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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105985, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has forced important changes in health care worldwide. Stroke care networks have been affected, especially during peak periods. We assessed the impact of the pandemic and lockdowns in stroke admissions and care in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multinational study (7 countries, 18 centers) of patients admitted during the pandemic outbreak (March-June 2020). Comparisons were made with the same period in 2019. Numbers of cases, stroke etiology and severity, acute care and hospitalization outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Most countries reported mild decreases in stroke admissions compared to the same period of 2019 (1187 vs. 1166, p = 0.03). Among stroke subtypes, there was a reduction in ischemic strokes (IS) admissions (78.3% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.01) compared with 2019, especially in IS with NIHSS 0-5 (50.1% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.03). A substantial increase in the proportion of stroke admissions beyond 48 h from symptoms onset was observed (13.8% vs. 20.5%, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, no differences in total reperfusion treatment rates were observed, with similar door-to-needle, door-to-CT, and door-to-groin times in both periods. Other stroke outcomes, as all-type mortality during hospitalization (4.9% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), length of stay (IQR 1-5 days vs. 0-9 days, p < 0.001), and likelihood to be discharged home (91.6% vs. 83.0%, p < 0.001), were compromised during COVID-19 lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: In this Latin America survey, there was a mild decrease in admissions of IS during the COVID-19 lockdown period, with a significant delay in time to consultations and worse hospitalization outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , COVID-19/transmission , Cause of Death/trends , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Female , Health Care Surveys , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Latin America , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Patient Admission/trends , Patient Discharge/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e102, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279797

ABSTRACT

Estimating the lengths-of-stay (LoS) of hospitalised COVID-19 patients is key for predicting the hospital beds' demand and planning mitigation strategies, as overwhelming the healthcare systems has critical consequences for disease mortality. However, accurately mapping the time-to-event of hospital outcomes, such as the LoS in the intensive care unit (ICU), requires understanding patient trajectories while adjusting for covariates and observation bias, such as incomplete data. Standard methods, such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator, require prior assumptions that are untenable given current knowledge. Using real-time surveillance data from the first weeks of the COVID-19 epidemic in Galicia (Spain), we aimed to model the time-to-event and event probabilities of patients' hospitalised, without parametric priors and adjusting for individual covariates. We applied a non-parametric mixture cure model and compared its performance in estimating hospital ward (HW)/ICU LoS to the performances of commonly used methods to estimate survival. We showed that the proposed model outperformed standard approaches, providing more accurate ICU and HW LoS estimates. Finally, we applied our model estimates to simulate COVID-19 hospital demand using a Monte Carlo algorithm. We provided evidence that adjusting for sex, generally overlooked in prediction models, together with age is key for accurately forecasting HW and ICU occupancy, as well as discharge or death outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Length of Stay/trends , Models, Statistical , Age Factors , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Bed Occupancy/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Analysis
5.
Clin Biochem ; 95: 41-48, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has variable clinical presentation, from asymptomatic to severe disease leading to death. Biochemical markers may help with management and prognostication of COVID-19 patients; however, their utility is still under investigation. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate, and high sensitivity troponin T (TnT) levels in 67 patients who were admitted to a Canadian tertiary care centre for management of COVID-19. Logistic, cause-specific Cox proportional-hazards, and accelerated failure time regression modelling were performed to assess the associations of initial analyte concentrations with in-hospital death and length of stay in hospital; joint modelling was performed to assess the associations of the concentrations over the course of the hospital stay with in-hospital death. RESULTS: Initial TnT and CRP concentrations were associated with length of stay in hospital. Eighteen patients died (27%), and the median initial TnT concentration was higher in patients who died (55 ng/L) than those who lived (16 ng/L; P < 0.0001). There were no survivors with an initial TnT concentration > 64 ng/L. While the initial TnT concentration was predictive of death, later measurements were not. Only CRP had prognostic value with both the initial and subsequent measurements: a 20% increase in the initial CRP concentration was associated with a 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1-29%) increase in the odds of death, and the hazard of death increased 14% (95% CI: 5-25%) for each 20% increase in the current CRP value. While the initial lactate concentration was not predictive of death, subsequent measurements were. CONCLUSION: CRP, lactate and TnT were associated with poorer outcomes and appear to be useful biochemical markers for monitoring COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hospitalization/trends , Lactic Acid/blood , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biochemical Phenomena/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Blood Gas Analysis/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 24: 210-219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare how treatment with convalescent plasma (CP) monotherapy, remdesivir (RDV) monotherapy, and combination therapy (CP + RDV) in patients with COVID-19 affected clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the hospital received CP, RDV, or combination of both. Mortality, discharge disposition, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and total ventilation days were compared between each treatment group and stratified by ABO blood group. An exploratory analysis identified risk factors for mortality. Adverse effects were also evaluated. RESULTS: RDV monotherapy showed an increased chance of survival compared to combination therapy or CP monotherapy (p = 0.052). There were 15, 3, and 6 deaths in the CP, RDV, and combination therapy groups, respectively. The combination therapy group had the longest median ICU LOS (8, IQR 4.5-15.5, p = 0.220) and hospital LOS (11, IQR 7-15.5, p = 0.175). Age (p = 0.036), initial SOFA score (p = 0.013), and intubation (p = 0.005) were statistically significant predictors of mortality. Patients with type O blood had decreased ventilation days, ICU LOS, and total LOS. Thirteen treatment-related adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between patients treated with RDV, CP, or combination therapy. Elderly patients, those with a high initial SOFA score, and those who require intubation are at increased risk of mortality associated with COVID-19. Blood type did not affect clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals, Community/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , California/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(1): 15-22, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare in various vulnerable patient subpopulations. However, data are lacking on the impact of COVID-19 on hip fractures, seen mainly in older patients. Using national claims data, we aimed to describe the epidemiology during the first COVID-19 wave in the USA. METHODS: We compared patients admitted for hip fractures during March and April of 2020 with those admitted in 2019 in terms of patient and healthcare characteristics, COVID-19 diagnosis, and outcomes. An additional comparison was made between COVID-19-positive and -negative patients. Outcomes included length of hospital stay (LOS), admission to an ICU, ICU LOS, use of mechanical ventilation, 30-day readmission, discharge disposition, and a composite variable of postoperative complications. RESULTS: Overall, 16 068 hip fractures were observed in 2019 compared with 7498 in 2020. Patients with hip fractures in 2020 (compared with 2019) experienced earlier hospital discharge and were less likely to be admitted to ICU, but more likely to be admitted to home. Amongst 83 patients with hip fractures with concomitant COVID-19 diagnosis, we specifically observed more non-surgical treatments, almost doubled LOS, a more than 10-fold increased mortality rate, and higher complication rates compared with COVID-19-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted not only volume of hip fractures, but also patterns in care and outcomes. These results may inform policymakers in future outbreaks and how this may affect vulnerable patient populations, such as those experiencing a hip fracture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual/trends , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Patient Discharge/trends , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
8.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e68-e77, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical subspecialties including neurosurgery have seen a dramatic shift in operative volume in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on operative volume at 2 academic neurosurgery centers in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA from equivalent periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted analyzing neurosurgical case records for 2 tertiary academic centers from March to June 2020 and March to June 2019. The records were reviewed for variables including institution and physician coverage, operative volume by month and year, cases per subspecialty, patient demographics, mortality, and morbidity. RESULTS: Comparison of groups showed a 34% reduction in monthly neurosurgical volume per institution during the pandemic compared with earlier time points, including a 77% decrease during April 2020. There was no change in mortality and morbidity across institutions during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on neurosurgical practice and will likely continue to have long-term effects on patients at a time when global gross domestic products decrease and relative health expenditures increase. Clinicians must anticipate and actively prepare for these impacts in the future.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Academic Medical Centers/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/methods , Neurosurgery/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , New Orleans/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 447-454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: /Aim: Various reports of the occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in patients with COVID-19 have been published, denoting an association between both diseases. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review to summarize the prevalence of T1DM in COVID-19 patients and to identify the clinical presentations and outcomes in this patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Up to 10/27/2020, Medline, Embase, cochrane and google scholar databases were searched for original studies investigating the association between COVID-19 and T1DM. A manual search was conducted to identify missing studies. The quality of included studies was analyzed by the National Institute of Health (NIH) risk of bias tool. Outcomes included length of hospital stay, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), severe hypoglycemia, and death. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis. Included studies reported data of both adult and pediatric patients. The prevalence of T1DM in COVID-19 patients ranged from 0.15% to 28.98%, while the rate of COVID-19 in patients with T1DM ranged from 0% to 16.67%. Dry cough, nausea, vomiting, fever and elevated blood glucose levels were the most commonly reported presentations. The investigated outcomes varied widely among studied populations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of T1DM in patients with COVID-19 ranged from 0.15% to 28.98%. The most common presentation of COVID-19 in patients with T1DM included fever, dry cough, nausea and vomiting, elevated blood glucose and diabetic ketoacidosis. The outcomes of COVID-19 in terms of length of hospital stay, hospitalization, ICU admission, DKA rate, and severe hypoglycemia were reported variably in included studies. Due to the heterogeneous study populations and the presence of many limitations, more studies are still warranted to reach a definitive conclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Humans , Length of Stay/trends
