steroids only and 23.8% with both antibiotics and steroids. The mean length of hospital stay for patients discharged to the virtual ward was 10.3 ± 9.7 days and 11.9 ± 11.6 days for all covid positive patients during this time. On average, patients spent 13.7 ± 7.3 days on the virtual ward. The average number of days spent on oxygen on the virtual ward was 11.6 ± 6.0 days. CONCLUSION: The virtual ward model exemplifies the potential benefits of collaborative working between primary and secondary care services, relieving pressure on hospitals whilst providing ongoing treatments at home such as supplemental oxygen. It also facilitates an early supported discharge of clinically stable patients with an improving clinical trajectory by managing them in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, General , Humans , Length of Stay , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140568, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592803

ABSTRACT

Importance: Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are common comorbidities in patients with severe COVID-19, yet little is known about the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or death in patients with COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome. Objective: To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of ARDS and death from COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study used data from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Respiratory Illness Universal Study collected from 181 hospitals across 26 countries from February 15, 2020, to February 18, 2021. Outcomes were compared between patients with metabolic syndrome (defined as ≥3 of the following criteria: obesity, prediabetes or diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) and a control population without metabolic syndrome. Participants included adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the study period who had a completed discharge status. Data were analyzed from February 22 to October 5, 2021. Exposures: Exposures were SARS-CoV-2 infection, metabolic syndrome, obesity, prediabetes or diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included ARDS, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Among 46 441 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 29 040 patients (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [17.8] years; 13 059 [45.0%] women and 15713 [54.1%] men; 6797 Black patients [23.4%], 5325 Hispanic patients [18.3%], and 16 507 White patients [57.8%]) met inclusion criteria. A total of 5069 patients (17.5%) with metabolic syndrome were compared with 23 971 control patients (82.5%) without metabolic syndrome. In adjusted analyses, metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.14-1.53]), invasive mechanical ventilation (aOR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.28-1.65]), ARDS (aOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.12-1.66]), and mortality (aOR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.08-1.31]) and prolonged hospital LOS (median [IQR], 8.0 [4.2-15.8] days vs 6.8 [3.4-13.0] days; P < .001) and ICU LOS (median [IQR], 7.0 [2.8-15.0] days vs 6.4 [2.7-13.0] days; P < .001). Each additional metabolic syndrome criterion was associated with increased risk of ARDS in an additive fashion (1 criterion: 1147 patients with ARDS [10.4%]; P = .83; 2 criteria: 1191 patients with ARDS [15.3%]; P < .001; 3 criteria: 817 patients with ARDS [19.3%]; P < .001; 4 criteria: 203 patients with ARDS [24.3%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risks of ARDS and death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The association with ARDS was cumulative for each metabolic syndrome criteria present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 747732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between overweight and obesity on the clinical course and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Design: Retrospective, observational cohort study. Methods: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to evaluate the associations between overweight and obesity on the clinical course and outcomes. Results: Out of 1634 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 473 (28.9%) had normal weight, 669 (40.9%) were overweight, and 492 (30.1%) were obese. Patients who were overweight or had obesity were younger, and there were more women in the obese group. Normal-weight patients more often had pre-existing conditions such as malignancy, or were organ recipients. During admission, patients who were overweight or had obesity had an increased probability of acute respiratory distress syndrome [OR 1.70 (1.26-2.30) and 1.40 (1.01-1.96)], respectively and acute kidney failure [OR 2.29 (1.28-3.76) and 1.92 (1.06-3.48)], respectively. Length of hospital stay was similar between groups. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 27.7%, and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that overweight and obesity were not associated with increased mortality compared to normal-weight patients. Conclusion: In this study, overweight and obesity were associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury, but not with in-hospital mortality nor length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23999, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585795

