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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3629, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730316

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed health care systems in many countries and bed availability has become a concern. In this context, the present study aimed to analyze the hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) times in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The study covered 55,563 ICU admissions and 238,075 hospitalizations in Brazilian Health System units from February 22, 2020, to June 7, 2021. All the patients had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. The symptoms analyzed included: fever, dyspnea, low oxygen saturation (SpO2 < 95%), cough, respiratory distress, fatigue, sore throat, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of taste, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. We performed Cox regression in two models (ICU and hospitalization times). Hazard ratios (HRs) and survival curves were calculated by age group. The average stay was 14.4 days for hospitalized patients and 12.4 days for ICU patients. For hospitalized cases, the highest hazard mean values, with a positive correlation, were for symptoms of dyspnea (HR = 1.249; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.225-1.273) and low oxygen saturation (HR = 1.157; 95% CI 1.137-1.178). In the ICU, the highest hazard mean values were for respiratory discomfort (HR = 1.194; 95% CI 1.161-1.227) and abdominal pain (HR = 1.100; 95% CI 1.047-1.156). Survival decreased by an average of 2.27% per day for hospitalization and 3.27% per day for ICU stay. Survival by age group curves indicated that younger patients were more resistant to prolonged hospital stay than older patients. Hospitalization was also lower in younger patients. The mortality rate was higher in males than females. Symptoms related to the respiratory tract were associated with longer hospital stay. This is the first study carried out with a sample of 238,000 COVID-19 positive participants, covering the main symptoms and evaluating the hospitalization and ICU times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Young Adult
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6): 671-676, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724736

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 is the biggest challenge for national health systems for a century. While most medical resources are allocated to treat COVID-19 patients, several non-COVID-19 medical emergencies still need to be treated, including vertebral fractures and spinal cord compression. The aim of this paper is to report the early experience and an organizational protocol for emergency spinal surgery currently being used in a large metropolitan area by an integrated team of orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. METHODS: An organizational model is presented based on case centralization in hub hospitals and early management of surgical cases to reduce hospital stay. Data from all the patients admitted for emergency spinal surgery from the beginning of the outbreak were prospectively collected and compared to data from patients admitted for the same reason in the same time span in the previous year, and treated by the same integrated team. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients (11 males and eight females, with a mean age of 49.9 years (14 to 83)) were admitted either for vertebral fracture or spinal cord compression in a 19-day period, compared to the ten admitted in the previous year. No COVID-19 patients were treated. The mean time between admission and surgery was 1.7 days, significantly lower than 6.8 days the previous year (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The structural organization and the management protocol we describe allowed us to reduce the time to surgery and ultimately hospital stay, thereby maximizing the already stretched medical resources available. We hope that our early experience can be of value to the medical communities that will soon be in the same emergency situation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6):671-676.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Models, Organizational , Neurosurgical Procedures , Orthopedic Procedures , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral , Spinal Cord Compression/surgery , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Efficiency, Organizational , Emergencies , Female , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1488-1493, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718393

ABSTRACT

Interferons are an essential part of the innate immune system and have antiviral and immunomodulatory functions. We studied the effects of interferon ß-1a on the outcomes of severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This retrospective study was conducted on hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Loghman-Hakim hospital from February 20, 2020 to April 20, 2020, Tehran, Iran. Patients were selected from two groups, the first group received interferon ß-1a in addition to the standard treatment regimen, and the second group received standard care. The clinical progression of two groups during their hospital admission was compared. We studied a total number of 395 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Out of this number, 111 patients (33.5%) died (31.3% of the interferon ß-1a group and 34.1% of the control group). The mortality rate indicated no statistically significant difference between groups (p-value = 0.348), however for patients who were hospitalized for more than a week, the rate of mortality was lower in the interferon ß-1a group (p-value = 0.014). The median hospital stay was statistically longer for patients treated by interferon ß-1a (p-value < 0.001). The results of this study showed that interferon ß-1a can improve the outcomes of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, but more adequately-powered randomized controlled trials should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Iran , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