12.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(12): 733-735, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) who deteriorate to respiratory failure and require mechanical ventilation may later need to be weaned from the ventilator and undergo a rehabilitation process. The rate of weaning COVID-19 patients from mechanical ventilation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with ventilator weaning of COVID-19 patients in a dedicated facility. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 18 patients hospitalized in a COVID-19 dedicated ventilator weaning unit. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were hospitalized in the dedicated unit between 6 April and 19 May 2020. Of these, 88% (16/18) were weaned and underwent decannulation, while two patients deteriorated and were re-admitted to the intensive care unit. The average number of days spent in our department was 12. There was no statistically significant correlation between patient characteristics and time to weaning from ventilation or with the time to decannulation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high mortality of COVID-19 patients who require mechanical ventilation, most of the patients in our cohort were weaned in a relatively short period of time. Further large-scale studies are necessary to assess the cost effectiveness of dedicated COVID-19 departments for ventilator weaning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilator Weaning/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(5): 940-947, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the safety, efficacy and feasibility of same-day discharge after uncomplicated, minimalist TAVR. BACKGROUND: At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, we created a same-day discharge (SDD) pathway after conscious sedation, transfemoral (minimalist) TAVR to help minimize risk of viral transmission and conserve hospital resources. Studies support that next-day discharge (NDD) for carefully selected patients following minimalist TAVR is safe and feasible. There is a paucity of data regarding the safety of SDD after TAVR. METHODS: In-hospital and 30 day outcomes of consecutive patients meeting pre-specified criteria for SDD after minimalist TAVR at our institution between March and July of 2020 were reviewed. Outcomes were compared to a NDD cohort from July 2018 through July 2020 that would have met SDD criteria. Primary endpoints were mortality, delayed pacemaker placement, stroke and cardiovascular readmission at 30 days. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients were discharged via the SDD pathway after TAVR. 128 prior NDD patients were identified who met all criteria for SDD. The STS scores were similar between the two groups (SDD 2.6% ±1.5 vs. NDD 2.3% ± 1.2). There were no deaths at 30 days in either group. There was no significant difference in delayed pacemaker placement (SDD 0% vs. NDD 0.8%, p > .99) or cardiovascular readmission (SDD 0% vs. NDD 5.5%, p = .35) at 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Same day discharge following uncomplicated, minimalist TAVR in selected patients appears to be safe, achieving similar 30 day outcomes as a cohort of next day discharge patients.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/trends , Risk Assessment/methods , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Aged , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
14.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 696, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been worldwide debate on the use of corticosteroids in COVID-19. In the recent RECOVERY trial, evaluating the effect of dexamethasone, a reduced 28-day mortality in patients requiring oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation was shown. Their results have led to considering amendments in guidelines or actually already recommending corticosteroids in COVID-19. However, the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids still remain uncertain, and reliable data to further shed light on the benefit and harm are needed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search of RCTS and observational studies on adult patients was performed across Medline/PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from December 1, 2019, until October 1, 2020, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Primary outcomes were short-term mortality and viral clearance (based on RT-PCR in respiratory specimens). Secondary outcomes were: need for mechanical ventilation, need for other oxygen therapy, length of hospital stay and secondary infections. RESULTS: Forty-four studies were included, covering 20.197 patients. In twenty-two studies, the effect of corticosteroid use on mortality was quantified. The overall pooled estimate (observational studies and RCTs) showed a significant reduced mortality in the corticosteroid group (OR 0.72 (95%CI 0.57-0.87). Furthermore, viral clearance time ranged from 10 to 29 days in the corticosteroid group and from 8 to 24 days in the standard of care group. Fourteen studies reported a positive effect of corticosteroids on need for and duration of mechanical ventilation. A trend toward more infections and antibiotic use was present. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings from both observational studies and RCTs confirm a beneficial effect of corticosteroids on short-term mortality and a reduction in need for mechanical ventilation. And although data in the studies were too sparse to draw any firm conclusions, there might be a signal of delayed viral clearance and an increase in secondary infections.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/standards , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Length of Stay/trends
15.
