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1.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(2): 109-113, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854899
3.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(4): e13153, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784739

ABSTRACT

Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have been unduly severe in patients with haematological malignancies, in particular in those with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Based on a series of observations, we propose that an underlying mechanism for the aggressive clinical course of COVID-19 in CLL is a paucity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in these patients. Indeed, pDCs express Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), which together with interferon-regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), enables pDCs to produce large amounts of type I interferons, essential for combating COVID-19. Treatment of CLL with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors increased the number of pDCs, likely secondarily to the reduction in the tumour burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , COVID-19/complications , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 7
4.
Haematologica ; 107(3): 625-634, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714970

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a suboptimal humoral response to vaccination. Recently, BNT162b2, an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with a high efficacy of 95% in immunocompetent individuals, was introduced. We investigated the safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with CLL from nine medical centers in Israel, Overall 400 patients were included, of whom 373 were found to be eligible for the analysis of antibody response. The vaccine appeared to be safe and only grade 1-2 adverse events were seen in 50% of the patients. Following the second dose, an antibody response was detected in 43% of the cohort. Among these CLL patients, 61% of the treatment-na ve patients responded to the vaccine, while responses developed in only 18% of those with ongoing disease, 37% of those previously treated with a BTK inhibitor and 5% of those recently given an anti-CD20 antibody. Among patients treated with BCL2 as monotherapy or in combination with anti-CD20, 62% and 14%, respectively, developed an immune response. There was a high concordance between neutralizing antibodies and positive serological response to spike protein. Based on our findings we developed a simple seven-factor score including timing of any treatment with anti-CD20, age, treatment status, and IgG, IgA, IgM and hemoglobin levels. The sum of all the above parameters can serve as a possible estimate to predict whether a given CLL patient will develop sufficient antibodies. In conclusion, the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was found to be safe in patients with CLL, but its efficacy is limited, particularly in treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Med (N Y) ; 3(2): 137-153.e3, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised individuals are highly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Whether vaccine-induced immunity in these individuals involves oral cavity, a primary site of infection, is presently unknown. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients (n = 404) and healthy controls (n = 82) participated in a prospective clinical trial (NCT04780659) encompassing two doses of the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. Primary immunodeficiency (PID), secondary immunodeficiencies caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)/chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T), solid organ transplantation (SOT), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients were included. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities to SARS-CoV-2 spike were measured by multiplex bead-based assays and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay. FINDINGS: IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in saliva in HIV and HSCT/CAR-T groups were comparable to those of healthy controls after vaccination. The PID, SOT, and CLL patients had weaker responses, influenced mainly by disease parameters or immunosuppressants. Salivary responses correlated remarkably well with specific IgG titers and the neutralizing capacity in serum. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the predictive power of salivary IgG yielded area under the curve (AUC) = 0.95 and positive predictive value (PPV) = 90.7% for the entire cohort after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva conveys vaccine responses induced by mRNA BNT162b2. The predictive power of salivary spike IgG makes it highly suitable for screening vulnerable groups for revaccination. FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Erling Perssons family foundation, Region Stockholm, Swedish Research Council, Karolinska Institutet, Swedish Blood Cancer Foundation, PID patient organization of Sweden, Nordstjernan AB, Center for Medical Innovation (CIMED), Swedish Medical Research Council, and Stockholm County Council (ALF).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Br J Haematol ; 197(3): 306-309, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700211

ABSTRACT

Prior reports evaluating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) used semiquantitative measurements of anti-S to evaluate immunity; however, neutralization assays were used to assess functional immunity in the trials leading to vaccine approval. Here, we identified decreased rates of seroconversion in vaccinated CLL patients and lower anti-S levels compared to healthy controls. Notably, we demonstrated similar results with the Roche anti-S assay and neutralization activity. Durable responses were seen at six months; augmentation with boosters was possible in responding patients. Absence of normal B cells, frequently seen in patients receiving Bruton tyrosine kinase and B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitors, was a strong predictor of lack of seroconversion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Blood ; 139(5): 639-640, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664129
10.
Clin Immunol ; 236: 108936, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650423