CMAJ ; 194(7): E242-E251, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients in hospital with COVID-19 remains ill defined in a global context. The World Health Organization Solidarity randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated remdesivir in patients across many countries, with Canada enrolling patients using an expanded data collection format in the Canadian Treatments for COVID-19 (CATCO) trial. We report on the Canadian findings, with additional demographics, characteristics and clinical outcomes, to explore the potential for differential effects across different health care systems. METHODS: We performed an open-label, pragmatic RCT in Canadian hospitals, in conjunction with the Solidarity trial. We randomized patients to 10 days of remdesivir (200 mg intravenously [IV] on day 0, followed by 100 mg IV daily), plus standard care, or standard care alone. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included changes in clinical severity, oxygen- and ventilator-free days (at 28 d), incidence of new oxygen or mechanical ventilation use, duration of hospital stay, and adverse event rates. We performed a priori subgroup analyses according to duration of symptoms before enrolment, age, sex and severity of symptoms on presentation. RESULTS: Across 52 Canadian hospitals, we randomized 1282 patients between Aug. 14, 2020, and Apr. 1, 2021, to remdesivir (n = 634) or standard of care (n = 648). Of these, 15 withdrew consent or were still in hospital, for a total sample of 1267 patients. Among patients assigned to receive remdesivir, in-hospital mortality was 18.7%, compared with 22.6% in the standard-of-care arm (relative risk [RR] 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 1.03), and 60-day mortality was 24.8% and 28.2%, respectively (95% CI 0.72 to 1.07). For patients not mechanically ventilated at baseline, the need for mechanical ventilation was 8.0% in those assigned remdesivir, and 15.0% in those receiving standard of care (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.75). Mean oxygen-free and ventilator-free days at day 28 were 15.9 (± standard deviation [SD] 10.5) and 21.4 (± SD 11.3) in those receiving remdesivir and 14.2 (± SD 11) and 19.5 (± SD 12.3) in those receiving standard of care (p = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively). There was no difference in safety events of new dialysis, change in creatinine, or new hepatic dysfunction between the 2 groups. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir, when compared with standard of care, has a modest but significant effect on outcomes important to patients and health systems, such as the need for mechanical ventilation. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04330690.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Canada/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Immunol ; 208(2): 321-327, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708204

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have demonstrated that 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) exerted key roles in various pulmonary diseases, but the evidence for its role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was lacking. The goal of this research was to evaluate the correlations of serum 8-OHdG with the severity and prognosis among patients with CAP through a prospective cohort study. A total of 239 patients with CAP and 239 healthy participants were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were collected. 8-OHdG and inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. On admission, serum 8-OHdG was significantly increased in patients with CAP compared with control subjects. Besides, serum 8-OHdG was incrementally increased in line with CAP severity scores. Pearson correlative analysis found that serum 8-OHdG was correlated with clinical characteristics and inflammatory cytokines in patients with CAP. Linear and logistic regression analysis showed that serum 8-OHdG was positively associated with CAP severity scores. Furthermore, the prognostic outcomes were tracked. Higher serum 8-OHdG on admission increased the risks for intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive agent usage, death, and longer hospital stay among patients with CAP. Serum 8-OHdG combination with confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥65 y or pneumonia severity index had stronger predictive powers for death than single 8-OHdG, CAP severity scores, or several inflammatory cytokines in patients with CAP. These results indicated that serum 8-OHdG is positively associated with the severity and poor prognosis in patients with CAP, demonstrating that 8-OHdG may be involved in the pathophysiology process of CAP.


