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1.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(4): e13153, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784739

ABSTRACT

Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have been unduly severe in patients with haematological malignancies, in particular in those with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Based on a series of observations, we propose that an underlying mechanism for the aggressive clinical course of COVID-19 in CLL is a paucity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in these patients. Indeed, pDCs express Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), which together with interferon-regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), enables pDCs to produce large amounts of type I interferons, essential for combating COVID-19. Treatment of CLL with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors increased the number of pDCs, likely secondarily to the reduction in the tumour burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , COVID-19/complications , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 7
2.
Clin Immunol ; 236: 108936, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650423

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia two years ago; admitted to our hospital with complaints of fever (>38C), shortness of breath, and fatigue. He was receiving fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) regimen for one year after two courses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (CVP) regimen. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 associated cytokine storm and tocilizumab 800 mg was administered in addition to corticosteroids. Significant improvement was observed in both clinical and laboratory parameters and his hypoxemia resolved. The patient whose complaints recurred on the 13 th day of discharge was admitted to the hospital again with severe hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 90) and fever (>38C). Pulse steroid (250 mg methylprednisolone for three days, followed by 40 mg/day) and anakinra 400 mg/day intravenously were started. Despite the treatment, the patient progressed to respiratory failure and died on the sixth day of second hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
Br J Haematol ; 197(1): 41-51, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612851

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is associated with immunocompromise and high risk of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) patients also have immune impairment. We evaluated humoural and cellular immune responses in 181 patients with CLL (160) and MBL (21) to correlate failed seroconversion [<50 AU/ml SARS-CoV-2 II IgG assay, antibody to spike protein; Abbott Diagnostics)] following each of two vaccine doses with clinical and laboratory parameters. Following first and second doses, 79.2% then 45% of CLL, and 50% then 9.5% of MBL patients respectively remained seronegative. There was significant association between post dose two antibody level with pre-vaccination reduced IgM (p < 0.0001), IgG2 (p < 0.035), and IgG3 (p < 0.046), and CLL therapy within 12 months (p < 0.001) in univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, reduced IgM (p < 0.0002) and active therapy (p < 0.0002) retained significance. Anti-spike protein levels varied widely and were lower in CLL than MBL patients, and both lower than in normal donors. Neutralisation activity showed anti-spike levels <1000 AU/ml were usually negative for both an early viral clade and the contemporary Delta variant and 72.9% of CLL and 53.3% of MBL failed to reach levels ≥1000 AU/ml. In a representative sample, ~80% had normal T-cell responses. Failed seroconversion occurred in 36.6% of treatment-naïve patients, in 78.1% on therapy, and in 85.7% on ibrutinib.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphocytosis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Lymphocytosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27545, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570144

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: This case report demonstrates the use of flourine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to rule out Richter transformation (RT) as the cause of clinical deterioration in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) and severe COVID-19. 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used to establish the diagnosis of RT in patients with CLL, but the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT to exclude RT as the cause of clinical deterioration in patients with CLL and severe COVID-19 has not previously been described. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old male with CLL and COVID-19 developed increased dyspnea, malaise and fever during hospitalization for treatment of severe and prolonged COVID-19. DIAGNOSES: 18F-FDG PET/CT ruled out RT and revealed progression of opacities in both lungs consistent with exacerbation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged at day 52 without the need of supplemental oxygen, with normalized infection marks and continued care for CLL with venetoclax. LESSONS: 18F-FDG PET/CT ruled out RT as the cause of deteriorations in a patient with CLL and severe COVID-19, enabling directed care of exacerbation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , COVID-19/complications , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals
6.
Blood ; 139(5): 678-685, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551192

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an impaired antibody response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Here, we evaluated the antibody response to a third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who failed to achieve a humoral response after standard 2-dose vaccination regimen. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies were measured 3 weeks after administration of the third dose. In 172 patients with CLL, the antibody response rate was 23.8%. Response rate among actively treated patients (12.0%; n = 12/100) was lower compared with treatment-naïve patients (40.0%; n = 16/40; OR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.9-12.9; P < .001) and patients off-therapy (40.6%; n = 13/32; OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-14.1; P < .001), (P < .001). In patients actively treated with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors or venetoclax ± anti-CD20 antibody, response rates were extremely low (15.3%, n = 9/59, and 7.7%, n = 3/39, respectively). Only 1 of the 28 patients (3.6%) treated with anti-CD20 antibodies <12 months prior to vaccination responded. In a multivariate analysis, the independent variables that were associated with response included lack of active therapy (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.8; P < .001) and serum immunoglobulin A levels ≥80 mg/dL (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 2.1-15.9; P < .001). In patients with CLL/SLL who failed to achieve a humoral response after standard 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination regimen, close to a quarter responded to the third dose of vaccine. The antibody response rates were lower during active treatment and in patients with a recent exposure (<12 months prior to vaccination) to anti-CD20 therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04862806.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/blood , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Leukemia ; 35(12): 3444-3454, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493064