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus causing mainly respiratory track disease called COVID-19, which dissemination in the whole world in the 2020 has resulted in World Health Organisation (WHO) announcing the pandemic. As a consequence Polish Government made a decision to go into a lockdown in order to secure the population against SARS-CoV-2 outbreak what had its major influence on the Polish Health Care System. All of the social and medical factors caused by the pandemic might influence children's health care, including urgent cases. The aim of this survey was the analysis of medical charts with focus on the course and results of surgical treatment of children who underwent appendectomy before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: We performed analysis of charts of 365 subjects hospitalized in the Pediatric Surgery Department from 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2020 because of acute appendicitis. Patients were divided into two groups-those treated in 2019-before pandemic outbreak, and those treated in 2020 in the course of pandemic. Results: the most common type of appendicitis was phlegmonous (61% of cases in 2019 and 51% of cases in 2020). Followed by diffuse purulent peritonitis (18% of cases in 2019 vs 31% of cases in 2020), gangrenous (19% of cases in 2019 vs 15% of cases in 2020) and simple superficial appendicitis (1% of cases in 2019 vs 3% of cases in 2020). There was statistically significant difference in the length of hospitalization: in 2019 the mean length of hospi-talization was 4.761 vs 5.634 in 2020. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed more frequently before the COVID period (63% of cases treated in 2019 vs 61% of cases treated in 2020). In the pandemic year 2020, there was double increase in the number of conversion from the laparoscopic approach to the classic open surgery. In the year 2019 drainage of abdominal cavity was necessary in 22% of patients treated with appendectomy, in 2020 the amount of cases threated with appendectomy and drainage increased to 32%. Conclusions: fear of being infected, the limited availability of appointments at General Practitioners and the new organisation of the medical health care system during pandemic, delay proper diagnosis of appendicitis. Forementioned delay leads to higher number of complicated cases treated with open appendectomy and drainage of abdominal cavity, higher number of conversions from the laparoscopic to classic open technique, and longer hospitalization of children treated with appendectomy in the year of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/classification , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Appendectomy/methods , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24436, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585781