Subject(s)
8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/pathology , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Cytokines/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
6.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 18, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different treatments have been used in critically ill patients. Using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been suggested in various studies as an effective option. Our study aims to access the efficacy of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective matched cohort study, records of three tertiary centers with a large number of COVID-19 admissions were evaluated and used. Based on treatment options, patients were divided into two groups, standard COVID-19 treatment (109 patients) and IVIG treatment (74 patients) patients. Also, the effect of IVIG in different dosages was evaluated. Patients with IVIG treatment were divided into three groups of low (0.25 gr/kg), medium (0.5 gr/kg), and high (1 gr/kg) dose. Data analysis was performed using an independent t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the outcomes between two groups, including duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and mortality rate. RESULTS: The duration of hospitalization in the IVIG group was significantly longer than standard treatment (13.74 days vs. 11.10 days, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in ICU length of stay, the number of intubated patients, and duration of mechanical ventilation (p > 0.05). Also, initial outcomes in IVIG subgroups were compared separately with the standard treatment group. The results indicated that only the duration of hospitalization in the IVIG subgroup with medium dose is significantly longer than the standard treatment group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the use of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients could not be beneficial, based on no remarkable differences in duration of hospitalization, ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and even mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
CMAJ ; 194(4): E112-E121, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disability-related considerations have largely been absent from the COVID-19 response, despite evidence that people with disabilities are at elevated risk for acquiring COVID-19. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with a disability compared with patients without a disability. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included adults with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital and discharged between Jan. 1, 2020, and Nov. 30, 2020, at 7 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We compared in-hospital death, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital length of stay and unplanned 30-day readmission among patients with and without a physical disability, hearing or vision impairment, traumatic brain injury, or intellectual or developmental disability, overall and stratified by age (≤ 64 and ≥ 65 yr) using multivariable regression, controlling for sex, residence in a long-term care facility and comorbidity. RESULTS: Among 1279 admissions to hospital for COVID-19, 22.3% had a disability. We found that patients with a disability were more likely to die than those without a disability (28.1% v. 17.6%), had longer hospital stays (median 13.9 v. 7.8 d) and more readmissions (17.6% v. 7.9%), but had lower ICU admission rates (22.5% v. 28.3%). After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences between those with and without disabilities for in-hospital death or admission to ICU. After adjustment, patients with a disability had longer hospital stays (rate ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.56) and greater risk of readmission (relative risk 1.77, 95% CI 1.14-2.75). In age-stratified analyses, we observed longer hospital stays among patients with a disability than in those without, in both younger and older subgroups; readmission risk was driven by younger patients with a disability. INTERPRETATION: Patients with a disability who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 had longer stays and elevated readmission risk than those without disabilities. Disability-related needs should be addressed to support these patients in hospital and after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Female , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/epidemiology
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e21-e25, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684864

ABSTRACT

Comparing first and second wave MIS-C cohorts at our quaternary pediatric institution, second wave were older, presented more frequently with shortness of breath, higher maximum troponin and N-terminal BNP, and more frequently required advanced respiratory and inotropic support. Despite increased severity in the second cohort, both cohorts had similar rates of coronary artery abnormalities, systolic dysfunction, and length of stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Lancet ; 397(10289): 2049-2059, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients with COVID-19 have been treated with plasma containing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]) is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. The trial is underway at 177 NHS hospitals from across the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either usual care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus high-titre convalescent plasma (convalescent plasma group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, 50189673, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04381936. FINDINGS: Between May 28, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 11558 (71%) of 16287 patients enrolled in RECOVERY were eligible to receive convalescent plasma and were assigned to either the convalescent plasma group or the usual care group. There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups: 1399 (24%) of 5795 patients in the convalescent plasma group and 1408 (24%) of 5763 patients in the usual care group died within 28 days (rate ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·93-1·07; p=0·95). The 28-day mortality rate ratio was similar in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including in those patients without detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at randomisation. Allocation to convalescent plasma had no significant effect on the proportion of patients discharged from hospital within 28 days (3832 [66%] patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 3822 [66%] patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·94-1·03; p=0·57). Among those not on invasive mechanical ventilation at randomisation, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients meeting the composite endpoint of progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death (1568 [29%] of 5493 patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 1568 [29%] of 5448 patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·93-1·05; p=0·79). INTERPRETATION: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19, high-titre convalescent plasma did not improve survival or other prespecified clinical outcomes. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 381-390, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare postpartum hospitalization length of stay (LOS) and hospital readmission among obstetric patients before (March 2017-February 2020; prepandemic) and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (March 2020-February 2021). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using Epic Systems' Cosmos research platform, of obstetric patients who delivered between March 1, 2017, and February 28, 2021, at 20-44 weeks of gestation and were discharged within 7 days of delivery. The primary outcome was short postpartum hospitalization LOS (less than two midnights for vaginal births and less than three midnights for cesarean births) and secondary outcome was hospital readmission within 6 weeks of postpartum hospitalization discharge. Analyses compared outcomes before and during the pandemic using standardized differences and Bayesian logistic mixed-effects models, among all births and stratified by mode of delivery. RESULTS: Of the 994,268 obstetric patients in the study cohort, 742,113 (74.6%) delivered prepandemic and 252,155 (25.4%) delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the percentage of short postpartum hospitalizations increased among all births (28.7-44.5%), vaginal births (25.4-39.5%), and cesarean births (35.3-55.1%), which was consistent with the adjusted analysis (all births: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.35, 99% credible interval 2.32-2.39; vaginal births: aOR 2.14, 99% credible interval 2.11-2.18; cesarean births aOR 2.90, 99% credible interval 2.83-2.98). Although short postpartum hospitalizations were more common during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no change in readmission in the unadjusted (1.4% vs 1.6%, standardized difference=0.009) or adjusted (aOR 1.02, 99% credible interval 0.97-1.08) analyses for all births or when stratified by mode of delivery. CONCLUSION: Short postpartum hospitalization LOS was significantly more common during the COVID-19 pandemic for obstetric patients with no change in hospital readmissions within 6 weeks of postpartum hospitalization discharge. The COVID-19 pandemic created a natural experiment, suggesting shorter postpartum hospitalization may be reasonable for patients who are self-identified or health care professional-identified as appropriate for discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Postnatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
11.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 298: 103842, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are the main forms of treatment for acute respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect, safety, and applicability of the NIV and HFNC in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) caused by COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we monitored the effect of NIV and HFNC on the SpO2 and respiratory rate before, during, and after treatment, length of stay, rates of endotracheal intubation, and mortality in patients with AHRF caused by COVID-19. Additionally, data regarding RT-PCR from physiotherapists who were directly involved in assisting COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19. RESULTS: 62.2 % of patients were treated with HFNC. ROX index increased during and after NIV and HFNC treatment (P < 0.05). SpO2 increased during NIV treatment (P < 0.05), but was not maintained after treatment (P = 0.17). In addition, there was no difference in the respiratory rate during or after the NIV (P = 0.95) or HFNC (P = 0.60) treatment. The mortality rate was 35.7 % for NIV vs 21.4 % for HFNC (P = 0.45), while the total endotracheal intubation rate was 57.1 % for NIV vs 69.6 % for HFNC (P = 0.49). Two adverse events occurred during treatment with NIV and eight occurred during treatment with HFNC. There was no difference in the physiotherapists who tested positive for SARS-COV-2 directly involved in assisting COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 ones (P = 0.81). CONCLUSION: The application of NIV and HFNC in the critical care unit is feasible and associated with favorable outcomes. In addition, there was no increase in the infection of physiotherapists with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Intubation, Intratracheal , Noninvasive Ventilation , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Acute Disease , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cannula/adverse effects , Cannula/standards , Cannula/statistics & numerical data , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/standards , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapists , Positive-Pressure Respiration/adverse effects , Positive-Pressure Respiration/standards , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(4): e29, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have recently suggested that liver disease and cirrhosis were risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. However, no large data study has reported the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. This study investigated whether HBV infection had negative impacts on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study with 19,160 COVID-19-infected patients in 2020 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database. The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with chronic HBV infections were assessed and compared to those of non-HBV-infected patients. RESULTS: Of the 19,160 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 675 (3.5%) patients had chronic HBV infections. The HBV-infected patients were older and had more commodities than the non-HBV infected COVID-19 patients. During the observation period, COVID-19-related mortality was seen in 1,524 (8.2%) of the non-HBV-infected 18,485 patients, whereas 91 (13.5%) in HBV-infected 675 patients died of COVID-19 infection. Compared to patients without HBV infections, a higher proportion of patients with chronic HBV infections required intensive care unit (ICU) admission and had organ failures. However, odds ratios for mortality, ICU admission, and organ failure were comparable between the two groups after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbid diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-infected patients with HBV infections showed worse clinical courses than non-HBV-infected COVID-19 patients. However, after adjustment, chronic HBV infection itself does not seem to affect the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Comorbidity , Female , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(3): e216436, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635814