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be more susceptible to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to age, disease, and treatment-related immunosuppression. We aimed to assess risk factors of outcome and elucidate the impact of CLL-directed treatments on the course of COVID-19. We conducted a retrospective, international study, collectively including 941 patients with CLL and confirmed COVID-19. Data from the beginning of the pandemic until March 16, 2021, were collected from 91 centers. The risk factors of case fatality rate (CFR), disease severity, and overall survival (OS) were investigated. OS analysis was restricted to patients with severe COVID-19 (definition: hospitalization with need of oxygen or admission into an intensive care unit). CFR in patients with severe COVID-19 was 38.4%. OS was inferior for patients in all treatment categories compared to untreated (p < 0.001). Untreated patients had a lower risk of death (HR = 0.54, 95% CI:0.41-0.72). The risk of death was higher for older patients and those suffering from cardiac failure (HR = 1.03, 95% CI:1.02-1.04; HR = 1.79, 95% CI:1.04-3.07, respectively). Age, CLL-directed treatment, and cardiac failure were significant risk factors of OS. Untreated patients had a better chance of survival than those on treatment or recently treated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/virology , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
9.
Eur J Haematol ; 108(2): 91-98, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488195

ABSTRACT

People with hematologic malignancies are at a high risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. The response to vaccination is highly limited in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Less than half of the patients develop antibody response, suggesting that they remain at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection even after the vaccination. Reasons for inadequate response to COVID-19 vaccination in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are multifactorial and attributed to disease-related immune dysregulation and patient- and therapy-related factors. The negative predictors of response to vaccination include hypogammaglobulinemia, advanced age, current active treatment, and past treatment anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. Despite using booster doses and heterologous immunization to improve humoral and cellular immunity, some patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia will fail to respond. Active treatment at the time of vaccination and a recent history of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies use are the strongest predictors of the non-response. Current data support informing patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other hematologic malignancies about the risk of infection regardless of vaccination. These individuals and members of their households should continue extreme preventive actions despite relaxed local regulations. Other emerging non-vaccine preventive strategies include passive and post-exposure prevention with monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Pandemics , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
11.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(9): 819-830, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349725

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ibrutinib is a highly effective drug for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and is well tolerated even by older patients and those unfit to receive conventional immuno-chemotherapy. AREAS COVERED: The occurrence of adverse events was revealed as a major cause of ibrutinib failure in the real-world. Ibrutinib-induced lymphocytosis carries the risk of an untimely interruption of therapy because it may be misinterpreted as disease progression. In addition, drug interactions can worsen ibrutinib-associated toxicities by increasing the plasma concentration of ibrutinib. In this review, we present a case of major hemorrhage and atrial fibrillation (AF) during ibrutinib use and summarize the adverse events associated with ibrutinib. Furthermore, the practical management of ibrutinib-associated toxicities was covered with reference to a drug interaction mechanism. EXPERT OPINION: Clinicians should examine the prescribed drugs prior to ibrutinib initiation and carefully monitor toxicities while taking ibrutinib. A reduced dose of ibrutinib with the concurrent use of CYP3A inhibitors such as antifungal agents could be an attractive strategy to reduce toxicities and may confer financial benefits. Reducing unexpected toxicities is as significant as achieving treatment response in the era of life-long therapy with ibrutinib in patients with CLL.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenine/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/therapy , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Piperidines/adverse effects , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
12.
Am J Hematol ; 96(10): 1195-1203, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286098

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematologic malignancies have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Vaccination against COVID-19 is especially important in these patients, but whether they develop an immune response following vaccination is unknown. We studied serologic responses to the BNT162b2 vaccine in this population. A lower proportion of patients were seropositive following vaccination (75%) than in a comparison group (99%; p < 0.001), and median (interquartile range [IQR]) antibody titers in patients were lower (90 [12.4-185.5] and 173 [133-232] AU/ml, respectively; p < 0.001). Older age, higher lactate dehydrogenase, and number of treatment lines correlated with lower seropositivity likelihood and antibody titers, while absolute lymphocyte count, globulin level, and time from last treatment to vaccination correlated with higher seropositivity likelihood and antibody titers. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients had the lowest seropositivity rate followed by indolent lymphoma. Patients recently treated with chemo-immunotherapy, anti-CD20 antibodies, BCL2, BTK or JAK2 inhibitors had significantly less seropositive responses and lower median (IQR) antibody titers (29%, 1.9 [1.9-12] AU/ml; 0%, 1.9 [1.9-1.9] AU/ml; 25%, 1.9 [1.9-25] AU/ml; 40%, 1.9 [1.9-92.8] AU/ml; and 42%, 10.9 [5.7-66.4] AU/ml, respectively; p < 0.001). Serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematologic malignancies is considerably impaired, and they could remain at risk for severe COVID-19 infection and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Lymphoma/complications , Lymphoma/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Acta Haematol ; 144(5): 508-518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102241

