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1.
Cells ; 9(11)2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256431

ABSTRACT

Secondary immunodeficiency is observed in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in varying degrees. The aim of the study was to review the available literature data on patients with CLL, with particular regard to the pathogenesis of the disease and the impact of humoral immunity deficiency on the clinical and therapeutic approach. A systematic literature review was carried out by two independent authors who searched PubMed databases for studies published up to January 2020. Additionally, Google Scholar was used to evaluate search results and support manual research. The search resulted in 240 articles eligible for analysis. After all criteria and filters were applied, 22 studies were finally applied to the analysis. The data analysis showed that the clinical heterogeneity of CLL patients correlates with the diversity of molecular abnormalities determining the clinical picture of the disease, the analysis of which enables setting therapeutic targets. Additionally, in improving the therapeutic method, it is worth introducing supportive therapies with the use of vaccines, antibiotics and/or immunoglobins. Moreover, humoral immunodeficiency in CLL has a strong influence on the risk of infection in patients for whom infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Humoral , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Prognosis
2.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type-1 cryoglobulinemia (CG) is a rare disease associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Some viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr Virus infections, are known to cause malignant lymphoproliferation, like certain B-cell lymphomas. However, their role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is still debatable. Here, we report a unique case of Type-1 CG associated to a CLL transformation diagnosed in the course of a human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 91-year-old man was initially hospitalized for delirium. In a context of febrile rhinorrhea, the diagnosis of hMPV infection was made by molecular assay (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal swab. Owing to hyperlymphocytosis that developed during the course of the infection and unexplained peripheral neuropathy, a type-1 IgG Kappa CG secondary to a CLL was diagnosed. The patient was not treated for the CLL because of Binet A stage classification and his poor physical condition. CONCLUSIONS: We report the unique observation in the literature of CLL transformation and hMPV infection. We provide a mini review on the pivotal role of viruses in CLL pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Cell Transformation, Viral , Disease Susceptibility , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/etiology , Metapneumovirus/physiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/complications , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Clonal Evolution , Cryoglobulinemia/diagnosis , Cryoglobulinemia/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains/blood , Immunophenotyping , Male
3.
J Healthc Eng ; 2020: 6648574, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991957

ABSTRACT

For the last few years, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has been increasing rapidly. Numerous machine learning algorithms have been developed to identify different diseases, e.g., leukemia. Leukemia is a white blood cells- (WBC-) related illness affecting the bone marrow and/or blood. A quick, safe, and accurate early-stage diagnosis of leukemia plays a key role in curing and saving patients' lives. Based on developments, leukemia consists of two primary forms, i.e., acute and chronic leukemia. Each form can be subcategorized as myeloid and lymphoid. There are, therefore, four leukemia subtypes. Various approaches have been developed to identify leukemia with respect to its subtypes. However, in terms of effectiveness, learning process, and performance, these methods require improvements. This study provides an Internet of Medical Things- (IoMT-) based framework to enhance and provide a quick and safe identification of leukemia. In the proposed IoMT system, with the help of cloud computing, clinical gadgets are linked to network resources. The system allows real-time coordination for testing, diagnosis, and treatment of leukemia among patients and healthcare professionals, which may save both time and efforts of patients and clinicians. Moreover, the presented framework is also helpful for resolving the problems of patients with critical condition in pandemics such as COVID-19. The methods used for the identification of leukemia subtypes in the suggested framework are Dense Convolutional Neural Network (DenseNet-121) and Residual Convolutional Neural Network (ResNet-34). Two publicly available datasets for leukemia, i.e., ALL-IDB and ASH image bank, are used in this study. The results demonstrated that the suggested models supersede the other well-known machine learning algorithms used for healthy-versus-leukemia-subtypes identification.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Internet of Things , Leukemia/classification , Leukemia/diagnosis , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cloud Computing , Databases, Factual , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Telemedicine
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926062, 2020 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease that is not yet fully understood. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that is easily transmitted from human to human through the respiratory route. Usually, it presents with fever, headache, fatigue accompanied by respiratory symptoms like cough and dyspnea, and other systemic involvements. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by absolute lymphocytosis and demonstration of clonality unlike other causes of lymphocytosis. Patients with CLL are considered immunocompromised because of impaired humoral immunity (mainly) and cellular immunity. Therefore, they are vulnerable to various infections including COVID-19. Little is known about the COVID-19 infection when it unmasks CLL. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old man with no significant previous illnesses, and an unremarkable family history, presented with a moderate COVID-19 infection. He initially presented to the emergency department with fever and mild shortness of breath. A complete blood count showed a high white blood cell count with absolute lymphocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed the clonality of the lymphocytes confirming the diagnosis of CLL. Despite having CLL, he developed a moderate COVID-19 infection and recovered in a few days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CLL, which presented with a COVID-19 infection as the initial presentation. CONCLUSIONS Lymphocytosis is an unexpected finding in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and the elevated lymphocytes may be indicative of other conditions. Secondary causes of lymphocytosis like malignancy or other infections should be considered in these cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 25: 100214, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841265

ABSTRACT

During this COVID-19 pandemic, patients with symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and coryza were advised to have RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We described here an elderly female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who presented with atypical symptoms that were not directly attributable to COVID-19. This patient was admitted to the non-COVID-19 ward for supportive care. Later, her chest x-ray revealed pneumonia that was confirmed to be COVID-19 by RT-PCR testing several days later. In resource-poor settings where molecular testing results suffered from delays or were altogether unavailable, the use of diagnostic imaging such as a chest x-ray could serve as a quick guide in the assessment and management of these patients especially if the imaging results suggest COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Cough/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Cough/virology , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/virology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/complications , Pharyngitis/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , X-Rays
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823543

ABSTRACT

With the major spread of SARS-COV-2 around the world, its association with various pathologies has been reported. However, hemopathy has rarely been revealed during a coronavirus infection. The authors of this article aim to emphasize the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced while treating COVID/hemopathy patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment
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