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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e27888, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, US hospitals relied on static projections of future trends for long-term planning and were only beginning to consider forecasting methods for short-term planning of staffing and other resources. With the overwhelming burden imposed by COVID-19 on the health care system, an emergent need exists to accurately forecast hospitalization needs within an actionable timeframe. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to leverage an existing COVID-19 case and death forecasting tool to generate the expected number of concurrent hospitalizations, occupied intensive care unit (ICU) beds, and in-use ventilators 1 day to 4 weeks in the future for New Mexico and each of its five health regions. METHODS: We developed a probabilistic model that took as input the number of new COVID-19 cases for New Mexico from Los Alamos National Laboratory's COVID-19 Forecasts Using Fast Evaluations and Estimation tool, and we used the model to estimate the number of new daily hospital admissions 4 weeks into the future based on current statewide hospitalization rates. The model estimated the number of new admissions that would require an ICU bed or use of a ventilator and then projected the individual lengths of hospital stays based on the resource need. By tracking the lengths of stay through time, we captured the projected simultaneous need for inpatient beds, ICU beds, and ventilators. We used a postprocessing method to adjust the forecasts based on the differences between prior forecasts and the subsequent observed data. Thus, we ensured that our forecasts could reflect a dynamically changing situation on the ground. RESULTS: Forecasts made between September 1 and December 9, 2020, showed variable accuracy across time, health care resource needs, and forecast horizon. Forecasts made in October, when new COVID-19 cases were steadily increasing, had an average accuracy error of 20.0%, while the error in forecasts made in September, a month with low COVID-19 activity, was 39.7%. Across health care use categories, state-level forecasts were more accurate than those at the regional level. Although the accuracy declined as the forecast was projected further into the future, the stated uncertainty of the prediction improved. Forecasts were within 5% of their stated uncertainty at the 50% and 90% prediction intervals at the 3- to 4-week forecast horizon for state-level inpatient and ICU needs. However, uncertainty intervals were too narrow for forecasts of state-level ventilator need and all regional health care resource needs. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time forecasting of the burden imposed by a spreading infectious disease is a crucial component of decision support during a public health emergency. Our proposed methodology demonstrated utility in providing near-term forecasts, particularly at the state level. This tool can aid other stakeholders as they face COVID-19 population impacts now and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Health Planning/methods , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , COVID-19/mortality , Equipment and Supplies , Forecasting , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Models, Statistical , New Mexico , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surge Capacity
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
3.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 21(4): 161, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190900
4.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1799-1808, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze functional recovery groups of critically ill COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and to identify the associated factors. DESIGN: Prospective observational multicenter study. SETTING: Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables were collected, and physical and functional status were evaluated. The Barthel index was evaluated at three time points: 15 days before hospitalization, at ICU discharge, and at hospital discharge from the ward. PATIENTS: Patients with functional independence before COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited from four hospitals and followed up until hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three groups of functional recovery were described for 328 patients: functional independence ( n = 144; 44%), which included patients who preserved their functional status during hospitalization; recovered functionality ( n = 109; 33.2%), which included patients who showed dependence at ICU discharge but recovered their independence by hospital discharge; and functional dependency ( n = 75; 22.8%), which included patients who were dependent at ICU discharge and had not recovered their functional status at hospital discharge. The factors associated with becoming functionally dependent at ICU discharge were time to out-of-bed patient mobilization (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.29), age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), hyperglycemia (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.56-4.07), and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (OR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04). Recovery to baseline independence during ward stays was associated with ICU length of stay (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council test) at ICU discharge (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Age, hyperglycemia, and time for patient mobilization out of bed were independent factors associated with becoming physically dependent after their ICU stay. Recovery of physical function at hospital discharge was associated with muscle strength at ICU discharge and length of ICU stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Patient Discharge , Intensive Care Units , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Length of Stay , Hospitals
5.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(10): 2683-2687, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2171078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With a stretched healthcare system and elective surgery backlog, measures to improve efficiency and decrease costs associated with surgical procedures need to be prioritized. This study compares the benefits of multi-disciplinary involvement in an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol-led overnight model following total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: Patients in each of two private hospitals undergoing THR or TKR were prospectively enrolled. One hospital (Overnight) was fully committed to the ERAS protocol implementation on all levels and formed the treatment group while in the other hospital (control), patients only had the anaesthetic and operative procedure as part of the ERAS protocol but did not follow the perioperative measures of the protocol. Outcomes on hospital length of stay (LOS), inpatient rehabilitation, functional outcomes, satisfaction, adverse events and readmission rates were investigated. RESULTS: Median LOS in the Overnight group was significantly smaller than in the control group (1 vs. 3 days, P < 0.0001). The Overnight group had lower rates of inpatient rehabilitation utilization (4% vs. 41.2%, P < 0.0001), similar improvements in functional hip and knee scores and no increased rate of adverse events or readmission. All patients in both groups were satisfied with their treatment. CONCLUSION: Overnight THR and TKR can safely be performed in the majority of patients, with a multi-disciplinary approach protocol and involvement of all perioperative stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/rehabilitation , Australia , Humans , Knee Joint/surgery , Length of Stay
6.