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about COVID-19 outcomes among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, where preexisting comorbidities are prevalent. Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in 6 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a retrospective record review of data from 25 hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda from March 1 to December 31, 2020, and included 469 hospitalized patients aged 0 to 19 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exposures: Age, sex, preexisting comorbidities, and region of residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: An ordinal primary outcome scale was used comprising 5 categories: (1) hospitalization without oxygen supplementation, (2) hospitalization with oxygen supplementation, (3) ICU admission, (4) invasive mechanical ventilation, and (5) death. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay. Results: Among 469 hospitalized children and adolescents, the median age was 5.9 years (IQR, 1.6-11.1 years); 245 patients (52.4%) were male, and 115 (24.5%) had comorbidities. A total of 39 patients (8.3%) were from central Africa, 172 (36.7%) from eastern Africa, 208 (44.3%) from southern Africa, and 50 (10.7%) from western Africa. Eighteen patients had suspected (n = 6) or confirmed (n = 12) multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Thirty-nine patients (8.3%) died, including 22 of 69 patients (31.9%) who required intensive care unit admission and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with suspected or confirmed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Among 468 patients, 418 (89.3%) were discharged, and 16 (3.4%) remained hospitalized. The likelihood of outcomes with higher vs lower severity among children younger than 1 year expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 4.89 (95% CI, 1.44-16.61) times higher than that of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The presence of hypertension (aOR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.89-18.50), chronic lung disease (aOR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.65-5.37), or a hematological disorder (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.04-9.24) was associated with severe outcomes. Age younger than 1 year (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [asHR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87), the presence of 1 comorbidity (asHR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72), and the presence of 2 or more comorbidities (asHR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.18-0.38) were associated with reduced rates of hospital discharge. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of morbidity and mortality were observed among infants and patients with noncommunicable disease comorbidities, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccination and therapeutic interventions are needed for young populations in this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Child, Hospitalized , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Care ; 60(2): 125-132, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not yet known whether socioeconomic factors (ie, social determinants of health) are associated with readmission following hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6191 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a large New York City safety-net hospital system between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Associations between 30-day readmission and selected demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, prior health care utilization, and relevant features of the index hospitalization were analyzed using a multivariable generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: The readmission rate was 7.3%, with a median of 7 days between discharge and readmission. The following were risk factors for readmission: age 65 and older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.55], history of homelessness, (aOR: 2.03 95% CI: 1.49-2.77), baseline coronary artery disease (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10), congestive heart failure (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.20-1.49), cancer (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.26-2.24), chronic kidney disease (aOR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.46-2.07). Patients' sex, race/ethnicity, insurance, and presence of obesity were not associated with increased odds of readmission. A longer length of stay (aOR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00) and use of noninvasive supplemental oxygen (aOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56-0.83) was associated with lower odds of readmission. Upon readmission, 18.4% of patients required intensive care, and 13.7% expired. CONCLUSION: We have found some factors associated with increased odds of readmission among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Awareness of these risk factors, including patients' social determinants of health, may ultimately help to reduce readmission rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Safety-net Providers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
Radiol Med ; 127(2): 162-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the presence of signs of microvascular involvement at the CT scan, such as the vascular tree in bud (TIB) and the vascular enlargement pattern (VEP). Recent evidence suggests that TIB could be associated with an increased duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether microvascular involvement signs could have a prognostic significance concerning liberation from IMV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the COVID-19 patients requiring IMV admitted to 16 Italian ICUs and having a lung CT scan recorded within 3 days from intubation were enrolled in this secondary analysis. Radiologic, clinical and biochemical data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 139 patients affected by COVID-19 related ARDS were enrolled. After grouping based on TIB or VEP detection, we found no differences in terms of duration of IMV and mortality. Extension of VEP and TIB was significantly correlated with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and crazy paving pattern extension. A parenchymal extent over 50% of GGO and crazy paving pattern was more frequently observed among non-survivors, while a VEP and TIB extent involving 3 or more lobes was significantly more frequent in non-responders to prone positioning. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of early CT scan signs of microvascular involvement in COVID-19 patients does not appear to be associated with differences in duration of IMV and mortality. However, patients with a high extension of VEP and TIB may have a reduced oxygenation response to prone positioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261216, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has resulted in substantial healthcare resource consumption. Since patients' hospital length of stay (LoS) is at stake in the process, an investigation of COVID-19 patients' LoS and its risk factors becomes urgent for a better understanding of regional capabilities to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks. METHODS: First, we obtained retrospective data of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Sichuan province via National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and field surveys, including their demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics and LoS. Then we estimated the relationship between LoS and the possibly determinant factors, including demographic characteristics of confirmed patients, individual treatment behavior, local medical resources and hospital grade. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were applied for single factor and multi-factor survival analysis. RESULTS: From January 16, 2020 to March 4, 2020, 538 human cases of COVID-19 infection were laboratory-confirmed, and were hospitalized for treatment, including 271 (50%) patients aged ≥ 45, 285 (53%) males, and 450 patients (84%) with mild symptoms. The median LoS was 19 (interquartile range (IQR): 14-23, range: 3-41) days. Univariate analysis showed that age and clinical grade were strongly related to LoS (P<0.01). Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the longer LoS was associated with those aged ≥ 45 (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.91), admission to provincial hospital (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99), and severe illness (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). By contrast, the shorter LoS was linked with residential areas with more than 5.5 healthcare workers per 1,000 population (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05-1.65). Neither gender factor nor time interval from illness onset to diagnosis showed significant impact on LoS. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding COVID-19 patients' hospital LoS and its risk factors is critical for governments' efficient allocation of resources in respective regions. In areas with older and more vulnerable population and in want of primary medical resources, early reserving and strengthening of the construction of multi-level medical institutions are strongly suggested to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Ann Surg ; 275(1): 31-36, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on postoperative mortality, pulmonary and thrombotic complications, readmissions and hospital lengths of stay among patients undergoing surgery in the United States. BACKGROUND: While vaccination prevents COVID-19, little is known about its impact on postoperative complications. METHODS: This is a nationwide observational cohort study of all 1,255 Veterans Affairs facilities nationwide. We compared patients undergoing surgery at least 2 weeks after their second dose of the Pfizer BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, to contemporary propensity score matched controls. Primary endpoints were 30-day mortality and postoperative COVID-19 infection. Secondary endpoints were pulmonary or thrombotic complications, readmissions, and hospital lengths of stay. RESULTS: 30,681 patients met inclusion criteria. After matching, there were 3,104 in the vaccination group (1,903 received the Pfizer BioNTech, and 1,201 received the Moderna vaccine) and 7,438 controls. Full COVID-19 vaccination was associated with lower rates of postoperative 30-day COVID-19 infection (Incidence Rate Ratio and 95% confidence intervals, 0.09 [0.01,0.44]), pulmonary complications (0.54 [0.39, 0.72]), thrombotic complications (0.68 [0.46, 0.99]) and decreased hospital lengths of stay (0.78 [0.69, 0.89]). Complications were also low in vaccinated patients who tested COVID-19 positive before surgery but events were too few to detect a significant difference compared to controls. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination is associated with lower rates of postoperative morbidity. The benefit is most pronounced among individuals who have never had a COVID-19 infection before surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Poisson Distribution , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Propensity Score , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2822-2826, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580296

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: As the number of case reports related to the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) increases, knowledge of and experience with the virus and its complications also increase. Pleural complications are one relevant issue. We aimed in this study to analyze pleural complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and empyema, in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: The files of patients who have pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia and were consulted about thoracic surgery between March 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The data of the patients were analyzed according to age, sex, length of stay, treatment method for pleural complications, mortality, severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, tube thoracostomy duration, and presence of a mechanical ventilator. Results: A total of 31 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 11 female (35.5%) and 20 male (65.5%) patients. The most common complication was pneumothorax in 20 patients (65%). The median duration of hospitalization was 22 days and the mortality rate was 71%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The mortality rate is very high in patients with pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax is a fatal complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cytokine ; 150: 155790, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several immune mediators (IM) including cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors have been suggested to play a role in COVID-19 pathophysiology and severity. AIM: To determine if early IM profiles are predictive of clinical outcome and which of the IMs tested possess the most clinical utility. METHODS: A custom bead-based multiplex assay was used to measure IM concentrations in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients (n = 326) with varying disease severities as determined by hospitalization status, length of hospital stay, and survival. Patient groups were compared, and clinical utility was assessed. Correlation plots were constructed to determine if significant relationships exist between the IMs in the setting of COVID-19. RESULTS: In PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 patients, IL-6 was the best predictor of the need for hospitalization and length of stay. Additionally, MCP-1 and sIL-2Rα were moderate predictors of the need for hospitalization. Hospitalized PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 patients displayed a notable correlation between sIL-2Rα and IL-18 (Spearman's ρ = 0.48, P=<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: IM profiles between non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients were distinct. IL-6 was the best predictor of COVID-19 severity among all the IMs tested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/physiology , Hospitalization , Receptors, Cytokine/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/physiology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Receptors, Chemokine/physiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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