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) belong to the most vulnerable patient subgroups. Emerging data has shown increased risks of severe infections, increased in ICU admissions, longer durations of admission, and increased mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the outcomes of patients diagnosed with DM (n = 2191) versus patients without DM (n = 8690) on our data from our study based on a nationwide, comparative, retrospective, cohort study among adult, hospitalized COVID-19 patients involving 37 hospital sites from around the Philippines. We determined distribution differences between two independent samples using Mann-Whitney U and t tests. Data on the time to onset of mortality, respiratory failure, intensive care unit (ICU) admission were used to build Kaplan-Meier curves and to compute for hazard ratios (HR). The odds ratios (OR) for longer ventilator dependence, longer ICU stay, and longer hospital stays were computed via multivariate logistic regression. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and ORs (aOR) with 95% CI were calculated. We included a total of 10,881 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (2191 have DM while 8690 did not have DM). The median age of the DM cohort was 61, with a female to male ratio of 1:1.25 and more than 50% of the DM population were above 60 years old. The aOR for mortality was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.46 (95% CI 1.28-1.68; p < 0.001) as compared to the non-DM group. Similarly, the aOR for respiratory failure was also significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.67 (95% CI 1.46-1.90). The aOR for developing severe COVID-19 at nadir was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.85 (95% CI 1.65-2.07; p < 0.001). The aOR for ICU admission was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.80 (95% CI 1.59-2.05) than those in the non-DM group. DM patients had significantly longer duration of ventilator dependence (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64; p = 0.008) and longer hospital admission (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26; p = 0.027). The presence of DM among COVID-19 patients significantly increased the risk of mortality, respiratory failure, duration of ventilator dependence, severe/critical COVID-19, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Philippines , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Ventilators, Mechanical , Young Adult
8.
BMJ ; 375: e068665, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and myocarditis or myopericarditis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 4 931 775 individuals aged 12 years or older, followed from 1 October 2020 to 5 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome, myocarditis or myopericarditis, was defined as a combination of a hospital diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, increased troponin levels, and a hospital stay lasting more than 24 hours. Follow-up time before vaccination was compared with follow-up time 0-28 days from the day of vaccination for both first and second doses, using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as an underlying timescale to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for sex, comorbidities, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 269 participants developed myocarditis or myopericarditis, of whom 108 (40%) were 12-39 years old and 196 (73%) were male. Of 3 482 295 individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), 48 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from the vaccination date compared with unvaccinated individuals (adjusted hazard ratio 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.00); absolute rate 1.4 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8)). Adjusted hazard ratios among female participants only and male participants only were 3.73 (1.82 to 7.65) and 0.82 (0.50 to 1.34), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 1.3 (0.8 to 1.9) and 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 1.48 (0.74 to 2.98) and the absolute rate was 1.6 (1.0 to 2.6) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. Among 498 814 individuals vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (Moderna), 21 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from vaccination date (adjusted hazard ratio 3.92 (2.30 to 6.68); absolute rate 4.2 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (2.6 to 6.4)). Adjusted hazard ratios among women only and men only were 6.33 (2.11 to 18.96) and 3.22 (1.75 to 5.93), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 2.0 (0.7 to 4.8) and 6.3 (3.6 to 10.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 5.24 (2.47 to 11.12) and the absolute rate was 5.7 (3.3 to 9.3) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with mRNA-1273 was associated with a significantly increased risk of myocarditis or myopericarditis in the Danish population, primarily driven by an increased risk among individuals aged 12-39 years, while BNT162b2 vaccination was only associated with a significantly increased risk among women. However, the absolute rate of myocarditis or myopericarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination was low, even in younger age groups. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination should be taken into account when interpreting these findings. Larger multinational studies are needed to further investigate the risks of myocarditis or myopericarditis after vaccination within smaller subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy has been proposed as an option to help organize the healthcare system to face the unprecedented number of patients hospitalized for a COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care units (ICU). It is, however, considered a particularly high-risk procedure for contamination. This paper aims to provide our experience in performing tracheostomies on COVID-19 critically ill patients during the pandemic and its long-term local complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients tracheostomized for a COVID-19-related ARDS in two university hospitals in the Paris region between January 27th (date of first COVID-19 admission) and May 18th, 2020 (date of last tracheostomy performed). We focused on tracheostomy technique (percutaneous versus surgical), timing (early versus late) and late complications. RESULTS: Forty-eight tracheostomies were performed with an equal division between surgical and percutaneous techniques. There was no difference in patients' characteristics between surgical and percutaneous groups. Tracheostomy was performed after a median of 17 [12-22] days of mechanical ventilation (MV), with 10 patients in the "early" group (≤ day 10) and 38 patients in the "late" group (> day 10). Survivors required MV for a median of 32 [22-41] days and were ultimately decannulated with a median of 21 [15-34] days spent on cannula. Patients in the early group had shorter ICU and hospital stays (respectively 15 [12-19] versus 35 [25-47] days; p = 0.002, and 21 [16-28] versus 54 [35-72] days; p = 0.002) and spent less time on MV (respectively 17 [14-20] and 35 [27-43] days; p<0.001). Interestingly, patients in the percutaneous group had shorter hospital and rehabilitation center stays (respectively 44 [34-81] versus 92 [61-118] days; p = 0.012, and 24 [11-38] versus 45 [22-71] days; p = 0.045). Of the 30 (67%) patients examined by a head and neck surgeon, 17 (57%) had complications with unilateral laryngeal palsy (n = 5) being the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy seems to be a safe procedure that could help ICU organization by delegating work to a separate team and favoring patient turnover by allowing faster transfer to step-down units. Following guidelines alone was found sufficient to prevent the risk of aerosolization and contamination of healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Personnel, Hospital , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25518, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has necessitated the implementation of innovative health care models in preparation for an influx of patients. A virtual ward model delivers clinical care remotely to patients in isolation. We report on an Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19 treated in a virtual ward. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the safety and efficacy of a virtual ward model of care for an Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective clinical assessment was performed for 223 patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated in a virtual ward in Brisbane, Australia, from March 25 to May 15, 2020. Statistical analysis was performed for variables associated with the length of stay and hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 223 patients, 205 (92%) recovered without the need for escalation to hospital care. The median length of stay in the virtual ward was 8 days (range 1-44 days). In total, 18 (8%) patients were referred to hospital, of which 6 (33.3%) were discharged after assessment at the emergency department. Furthermore, 12 (5.4%) patients were admitted to hospital, of which 4 (33.3%) required supplemental oxygen and 2 (16.7%) required mechanical ventilation. No deaths were recorded. Factors associated with escalation to hospital care were the following: hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% CI 1.28-9.87; P=.01), sputum production (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.74-15.49; P=.001), and arthralgia (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.21-11.71; P=.02) at illness onset and a polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold of ≤20 on a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.25-19.63; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a virtual ward model of care to treat patients with COVID-19 is safe and efficacious, and only a small number of patients would potentially require escalation to hospital care. Further studies are required to validate this model of care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Australia , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Disease Management , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Assessment , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Telephone , Young Adult
11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 402-409, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high burden on the healthcare system. Prediction models may assist in triaging patients. We aimed to assess the value of several prediction models in COVID-19 patients in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: In this retrospective study, ED patients with COVID-19 were included. Prediction models were selected based on their feasibility. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality, secondary outcomes were 14-day mortality and a composite outcome of 30-day mortality and admission to medium care unit (MCU) or intensive care unit (ICU). The discriminatory performance of the prediction models was assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: We included 403 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 23.6%, 14-day mortality was 19.1%, 66 patients (16.4%) were admitted to ICU, 48 patients (11.9%) to MCU, and 152 patients (37.7%) met the composite endpoint. Eleven prediction models were included. The RISE UP score and 4 C mortality scores showed very good discriminatory performance for 30-day mortality (AUC 0.83 and 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.88 for both), significantly higher than that of the other models. CONCLUSION: The RISE UP score and 4 C mortality score can be used to recognise patients at high risk for poor outcome and may assist in guiding decision-making and allocating resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26257, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, an initial risk-adapted allocation is crucial for managing medical resources and providing intensive care. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify factors that predict the overall survival rate for COVID-19 cases and develop a COVID-19 prognosis score (COPS) system based on these factors. In addition, disease severity and the length of hospital stay for patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a nationwide cohort of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases between January and April 2020 in Korea. The cohort was split randomly into a development cohort and a validation cohort with a 2:1 ratio. In the development cohort (n=3729), we tried to identify factors associated with overall survival and develop a scoring system to predict the overall survival rate by using parameters identified by the Cox proportional hazard regression model with bootstrapping methods. In the validation cohort (n=1865), we evaluated the prediction accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The score of each variable in the COPS system was rounded off following the log-scaled conversion of the adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Among the 5594 patients included in this analysis, 234 (4.2%) died after receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis. In the development cohort, six parameters were significantly related to poor overall survival: older age, dementia, chronic renal failure, dyspnea, mental disturbance, and absolute lymphocyte count <1000/mm3. The following risk groups were formed: low-risk (score 0-2), intermediate-risk (score 3), high-risk (score 4), and very high-risk (score 5-7) groups. The COPS system yielded an area under the curve value of 0.918 for predicting the 14-day survival rate and 0.896 for predicting the 28-day survival rate in the validation cohort. Using the COPS system, 28-day survival rates were discriminatively estimated at 99.8%, 95.4%, 82.3%, and 55.1% in the low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively, of the total cohort (P<.001). The length of hospital stay and disease severity were directly associated with overall survival (P<.001), and the hospital stay duration was significantly longer among survivors (mean 26.1, SD 10.7 days) than among nonsurvivors (mean 15.6, SD 13.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed predictive COPS system may assist in making risk-adapted decisions for the allocation of medical resources, including intensive care, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
13.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 68(9): 621-627, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575090