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia two years ago; admitted to our hospital with complaints of fever (>38C), shortness of breath, and fatigue. He was receiving fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) regimen for one year after two courses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (CVP) regimen. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 associated cytokine storm and tocilizumab 800 mg was administered in addition to corticosteroids. Significant improvement was observed in both clinical and laboratory parameters and his hypoxemia resolved. The patient whose complaints recurred on the 13 th day of discharge was admitted to the hospital again with severe hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 90) and fever (>38C). Pulse steroid (250 mg methylprednisolone for three days, followed by 40 mg/day) and anakinra 400 mg/day intravenously were started. Despite the treatment, the patient progressed to respiratory failure and died on the sixth day of second hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
11.
Blood Adv ; 6(6): 1671-1683, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649450

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia worldwide, is associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. Previous studies suggest only a portion of vaccinated CLL patients develop severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antibodies. Whether the elicited antibodies are functional and/or accompanied by functional T-cell responses is unknown. This prospective cohort study included patients with CLL who received SARS-CoV-2 and PCV13 vaccines (not concurrently). The primary cohort included adults with CLL off therapy. Coprimary outcomes were serologic response to SARS-CoV-2 (receptor binding domain [RBD] immunoassay) and PCV13 vaccines (23-serotype IgG assay). Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their functional activity and assessment of functional T-cell responses was performed. Sixty percent (18/30) of patients demonstrated serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, appearing more frequent among treatment-naïve patients (72%). Among treatment-naïve patients, an absolute lymphocyte count ≤24 000/µL was associated with serologic response (94% vs 14%; P < .001). On interferon-γ release assays, 80% (16/20) of patients had functional spike-specific T-cell responses, including 78% (7/9) with a negative RBD immunoassay, a group enriched for prior B-cell-depleting therapies. A bead-based multiplex immunoassay identified antibodies against wild-type and variant SARS-CoV-2 (α, ß, γ, and δ) in all tested patients and confirmed Fc-receptor binding and effector functions of these antibodies. Of 11 patients with negative RBD immunoassay after vaccination, 6 (55%) responded to an additional mRNA-based vaccine dose. The PCV13 serologic response rate was 29% (8/28). Our data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces functional T-cell and antibody responses in patients with CLL and provides the framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms and clinical benefit of these responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT05007860.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 24(2): 209-213, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequent lymphoproliferative disease in the elderly of the western world. Immune defective responses and treatment can worsen the immune system's competence of CLL patients. Consequently, they may present a higher incidence of recurrent severe infections, second malignancies, and reduced efficacy of vaccines. The outbreak of COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic, and patients with comorbidities experience more severe forms of the disease. Hematological malignancies are associated with higher case fatality rates (CFRs) than other cancers. Knowledge about COVID-19 incidence, clinical course, and immune response to the infection and vaccination in CLL may contribute to design strategies that improve the outcomes of patients in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in CLL is not significantly higher than seen in the general population. CFRs for CLL patients are 16.5-fold more elevated than the median reported worldwide and even higher in older patients, those who require hospitalization have significant comorbidities or need oxygen therapy. CLL status decreases the anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity after infection or vaccination by around 40%, and the spike-specific antibody titers are 74-fold lower than healthy age-matched controls. The response rate to COVID-19 vaccines is even worse in patients with active CLL-directed therapies like BTKi, BCL-2 antagonists, or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. CLL patients are at a greater risk of death from COVID-19. Inherent immunosuppression of CLL and immune deficiencies caused by treatment significantly decrease the ability to produce natural or vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
15.
Br J Haematol ; 197(1): 41-51, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612851