N Z Med J ; 133(1525): 96-105, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937954

ABSTRACT

AIM: New Zealand's stated goal of eradicating COVID-19 included the enforcement of a national lockdown. During this time, a perceived decrease in hospital presentations nationwide was noted. This was also the experience of the Department of General Surgery, Bay of Plenty District Health Board (BOPDHB). We sought to quantify this reduction by analysing the frequency and severity of three common acute general surgical presentations; appendicitis, cholecystitis and diverticulitis. METHODS: Data on presentations of patients with appendicitis, cholecystitis and diverticulitis were retrospectively collected for the national lockdown period (25 March 2020-27 April 2020) and the immediate pre-lockdown period (21 February 2020-25 March 2020). Data collected included patient demographics, duration of symptoms, method of diagnosis, treatment, severity of disease, length of stay and complications. RESULTS: A reduction of 62.2% was noted in the frequency of appendicitis during the lockdown period compared to the pre-lockdown period. Patients presented later during lockdown and had a higher complication rate (5.4% versus 42.8%). Similarly, a 39.2% reduction in presentations of cholecystitis during lockdown was found. The lockdown group of patients had a longer length of stay (6.9 versus 4 days) and only one patient (9.1%, 1/11) was managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the lockdown period, compared to 52.9% of patients (9/17) over the pre-lockdown period. No difference in frequency or severity of acute diverticulitis presentations between the two periods was found. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown led to fewer presentations, but these were often delayed, with more complications and a longer length of stay. This could be partly explained by patient fear around exposure to the virus and reluctance to attend hospital. More research is needed to study the flow-on effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on surgical presentations.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cholecystitis, Acute/diagnosis , Cholecystitis, Acute/epidemiology , Cholecystitis, Acute/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/trends , Severity of Illness Index , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/trends
16.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 26(1): 33-38, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited early results indicate that the COVID-19 outbreak has had a significant impact on the mental health of children and adolescents. Pediatric emergency departments (PED) play a pivotal role in the identification, treatment, and coordination of care for children with mental health disorders, however, there is a dearth of literature evaluating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health care provision in the PED. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate whether changes in frequency or patient demographics among children and adolescents presenting to the PED has occurred. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Yale New Haven Children's Hospital (YNHCH) PED. Data representing the early COVID-19 pandemic period was abstracted from the electronic medical record and compared using descriptive statistics to the same time period the year prior. Patient demographics including patient gender, ED disposition, mode of arrival, race-ethnicity, and insurance status were assessed. RESULTS: During the pandemic period, 148 patients presented to the YNHCH PED with mental health-related diagnoses, compared to 378 in the pre-pandemic period, a reduction of 60.84%. Compared to white children, black children were 0.55 less likely to present with a mental health condition as compared to the pre-pandemic study period (p = 0.002; 95% CI 0.36-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Children with mental and behavioral health disorders who seek care in PEDs may be at risk for delayed presentations of mental health disorders. African American children may be a particularly vulnerable population to screen for mental health disorders as reopening procedures are initiated and warrants further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Hospitals, Pediatric , Length of Stay/trends , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Insurance, Health , Male , Mental Disorders/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , /statistics & numerical data
17.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(3): 243-246, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919310

ABSTRACT

Background: The corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) imposed new public health constraints that deterred people from coming to the hospital. The outcome of patients who developed appendicitis during mandated COVID-19 quarantine has yet to be examined. The main objective was to establish whether there was an increased rate of perforated appendicitis seen during COVID-19 quarantine. Secondary objectives included observing the type of procedure performed, length of stay, and associated complications. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was designed to look at the rates of appendicitis and perforated appendicitis observed during mandatory "safer at home order" from March to May 2020. The same time period a year earlier was used for comparative analysis. The study utilized data gathered from a single health care system, which consisted of a large regional referral center with three emergency rooms (ERs). Patients were included in the study if they presented to any ER in our health care system with a chief complaint of acute appendicitis. Perforated appendicitis was determined either radiographically or intraoperatively. Interventions included surgery, percutaneous drainage, or medical management. Results: There were 107 patients who were included. During quarantine, a total of 48 patients presented with acute appendicitis, with 16 perforations, compared with the previous year where 59 patients presented with acute appendicitis, with 10 perforations (33% versus 