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is characterized by various clinical manifestations, mainly respiratory involvement. Disease-related malnutrition is associated with impaired respiratory function and increased all-cause morbidity and mortality. Patients with COVID-19 infection carry a high nutritional risk. After designing a specific nutritional support protocol for this disease, we carried out a retrospective study on malnutrition and on the use of nutritional support in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to determine whether nutritional support positively affected hospital stay, clinical complications, and mortality in patients with COVID-19. We compared the results with those of standard nutritional management. Our secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 and the value of nutritional support in the hospital where the study was performed. RESULTS: At least 60% of patients with COVID-19 experience malnutrition (up to 78.66% presented at least 1 of the parameters studied). The specialized nutritional support protocol was indicated in only 21 patients (28%) and was started early in only 12 patients (16%). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients managed with the early protocol (5.09 days, 95% CI, 1.338-8.853, p<0.01). Similarly, in this group, respiratory distress was less severe and less frequent (41% vs 82.5%, p<0.007), and statistically significantly fewer complications were recorded (9/12 vs 91/63; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with high rates of disease-related malnutrition. Early implementation of a specialized nutritional support plan can improve the prognosis of these patients by reducing hospital stay, the possibility of more severe respiratory distress, and complications in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Nutritional Support , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Humans , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
14.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(4): 715-725, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561175

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected infection control and prevention measures. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on postoperative infections and infection control measures in patients underwent gastrointestinal surgery for malignancies. We retrospectively evaluated changes in clinicopathological features, frequency of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use, frequency of postoperative complications, and microbial findings among our patients in February-May in 2019 (Control group) and 2020 (Pandemic group), respectively. Surgical resection in pathological stage III or IV patients was more frequently performed in the Pandemic group than in the Control group (P = 0.02). The total length of hospitalization and preoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter in the Pandemic group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively). During the pandemic, hand sanitizer was used by a patients for an average of 14.9±3.0 times/day during the pandemic as opposed to 9.6±3.0 times/day in 2019 (p<0.0001). Superficial surgical site infection and infectious colitis occurred less frequently during the pandemic (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0002, respectively). In Pandemic group, Enterobacter, Haemophilus, and Candida were significantly decreased in microbiological cultures (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P = 0.02, respectively) compared with Control group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in Streptococcus from drainage cultures was observed in the Pandemic group (P < 0.05). During the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in nosocomial infections was observed in the presence of an increase in alcohol-based hand sanitizer use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Hand Sanitizers , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(237): 490-493, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554618