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has led to a worldwide pandemic ever since. Initial clinical data imply that cancer patients are particularly at risk for a severe course of SARS-CoV-2. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), infections are a main contributor to morbidity and mortality driven by an impaired immune system. Treatment initiation is likely to induce immune modulation that further increases the risk for severe infections. This article aims to give an overview on pathogenesis and risk of infectious complications in patients with CLL. In this context, we discuss current data of SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with CLL and how the pandemic impacts their management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Immunotherapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Pathol Res Pract ; 220: 153380, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080535

ABSTRACT

As of October 2020, there are over 40 million confirmed cases, and more than 1 million confirmed deaths of Covid-19 worldwide. The main cause of death in hospitalized patients is a respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. It has been suggested that the very intense immune response induces diffuse alveolar damage that far exceeds the harm that would have been caused by virus replication per se, resulting in lethal tissue destruction. We present a detailed report of the histopathological findings on cryo transbronchial biopsy in the patient with persistent (3 months) interstitial pneumonitis and severe CD8 positive cell infiltration in the lungs due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CD8 positive T-lymphocytes have a great potential to damage tissue either through direct cytotoxicity or through cytokines release.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(22): 11926-11933, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hematologic cancer patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) tend to have a more serious disease course than observed in the general population. Herein, we comprehensively reviewed existing literature and analyzed clinical characteristics and mortality of patients with hematologic malignancies and COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through searching PubMed until June 03, 2020, we identified 16 relevant case studies (33 cases) from a total of 45 studies that have reported on patients with COVID-19 and hematologic malignancies. We investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics including type of hematologic malignancies, initial symptoms, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Then, we compared those characteristics and outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies and COVID-19 to the general population infected with COVID-19. RESULTS: The median age was 66-year-old. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia was the most common type of hematologic malignancy (39.4%). Fever was the most common symptom (75.9%). Most patients had normal leukocyte counts (55.6%), lymphocytosis (45.4%), and normal platelet counts (68.8%). In comparison to patients with COVID-19 without underlying hematologic malignancies, dyspnea was more prevalent (45.0 vs. 24.9%, p=0.025). Leukocytosis (38.9 vs. 9.8%, p=0.001), lymphocytosis (45.4 vs. 8.2%, p=0.001), and thrombocytopenia (31.3 vs. 11.4%, p=0.036) were significantly more prevalent and lymphopenia (18.2 vs. 57.4%, p=0.012) less prevalent in patients with hematologic malignancies. There were no clinical and laboratory characteristics predicting mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. Mortality was much higher in patients with hematologic malignancies compared to those without this condition (40.0 vs. 3.6%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Co-occurrence of hematologic malignancies and COVID-19 is rare. However, due to the high mortality rate from COVID-19 in this vulnerable population, further investigation on tailored treatment and management is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Lymphocytosis/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukocytosis/blood , Leukocytosis/epidemiology , Lymphocytosis/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/complications , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(1): 100164, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957488

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) is widely used to treat COVID-19, but without formal evidence of efficacy. Here, we report the beneficial effects of CP in a severely ill COVID-19 patient with prolonged pneumonia and advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who was unable to generate an antiviral antibody response of her own. On day 33 after becoming symptomatic, the patient received CP containing high-titer (ID50 > 5,000) neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), defervesced, and improved clinically within 48 h and was discharged on day 37. Hence, when present in sufficient quantities, NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 have clinical benefit even if administered relatively late in the disease course. However, analysis of additional CP units revealed widely varying NAb titers, with many recipients exhibiting endogenous NAb responses far exceeding those of the administered units. To obtain the full therapeutic benefits of CP immunotherapy, it will thus be important to determine the neutralizing activity in both CP units and transfusion candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Cell ; 183(7): 1901-1912.e9, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950119

ABSTRACT

Long-term severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding was observed from the upper respiratory tract of a female immunocompromised individual with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. Shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 was observed up to 70 days, and of genomic and subgenomic RNA up to 105 days, after initial diagnosis. The infection was not cleared after the first treatment with convalescent plasma, suggesting a limited effect on SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract of this individual. Several weeks after a second convalescent plasma transfusion, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was no longer detected. We observed marked within-host genomic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with continuous turnover of dominant viral variants. However, replication kinetics in Vero E6 cells and primary human alveolar epithelial tissues were not affected. Our data indicate that certain immunocompromised individuals may shed infectious virus longer than previously recognized. Detection of subgenomic RNA is recommended in persistently SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals as a proxy for shedding of infectious virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/blood , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/virology , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/blood , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 25: 100214, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841265

ABSTRACT

During this COVID-19 pandemic, patients with symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and coryza were advised to have RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We described here an elderly female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who presented with atypical symptoms that were not directly attributable to COVID-19. This patient was admitted to the non-COVID-19 ward for supportive care. Later, her chest x-ray revealed pneumonia that was confirmed to be COVID-19 by RT-PCR testing several days later. In resource-poor settings where molecular testing results suffered from delays or were altogether unavailable, the use of diagnostic imaging such as a chest x-ray could serve as a quick guide in the assessment and management of these patients especially if the imaging results suggest COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Cough/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Cough/virology , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/virology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/complications , Pharyngitis/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , X-Rays
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