J Burn Care Res ; 42(2): 135-140, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152044

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 obliged many countries to apply lockdown policies to contain the spread of infection. The restrictions in Israel included limitations on movement, reduction of working capacity, and closure of the educational system. The present study focused on patients treated at a referral center for burns in northern Israel. Their goal was to investigate temporal variations in burn injuries during this period. Data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of burn patients treated at our hospital between March 14, 2020 and April 20, 2020 (ie, the period of aggravated lockdown). Data from this period were compared with that from paralleling periods between 2017 and 2019. During the lockdown and paralleling periods, 178 patients were treated for burn injuries, of whom 44% were under 18. Although no restrictions were enforced during the virus outbreak period with regard to seeking medical care, we noticed a decrease in the number of patients admitted to the emergency room for all reasons. Of particular interest was a 66% decrease in the number of adult burn patients (P < .0001). Meanwhile, among the pediatric population, no significant decrease was observed. Nonetheless, subgroups with higher susceptibility to burn injuries included children aged 2 to 5 years (56.3% vs 23.8%, P = .016) and female patients from all pediatric age groups (57.1% vs 25%, P = .027). These findings may be explained by the presumably busier kitchen and dining areas during the lockdown. Overall, the study results can assist with building a stronger understanding of varying burn injuries and with developing educational and preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
Burns/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Burn Units/organization & administration , Burns/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Infant , Israel , Male , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964398, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141997

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess whether convalescent plasma therapy could offer survival advantages for patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An electronic search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane library and MedRxiv was performed from January 1st, 2020 to April 1st, 2022. We included studies containing patients with COVID-19 and treated with CCP. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and synthesized with a random-effect analysis model. The primary outcome was 28-d mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, ventilation-free days, 14-d mortality, improvements of symptoms, progression of diseases and requirements of mechanical ventilation. Safety outcomes included the incidence of all adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). The Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool 2.0 was used to assess the potential risk of bias in eligible studies. The heterogeneity of results was assessed by I^2 test and Q statistic test. The possibility of publication bias was assessed by conducting Begg and Egger test. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) method were used for quality of evidence. This study had been registered on PROSPERO, CRD42021273608. 32 RCTs comprising 21478 patients with Covid-19 were included. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 patients receiving CCP were not associated with significantly reduced 28-d mortality (CCP 20.0% vs control 20.8%; risk ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.02; p = 0.16; I² = 8%). For all secondary outcomes, there were no significant differences between CCP group and control group. The incidence of AEs (26.9% vs 19.4%,; risk ratio 1.14; 95% CI 0.99-01.31; p = 0.06; I² = 38%) and SAEs (16.3% vs 13.5%; risk ratio 1.03; 95% CI 0.87-1.20; p = 0.76; I² = 42%) tended to be higher in the CCP group compared to the control group, while the differences did not reach statistical significance. In all, CCP therapy was not related to significantly improved 28-d mortality or symptoms recovery, and should not be viewed as a routine treatment for COVID-19 patients. Trial registration number: CRD42021273608. Registration on February 28, 2022. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, Identifier CRD42022313265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial/methods
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1002834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141737

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a common comorbidity among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Diabetic patients with COVID-19 have a two-fold increased risk of death and tend to have more severe infection compared to the general population. Metformin, a first-line medication for diabetes management, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Previous studies focusing on metformin and COVID-19 clinical outcomes have had mixed results, with some showing a mortality benefit or decreased complications with metformin use. To date, few studies have analyzed such outcomes among a diverse, multiracial community. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients with Type 2 diabetes and a confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an urban academic medical center from January 1, 2020 to May 7, 2020. Baseline characteristics were collected. The primary outcomes of the study were in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). Results: A total of 4462 patients with Type 2 diabetes and confirmed COVID-19 were identified. 41.3% were Black, and 41.5% were Hispanic. There were 1021 patients in the metformin group and 3441 in the non-metformin group. Of note, more participants in the metformin group had comorbid disease and/or advanced diabetes. We found no statistically significant differences between the metformin and non-metformin group in in-hospital mortality (28.1% vs 25.3%, P=0.08) or length of hospital stay in days (7.3 vs. 7.5, P=0.59), even after matching patients on various factors (29.3% vs. 29.6%, P=0.87; 7.7 vs. 8.1, P=0.23). Conclusion: While patients had more comorbid disease and advanced diabetes in the metformin group, there were no significant differences with regard to in-hospital mortality or length of stay due to COVID-19 compared to the non-metformin group. Prospective studies are needed to determine if there is clinical benefit for initiating, continuing, or re-initiating metformin in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Length of Stay , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