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is associated with immunocompromise and high risk of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) patients also have immune impairment. We evaluated humoural and cellular immune responses in 181 patients with CLL (160) and MBL (21) to correlate failed seroconversion [<50 AU/ml SARS-CoV-2 II IgG assay, antibody to spike protein; Abbott Diagnostics)] following each of two vaccine doses with clinical and laboratory parameters. Following first and second doses, 79.2% then 45% of CLL, and 50% then 9.5% of MBL patients respectively remained seronegative. There was significant association between post dose two antibody level with pre-vaccination reduced IgM (p < 0.0001), IgG2 (p < 0.035), and IgG3 (p < 0.046), and CLL therapy within 12 months (p < 0.001) in univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, reduced IgM (p < 0.0002) and active therapy (p < 0.0002) retained significance. Anti-spike protein levels varied widely and were lower in CLL than MBL patients, and both lower than in normal donors. Neutralisation activity showed anti-spike levels <1000 AU/ml were usually negative for both an early viral clade and the contemporary Delta variant and 72.9% of CLL and 53.3% of MBL failed to reach levels ≥1000 AU/ml. In a representative sample, ~80% had normal T-cell responses. Failed seroconversion occurred in 36.6% of treatment-naïve patients, in 78.1% on therapy, and in 85.7% on ibrutinib.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphocytosis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Lymphocytosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27545, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570144

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: This case report demonstrates the use of flourine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to rule out Richter transformation (RT) as the cause of clinical deterioration in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) and severe COVID-19. 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used to establish the diagnosis of RT in patients with CLL, but the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT to exclude RT as the cause of clinical deterioration in patients with CLL and severe COVID-19 has not previously been described. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old male with CLL and COVID-19 developed increased dyspnea, malaise and fever during hospitalization for treatment of severe and prolonged COVID-19. DIAGNOSES: 18F-FDG PET/CT ruled out RT and revealed progression of opacities in both lungs consistent with exacerbation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged at day 52 without the need of supplemental oxygen, with normalized infection marks and continued care for CLL with venetoclax. LESSONS: 18F-FDG PET/CT ruled out RT as the cause of deteriorations in a patient with CLL and severe COVID-19, enabling directed care of exacerbation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , COVID-19/complications , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals
19.
Blood ; 139(5): 678-685, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551192

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an impaired antibody response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Here, we evaluated the antibody response to a third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who failed to achieve a humoral response after standard 2-dose vaccination regimen. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies were measured 3 weeks after administration of the third dose. In 172 patients with CLL, the antibody response rate was 23.8%. Response rate among actively treated patients (12.0%; n = 12/100) was lower compared with treatment-naïve patients (40.0%; n = 16/40; OR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.9-12.9; P < .001) and patients off-therapy (40.6%; n = 13/32; OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-14.1; P < .001), (P < .001). In patients actively treated with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors or venetoclax ± anti-CD20 antibody, response rates were extremely low (15.3%, n = 9/59, and 7.7%, n = 3/39, respectively). Only 1 of the 28 patients (3.6%) treated with anti-CD20 antibodies <12 months prior to vaccination responded. In a multivariate analysis, the independent variables that were associated with response included lack of active therapy (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.8; P < .001) and serum immunoglobulin A levels ≥80 mg/dL (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 2.1-15.9; P < .001). In patients with CLL/SLL who failed to achieve a humoral response after standard 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination regimen, close to a quarter responded to the third dose of vaccine. The antibody response rates were lower during active treatment and in patients with a recent exposure (<12 months prior to vaccination) to anti-CD20 therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04862806.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/blood , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Blood Adv ; 6(1): 207-211, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542102

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised individuals such as patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are at risk of impaired immune responses to vaccination. The objective of our study was to evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses in patients with CLL after the first, second, and third doses of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines and after a single dose for patients with confirmed previous COVID-19. In all, 530 patients were included in the study. Patients received 2 doses at a 4-week interval and a third dose if they were seronegative after the second dose. Response rate was 27% after dose 1 and 52% after dose 2. Post-dose 2 treatment-naïve patients had the highest response rate (72%) followed by patients previously treated by chemoimmunotherapy (60%). Among patients receiving therapy, those receiving Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor alone (22%) or in combination with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies or venetoclax (0%) had the poorer response rate whereas patients who received venetoclax monotherapy achieved a significantly higher response rate (52%). A multivariable analysis identified age older than 65 years, ongoing CLL treatment, and gamma globulin ≤6 g/L as independent predictors of the absence of seroconversion. Post-dose 2 seronegative patients had a global response rate of 35% after dose 3. This study provides an argument for the use of a third dose and for prophylactic SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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