17% P = .04). Most patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (91%, n = 98), six patients (6%) were managed with intravenous antibiotics and 3 patients (3%) with percutaneous drainage. Patients who perforated had a longer duration of symptoms (2 versus 1, P = .03), white blood cell count (13,190 versus 15,960 cells/mm3, P = .09), and longer operative time (72 versus 89 minutes, P = .01). Patients who perforated had an increased length of stay and rate of complication. Conclusion: There was an overall increased rate of perforated appendicitis seen during quarantine compared with the previous year. Patients with perforated appendicitis had an increased length of stay, longer operative time, and increased rate of complications. Thus, although people were staying home due to public health safety orders, it negatively impacted those who developed appendicitis who may have presented to the hospital otherwise sooner.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Comorbidity , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(1): 122-129, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760721

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have complex organ support needs that necessitate prolonged stays in the intensive care unit (ICU), likely to result in a high incidence of neuromuscular weakness and loss of well-being. Early and structured rehabilitation has been associated with improved outcomes for patients requiring prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation, but at present no data are available to describe similar interventions or outcomes in COVID-19 populations.Objectives: To describe the demographics, clinical status, level of rehabilitation, and mobility status at ICU discharge of patients with COVID-19.Methods: Adults admitted to the ICU with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and mechanically ventilated for >24 hours were included. Rehabilitation status was measured daily using the Manchester Mobility Score to identify the time taken to first mobilize (defined as sitting on the edge of the bed or higher) and highest level of mobility achieved at ICU discharge.Results: A total of n = 177 patients were identified, of whom n = 110 survived to ICU discharge and were included in the subsequent analysis. While on ICU, patients required prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation (mean 19 ± 10 d), most received neuromuscular blockade (90%) and 67% were placed in the prone position on at least one occasion. The mean ± standard deviation time to first mobilize was 14 ± 7 days, with a median Manchester Mobility Score at ICU discharge of 5 (interquartile range: 4-6), which represents participants able to stand and step around to a chair with or without assistance. Time to mobilize was significantly longer in those with higher body mass index (P < 0.001), and older patients (P = 0.012) and those with more comorbidities (P = 0.017) were more likely to require further rehabilitation after discharge.Conclusions: The early experience of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom resembles the experience in other countries, with high acuity of illness and prolonged period of mechanical ventilation required for those patients admitted to the ICU. Although the time to commence rehabilitation was delayed owing to this severity of illness, rehabilitation was possible within the ICU and led to increased levels of mobility from waking before ICU discharge.Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04396197).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Critical Care/methods , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 270, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on health systems, with rapidly increasing demand for healthcare in hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. As the pandemic escalates, determining the resulting needs for healthcare resources (beds, staff, equipment) has become a key priority for many countries. Projecting future demand requires estimates of how long patients with COVID-19 need different levels of hospital care. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of early evidence on length of stay (LoS) of patients with COVID-19 in hospital and in ICU. We subsequently developed a method to generate LoS distributions which combines summary statistics reported in multiple studies, accounting for differences in sample sizes. Applying this approach, we provide distributions for total hospital and ICU LoS from studies in China and elsewhere, for use by the community. RESULTS: We identified 52 studies, the majority from China (46/52). Median hospital LoS ranged from 4 to 53 days within China, and 4 to 21 days outside of China, across 45 studies. ICU LoS was reported by eight studies-four each within and outside China-with median values ranging from 6 to 12 and 4 to 19 days, respectively. Our summary distributions have a median hospital LoS of 14 (IQR 10-19) days for China, compared with 5 (IQR 3-9) days outside of China. For ICU, the summary distributions are more similar (median (IQR) of 8 (5-13) days for China and 7 (4-11) days outside of China). There was a visible difference by discharge status, with patients who were discharged alive having longer LoS than those who died during their admission, but no trend associated with study date. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 in China appeared to remain in hospital for longer than elsewhere. This may be explained by differences in criteria for admission and discharge between countries, and different timing within the pandemic. In the absence of local data, the combined summary LoS distributions provided here can be used to model bed demands for contingency planning and then updated, with the novel method presented here, as more studies with aggregated statistics emerge outside China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Care Rationing , Length of Stay , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Care Rationing/trends , Hospital Bed Capacity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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