10.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12 Suppl 2): 4-15, 2021 12.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141069

ABSTRACT

Minimization of hospital lengths of stay has always been a key goal for healthcare systems. More so during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In fact, we have faced a reduction in no-COVID-19 admissions with the generation of huge backlogs. Low-risk patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be candidate for short-term hospitalization, with consequent reduction of waiting lists. Several single-center and multicenter observational studies, multiple randomized trials and some meta-analyses have addressed this topic.In this position paper, we present a proposal for short hospitalization for elective PCI procedures in selected patients who present complications only exceptionally and exclusively immediately after the procedure, if the inclusion and exclusion criteria are met. Each Center can choose between admission in day surgery or one day surgery, extending hospital length of stay only for patients who present complications or who are candidate for urgent surgery. Short-term hospitalization considerably reduces costs even if, with the current model, it generally results in a parallel reduction in reimbursement. Hence, we present an actual model, already tested successfully in an Italian hospital, that warrants sustainability. This approach can then be tailored to single Centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics/prevention & control , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 877, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are a common complication in patients with seasonal viral respiratory tract infections and are associated with poor prognosis, increased risk of intensive care unit admission and 29-55% mortality. Yet, there is limited data on the burden of bacterial infections among COVID-19 patients in Africa, where underdeveloped healthcare systems are likely to play a pertinent role in the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we evaluated the etiologies, antimicrobial resistance profiles, risk factors, and outcomes of bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted in severely ill COVID-19 patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, from October to December 2021. We used a structured questionnaire and case report forms to collect sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and hospitalization outcome data. Blood, nasal/oropharyngeal swabs and tracheal aspirate samples were collected based on the patient's clinical presentation and transported to the Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory for immediate processing following the standard bacteriological procedures. RESULTS: We found at least one bacterial infection in 44.2% (53/120) of the patients sampled, with a 31.7% mortality rate. Pathogens were mainly from the upper respiratory tract (62.7%, 42/67), with gram-negative bacteria dominating (73.1%, 49/67). Males were about three times more likely to acquire bacterial infection (p = 0.015). Those aged 25 to 44 years (p = 0.009), immunized against SARS-CoV-2 (p = 0.027), and admitted to the infectious disease unit ward (p = 0.031) for a short length of stay (0-5 days, p < 0.001) were more likely to have a positive outcome. Multidrug-resistant isolates were the majority (64.3%, 46/67), mainly gram-negative bacteria (69.6%, 32/46). The predominant multidrug-resistant phenotypes were in Enterococcus cloacae (42.9%, 3/7), Klebsiella pneumonia (25%, 4/16), and Escherichia coli (40%, 2/5). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients, with male gender as a risk factor for bacterial infection. Elderly Patients, non-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, intensive care unit admission, and long length of hospital stay were associated with poor outcomes. There is a need to emphasize strict adherence to infection and prevention at KNH-IDU and antimicrobial stewardship in line with local and global AMR control action plans.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Length of Stay , Referral and Consultation
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20345, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133604

ABSTRACT

To determine if lockdown measures imposed during the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic affected trauma patterns, volumes, and outcomes in a western Canadian level 1 trauma center, we performed a retrospective cohort study assessing level 1 and 2 trauma patients presenting to our center during the initial COVID19 "lockdown" period (March 15-June 14, 2020) compared to a similar cohort of patients presenting during a "control" period 1 year prior (March 15-June 14, 2019). Overall, we saw a 7.8% reduction in trauma volumes during the lockdown period, and this was associated with a shorter average ED length of stay (6.2 ± 4.7 h vs. 9.7 ± 11.8 h, p = 0.003), reduced time to computed tomography (88.5 ± 68.2 min vs. 105.1 ± 65.5 min, p < 0.001), a reduction in intensive care unit admissions (11.0 ± 4.9% vs. 20.0 ± 15.5%, p = 0.001), and higher injury severity score (6.5 ± 7.6 vs. 6.2 ± 9.5, p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that lockdown measures imposed during the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic had a significant impact on trauma patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Length of Stay , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(21): 8144-8151, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The effect of pulmonary complications of COVID-19, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema, is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between COVID-19 and spontaneous pneumothorax. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted as a single-center retrospective study. Groups were assigned as study and control groups. The study group (n=120) included patients who were followed up in ICU and developed pneumothorax during their follow-up. The control group (n=120) included patients who did not develop a pneumothorax in ICU and who had been randomly selected using hospital records. Demographic findings, laboratory parameters, radiological findings, clinical management, patients' follow-up patterns, and survival status of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between gender, outcome, last hospitalization, general condition, first follow-up, intubation, uptake tomography, uptake rate, CO-RADS, and involvement variables between groups (p<0.05). In the survival analysis performed in the control and study groups, a significant difference was obtained between the averages of the two groups (LogRank=3.944, p<0.05). Intubation and mortality rates of the patients who developed pneumothorax during the patient follow-ups were significantly higher than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who developed pneumothorax during intensive care follow-up had a higher hospital stay and intubation rate. The pneumothorax rate was also higher in follow-up methods such as noninvasive/HFO providing PEEP to the patients. The data in our study may help reducing mortality by shedding light on the early prevention and recognition of pneumothorax in critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Length of Stay
14.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 31(12): 2457-2464, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 triggered disruption in the conventional care pathways for many orthopedic procedures. The current study aims to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on shoulder arthroplasty hospital surgical volume, trends in surgical case distribution, length of hospitalization, posthospital disposition, and 30-day readmission rates. METHODS: This study queried all Medicare (100% sample) fee-for-service beneficiaries who underwent a shoulder arthroplasty procedure (Diagnosis-Related Group code 483, Current Procedural Terminology code 23472) from January 1, 2019, to December 18, 2020. Fracture cases were separated from nonfracture cases, which were further subdivided into anatomic or reverse arthroplasty. Volume per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries was calculated from April to December 2020 and compared to the same months in 2019. Length of stay (LOS), discharged-home rate, and 30-day readmission for the same period were obtained. The yearly difference adjusted for age, sex, race (white vs. nonwhite), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hierarchical Condition Category risk score, month fixed effects, and Core-Based Statistical Area fixed effects, with standard errors clustered at the provider level, was calculated using a multivariate analysis (P < .05). RESULTS: A total of 49,412 and 41,554 total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) cases were observed April through December for 2019 and 2020, respectively. There was an overall decrease in shoulder arthroplasty volume per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries by 14% (19% reduction in anatomic TSA, 13% reduction in reverse shoulder arthroplasty, and 3% reduction in fracture cases). LOS for all shoulder arthroplasty cases decreased by 16% (-0.27 days, P < .001) when adjusted for confounders. There was a 5% increase in the discharged-home rate (88.0% to 92.7%, P < .001), which was most prominent in fracture cases, with a 20% increase in discharged-home cases (65.0% to 73.4%, P < .001). There was no significant change in 30-day hospital readmission rates overall (P = .20) or when broken down by individual procedures. CONCLUSIONS: There was an overall decrease in shoulder arthroplasty volume per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries by 14% during the COVID-19 pandemic. A decrease in LOS and increase in the discharged-home rates was also observed with no significant change in 30-day hospital readmission, indicating that a shift toward an outpatient surgical model can be performed safely and efficiently and has the potential to provide value.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medicare , Postoperative Care , Pandemics , Patient Readmission , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 226, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the timing of the application of mechanical ventilation among patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is insufficient. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of early intubation compared to late intubation in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. METHODS: For this study, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases as well as one Korean domestic database on July 15, 2021. We updated the search monthly from September 10, 2021 to February 10, 2022. Studies that compared early intubation with late intubation in patients with severe COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion. Relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) were calculated as measures of effect using the random-effects model for the pooled estimates of in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), hospital LOS, ICU-free days, and ventilator-free days. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the definition of early intubation and the index time. To assess the risk of bias in the included studies, we used the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized studies 2.0. RESULTS: Of the 1523 records identified, 12 cohort studies, involving 2843 patients with severe COVID-19 were eligible. There were no differences in in-hospital mortality (8 studies, n = 795; RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75-1.10, P = 0.32, I2 = 33%), LOS in the ICU (9 studies, n = 978; MD -1.77 days, 95% CI -4.61 to 1.07 days, P = 0.22, I2 = 78%), MV duration (9 studies, n = 1,066; MD -0.03 day, 95% CI -1.79 to 1.72 days, P = 0.97, I2 = 49%), ICU-free days (1 study, n = 32; 0 day vs. 0 day; P = 0.39), and ventilator-free days (4 studies, n = 344; MD 0.94 day, 95% CI -4.56 to 6.43 days, P = 0.74, I2 = 54%) between the early and late intubation groups. However, the early intubation group had significant advantage in terms of hospital LOS (6 studies, n = 738; MD -4.32 days, 95% CI -7.20 to -1.44 days, P = 0.003, I2 = 45%). CONCLUSION: This study showed no significant difference in both primary and secondary outcomes between the early intubation and late intubation groups. Trial registration This study was registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews on 16 February, 2022 (registration number CRD42022311122).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Intubation, Intratracheal
16.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 30(22): e1474-e1482, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic has continued to generate notable disruption in elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any difference in patient characteristics, revenue, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing THA and TKA after the start of the pandemic. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of 26,493 patients undergoing primary and revision THA and TKA by 48 surgeons in a single arthroplasty practice. We compared demographics, comorbidities, outcomes, and surgeon revenue from THA and TKA procedures from March 2020 to February 2021 with a prepandemic group undergoing a procedure from March 2019 to February 2020. RESULTS: There was a 20% decline in the volume of all cases in the pandemic group ( 11,688 versus 14,664 , P < 0.001). The postpandemic cohort had shorter length of stay (1.58 versus 1.70 days, P = 0.007), had higher rates of home discharge (98% versus 91%, P < 0.001), and were more likely to have their procedure done at an outpatient facility (21% versus 7%, P < 0.001). Even among patients older than 65 years, more pandemic patients underwent a procedure as an outpatient (19% versus 7%, P < 0.001), with no difference in complications or readmissions. Total surgeon charges and payments declined by 17.6% and 16.3%, respectively, during the pandemic ( P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Although the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a notable reduction in surgical volume and revenue loss for our practice, we found a marked shift of arthroplasty patients to outpatient facilities with increased rates of home discharge without compromising patient safety.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Pandemics , Patient Readmission , Length of Stay , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
17.
Orthopade ; 51(5): 385-394, 2022 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798515

ABSTRACT

No appeal by a health politician, no matter how insistent, has ever forced all the operational structures of our health-care system to examine their own efficiencies and cost reduction potentials as has SARS-CoV­2. Fast-track surgery, developed long before the current pandemic, can become an indispensable element of modern hospital routines through the integration of interlocked care structures. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcome can be improved by significantly shortening hospital stays, decreasing complication rates, and by additionally strengthening the competence and motivation of the patients involved. Hospital staff could be relieved of heavy workloads, and overall costs could be reduced by involving external prehabilitation centers. It is now necessary to further develop standards for the establishment and implementation of appropriately coordinated prehabilitation and rehabilitation concepts for elective total hip and knee replacement surgery and, ideally, to save resources at the same time through regional networking and integration.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/rehabilitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Outpatients , Preoperative Exercise , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 820-825, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from those caused by common viruses. Early isolation and containment is challenging. Although screening all patients with respiratory symptoms for COVID-19 has been recommended, the practicality of such an effort has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Over a 6-week period during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, our institution introduced a "respiratory surveillance ward" (RSW) to segregate all patients with respiratory symptoms in designated areas, where appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) could be utilized until SARS-CoV-2 testing was done. Patients could be transferred when SARS-CoV-2 tests were negative on 2 consecutive occasions, 24 hours apart. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,178 patients were admitted to the RSWs. The mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.89 days (SD, 1.23). Among confirmed cases of pneumonia admitted to the RSW, 5 of 310 patients (1.61%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This finding was comparable to the pickup rate from our isolation ward. In total, 126 HCWs were potentially exposed to these cases; however, only 3 (2.38%) required quarantine because most used appropriate PPE. In addition, 13 inpatients overlapped with the index cases during their stay in the RSW; of these 13 exposed inpatients, 1 patient subsequently developed COVID-19 after exposure. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. However, this method was resource-intensive in terms of testing and bed capacity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 170, 2022 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. During the pandemic, to contain the spread of COVID-19, there were some integral changes in the medical processes based on the pandemic prevention policy, especially regarding emergency surgery. This study was conducted to investigate whether this pandemic also impacted the decision-making for both patients and medical personnel along with the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Patients of age 18 years or older who were diagnosed clinically and radiologically with acute appendicitis between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 202,0 were reviewed. The data of 1991 cases were collected and used for this study. Two groups were formed, one group before and the other group after the outbreak. The gathered data included gender, age, appendiceal fecalith, outcomes of treatment, and long-term outcomes of non-operation (8 months follow-up). We also collected details of surgical cases from the above two groups. This data also included age, gender, appendiceal fecalith, fever, jaundice, length of onset before presenting to an emergency department (ED), anesthesia, surgery, white cell count, pathology, complications, and length of stay. We compared the above data respectively and analyzed the differences. RESULTS: Compared to the period before the outbreak, patient visits for acute appendicitis remarkably dropped (19.8%), but surgical cases showed no change (dropped by roughly 5%). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in failure of non-operation(after the pandemic 8.31% vs. before pandemic 3.22%), interval appendectomy(after pandemic 6.29% vs. before pandemic 12.84%), recurrence(after pandemic 23.27% vs. before pandemic 14.46%), and outcomes of recurrence. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in anesthesia method, surgery way, and complications( before pandemic 4.15% vs. after pandemic9.89% P < 0.05) in patients who underwent the surgery. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) concerning age, gender, fever, jaundice, appendiceal fecalith, white cell count, and length of onset before presenting to the ED. CONCLUSION: The current pandemic prevention policy is very effective, but some decision-making processes of doctor-patient have changed in the context of COVID-19 pandemic, that further influenced some treatment outcomes and might lead to a potential economic burden. It is essential to address the undue concern of everyone and optimize the treatment process.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Fecal Impaction , Humans , Infant , Adolescent , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Fecal Impaction/epidemiology , Appendectomy/methods , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Length of Stay
20.
Surg Endosc ; 36(11): 7898-7914, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) have continued to evolve, the length of hospitalization (LOS) following elective minimally invasive colorectal surgery has continued to decline. Further refinements in multimodal perioperative pain management strategies have resulted in reduced opioid consumption. The interest in ambulatory colectomy has dramatically accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe restrictions in hospital capacity and fear of COVID transmission forced surgical teams to rethink strategies to further reduce length of inpatient stay. METHODS: Members of the SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee began reviewing the emergence of SDD protocols and early publications for SDD in 2019. The authors met at regular intervals during 2020-2022 period reviewing SDD protocols, safe patient selection criteria, surrogates for postoperative monitoring, and early outcomes. RESULTS: Early experience with SDD protocols for elective, minimally invasive colorectal surgery suggests that SDD is feasible and safe in well-selected patients and procedures. SDD protocols are associated with reduced opioid use and prescribing. Patient perception and experience with SDD is favourable. For early adopters, SDD has been the natural evolution of well-developed ERPs. Like all ERPs, SDD begins in the office setting, identifying the correct patient and procedure, aligning goals and objectives, and the perioperative education of the patient and their supporting significant others. A thorough discussion with the patient regarding expected activity levels, oral intake, and pain control post operatively lays the foundation for a successful application of SDD programs. These observations may not apply to all patient populations, institutions, practice types, or within the scope of an existing ERP. However, if the underlying principles of SDD can be incorporated into an existing institutional ERP, it may further reduce the incidence of post operative ileus, prolonged LOS, and improve the effectiveness of oral analgesia for postoperative pain management and reduced opioid use and prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: The SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee has performed a comprehensive review of the early experience with SDD. This manuscript summarizes SDD early results and considerations for safe and stepwise implementation of SDD with a specific focus on ERP evolution, patient selection, remote monitoring, and other relevant considerations based on hospital settings and surgical practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Colectomy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Patient Selection , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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