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergency Department overcrowding has become worsening problem internationally which may affect patient, emergency department efficiency and quality of care and this may lead to increased risk of in hospital mortality, higher costs, medical errors and longer times to treatment. With this pandemic COVID-19 likely to go on for months, if not a year or longer, the Emergency Department should be prepared for large influx of patients infected with COVID-19. The aim of this study is to find-out the length of stay in emergency department during COVID-19 pandemic at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Emergency Department of Kanti Children's Hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional review committee Kanti Children's Hospital. Data collection was done from the emergency records from July 23, 2020 to July 29, 2020. The calculated sample size was 211. The data thus obtained was entered in Statistical Package for the Social Science software version 20 and necessary calculations were done. RESULTS: The median length of stay in emergency department was found to be 1.75 hours (Interquartile range 0 to 30 hours). CONCLUSIONS: Definitive management starts in respective wards and Intensive Care Units. During COVID-19, with longer emergency stay, chances of cross-infection increases, and the health workers serving in emergency department will be at risks. So guidelines for shorter emergency stay should be implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
17.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(11): e365, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552170

ABSTRACT

This letter describes the experience of long-stay patients and provides a perspective of the need for more studies on outliers' impact on health care.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Teaching , Colombia , Humans , Length of Stay
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(25): 2550-2560, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regional heart attack services have improved clinical outcomes following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by facilitating early reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early discharge after primary PCI is welcomed by patients and increases efficiency of health care. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of a novel early hospital discharge pathway for low-risk STEMI patients. METHODS: Between March 2020 and June 2021, 600 patients who were deemed at low risk for early major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were selected for inclusion in the pathway and were successfully discharged in <48 hours. Patients were reviewed by a structured telephone follow-up at 48 hours after discharge by a cardiac rehabilitation nurse and underwent a virtual follow-up at 2, 6, and 8 weeks and at 3 months. RESULTS: The median length of hospital stay was 24.6 hours (interquartile range [IQR]: 22.7-30.0 hours) (prepathway median: 65.9 hours [IQR: 48.1-120.2 hours]). After discharge, all patients were contacted, with none lost to follow-up. During median follow-up of 271 days (IQR: 88-318 days), there were 2 deaths (0.33%), both caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (>30 days after discharge), with 0% cardiovascular mortality and MACE rates of 1.2%. This finding compared favorably with a historical group of 700 patients meeting pathway criteria who remained in the hospital for >48 hours (>48-hour control group) (mortality, 0.7%; MACE, 1.9%) both in unadjusted and propensity-matched analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Selected low-risk patients can be discharged safely following successful primary PCI by using a pathway that is supported by a structured, multidisciplinary virtual follow-up schedule.


Subject(s)
Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6619-6627, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544307

ABSTRACT

Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza viruses cause similar clinical presentations. It is essential to assess severely ill patients presenting with a viral syndrome for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We aimed to compare clinical and biochemical features between pneumonia patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and H1N1. Sixty patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and 61 patients diagnosed with influenza pneumonia were hospitalized between October 2020-January 2021 and October 2017-December 2019, respectively. All the clinical data and laboratory results, chest computed tomography scans, intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. The median age was 65 (range 32-96) years for patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis and 58 (range 18-83) years for patients with influenza (p = 0.002). The comorbidity index was significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 (p = 0.010). Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were statistically significantly more common in patients with COVID-19 (p = 0.019, p = 0.008, respectively). The distribution of severe disease and mortality was not significantly different among patients with COVID-19 than influenza patients (p = 0.096, p = 0.049).). In comparison with inflammation markers; C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in influenza patients than patients with COVID-19 (p = 0.033). The presence of sputum was predictive for influenza (odds ratio [OR] 0.342 [95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1.130-0.899]). CRP and platelet were also predictive for COVID-19 (OR 4.764 [95% CI, 1.003-1.012] and OR 0.991 [95% CI 0.984-0.998], respectively. We conclude that sputum symptoms by itself are much more detected in influenza patients. Besides that, lower CRP and higher PLT count would be discriminative for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544346

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Atypical Bacterial Forms/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , India , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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