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4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 44-51, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the profile of patients diagnosed with leprosy relapse and understand the influence of different multidrug therapy (MDT) treatments and initial disease presentation. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with leprosy relapse at a referral center in Brazil from 2013 to 2018. We analyzed their clinico-epidemiologic characteristics, laboratory data, and bacilloscopic tests. Survival analysis was used to determine the time elapsed until relapse according to the previous treatment and clinical forms of the disease. RESULTS: A total of 126 cases of relapse were analyzed, which comprised 11.89% (126/1059) of the cases. The median time elapsed until a relapse was 10 years, and most patients had previously undergone 12 doses of MDT (40.48%; 51/126). Undergoing 24 doses of MDT was associated with a better prognosis regarding relapse over time compared with 6 or 12 doses of MDT therapy. Most cases of relapse were classified as multibacillary (96.03%; 121/126). CONCLUSION: The incidence of relapse was greater than observed in other studies. The high percentage of multibacillary patients who had negative bacillary indices demonstrated that the bacillary index cannot be considered to be an essential criterion for relapse, especially concerning making an early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Leprostatic Agents , Leprosy , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy , Recurrence , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
5.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 339-350, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686353

ABSTRACT

Aims: Ivermectin is a safe, inexpensive and effective early COVID-19 treatment validated in 20+ random, controlled trials. Having developed combination therapies for Helicobacter pylori, the authors present a highly effective COVID-19 therapeutic combination, stemming from clinical observations. Patients & methods: In 24 COVID-19 subjects refusing hospitalization with high-risk features, hypoxia and untreated moderate to severe symptoms averaging 9 days, the authors administered this novel combination of ivermectin, doxycycline, zinc and vitamins D and C. Results & conclusions: All subjects resolved symptoms (in 11 days on average), and oxygen saturation improved in 24 h (87.4% to 93.1%; p = 0.001). There were no hospitalizations or deaths, less than (p < 0.002 or 0.05, respectively) background-matched CDC database controls. Triple combination therapy is safe and effective even when used in outpatients with moderate to severe symptoms. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04482686 (ClinicalTrial.gov).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(12): 1456-1461, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to governments implementing a variety of public health measures to control transmission and has affected health services. Leprosy is a communicable neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and is an important health problem in low- and middle-income countries. The natural history of leprosy means that affected individuals need long-term follow-up. The measures recommended to reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can create barriers to health services. We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic response on leprosy services and disease management. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with healthcare professionals in leprosy referral centres. RESULTS: Eighty percent of leprosy diagnostic services were reduced. All respondents reported that multidrug therapy (MDT) was available but two reported a reduced stock. Clinicians used alternative strategies such as telephone consultations to maintain contact with patients. However, patients were not able to travel to the referral centres. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the effects of the initial phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on leprosy services in a range of leprosy-endemic countries. Many services remained open, providing leprosy diagnosis, MDT and leprosy reaction medications. Centres developed innovative measures to counter the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leprosy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Leprostatic Agents , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 517-530, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005377

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading across the world has led to surges of COVID-19 illness, hospitalizations, and death. The complex and multifaceted pathophysiology of life-threatening COVID-19 illness including viral mediated organ damage, cytokine storm, and thrombosis warrants early interventions to address all components of the devastating illness. In countries where therapeutic nihilism is prevalent, patients endure escalating symptoms and without early treatment can succumb to delayed in-hospital care and death. Prompt early initiation of sequenced multidrug therapy (SMDT) is a widely and currently available solution to stem the tide of hospitalizations and death. A multipronged therapeutic approach includes 1) adjuvant nutraceuticals, 2) combination intracellular anti-infective therapy, 3) inhaled/oral corticosteroids, 4) antiplatelet agents/anticoagulants, 5) supportive care including supplemental oxygen, monitoring, and telemedicine. Randomized trials of individual, novel oral therapies have not delivered tools for physicians to combat the pandemic in practice. No single therapeutic option thus far has been entirely effective and therefore a combination is required at this time. An urgent immediate pivot from single drug to SMDT regimens should be employed as a critical strategy to deal with the large numbers of acute COVID-19 patients with the aim of reducing the intensity and duration of symptoms and avoiding hospitalization and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans
8.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 611-614, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005376

ABSTRACT

There is an emergency need for early ambulatory treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in acutely ill patients in an attempt to reduce disease progression and the risks of hospitalization and death. Such management should be applied in high-risk patients age > 50 years or with one or more medical problems including cardiovascular disease. We evaluated a total of 922 outpatients from March to September 2020. All patients underwent contemporary real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay tests from anterior nasal swab samples. Patients age 50.5 ± 13.7 years (range 12 to 89), 61.6% women, at moderate or high risk for COVID-19 received empiric management via telemedicine. At least two agents with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (zinc, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin) and one antibiotic (azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone) were used along with inhaled budesonide and/or intramuscular dexamethasone consistent with the emergent science on early COVID-19 treatment. For patients with high severity of symptoms, urgent in-clinic administration of albuterol nebulizer, inhaled budesonide, and intravenous volume expansion with supplemental parenteral thiamine 500 mg, magnesium sulfate 4 grams, folic acid 1 gram, vitamin B12 1 mg. A total of 320/922 (34.7%) were treated resulting in 6/320 (1.9%) and 1/320 (0.3%) patients that were hospitalized and died, respectively. We conclude that early ambulatory (not hospitalized, treated at home), multidrug therapy is safe, feasible, and associated with low rates of hospitalization and death. Early treatment should be considered for high-risk patients as an emergency measure while we await randomized trials and guidelines for ambulatory management.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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