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1.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 23(5): 688-702, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763473

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed numerous challenges to the global healthcare system. Of particular gravity is adult and pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies who are among the most vulnerable groups of patients at risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. In the early phases of the pandemic, several treatment modifications were proposed for patients with leukemia. Largely speaking, these were adopting less-intense therapies and more utilization of the outpatient setting. Over time, our understanding and management have become more nuanced. Furthermore, equipped with vaccinations to prevent COVID-19 infection and availability of treatments in the presence of COVID-19 infection, the recommendations on management of patients with leukemia have evolved. Patient's leukemia characteristics, possibility of targeted therapy, vaccination status, symptomatology, comorbidities, goal of anti-leukemic therapy, the intensity of therapy, the setting of treatment, as well as loco regional factors like dynamic incidence of COVID-19 in the community and hospital/ICU bed status are among many factors that influence the decisions. Furthermore, the oncology community has adopted delaying the anti-leukemia therapy for a limited time frame, if clinically possible, so as to still deliver most appropriate therapy while minimizing risks. Early adoption of growth factor support and conservative blood transfusion practices have helped as well. In this review, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes and share considerations for treatments of leukemias. We describe the impact on both clinical care (from diagnosis to treatment) and research, and cover the literature on vaccines and treatments for COVID-19 in relation to leukemia.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2799-2803, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406160

ABSTRACT

Specificities of COVID-19 disease course in patients with haematologic malignancies are still poorly studied. So, we aimed to compare patients with haematologic malignancies to patients without malignancies, matched by sex and age and hospitalised for COVID-19 at the same time and in the same centre. Among 25 patients with haematologic malignancies, we found that mortality (40% versus 4%, p < 0.01), number of days with RT-PCR positivity (21.2 ± 15.9 days [range, 3-57] versus 7.4 ± 5.6 days [range, 1-24], p < 0.01), maximal viral load (mean minimal Ct, 17.2 ± 5.2 [range, 10-30] versus 26.5 ± 5.1 [range, 15-33], p < 0.0001) and the delay between symptom onset and clinical worsening (mean time duration between symptom onset and first day of maximum requirement in inspired oxygen fraction, 14.3 ± 10.7 days versus 9.6 ± 3.7 days, p = 0.0485) were higher than in other patients. COVID-19 course in patients with haematologic malignancies has a delayed onset and is more severe with a higher mortality, and patients may be considered as super-spreaders. Clinicians and intensivists need to be trained to understand the specificity of COVID-19 courses in patients with haematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Lymphoma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smoking/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
5.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(14): 3516-3520, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354196

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute leukemia (AL) have a high mortality rate from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies including patients with AL and COVID-19 are few. Fifty-one patients with AL and COVID-19 were included in our study. The mortality rate was 17/51 (29.4%). In all cases, death was associated with COVID-19 pneumonia. The major driver of outcome was the disease status (worse outcome was observed in newly diagnosed (OR, 6.00; 95% CI, 1.133 - 15.188) and patients with bone marrow aplasia (OR 4.148 [95% CI 1.133 - 15.188])). Higher mortality rate was associated with lower platelet count, prolonged PT, higher ISTH DIC score, CRP and LDH. Moreover, careful risk-benefit assessment regarding the continuation of anticancer therapy is required in patients receiving nonintensive and supportive therapy. Considering the high frequency of intrahospital viral transmission (50.98%), isolation of AL patients in single rooms, and permanent symptom monitoring and testing should be prioritized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia , Humans , Leukemia/diagnosis , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(10): 114, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338274

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease, coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has significantly derailed cancer care. Patients with leukemia are more likely to have severe infection and increased rates of mortality. There is paucity of information on how to modify care of leukemia patients in view of the COVID-19 risks and imposed restrictions. We review the available literature on the impact of COVID-19 on different types of leukemia patients and suggest general as well as disease-specific recommendations on care based on available evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 infection impacts leukemia subtypes in variable ways and the standard treatments for leukemia have similarly, varying effects on the course of COVID-19 infection. Useful treatment strategies include deferring treatment when possible, use of less intensive regimens, outpatient targeted oral agents requiring minimal monitoring, and prioritization of curative or life-prolonging strategies. Reducing health care encounters, rational transfusion standards, just resource allocation, and pre-emptive advance care planning will serve the interests of leukemia patients. Ad hoc modifications based on expert opinions and extrapolations of previous well-designed studies are the way forward to navigate the crisis. This should be supplanted with more rigorous prospective evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Leukemia/classification , Leukemia/diagnosis , Leukemia/epidemiology , Patient Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 7(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087881

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a challenging, multifaceted disease that involves a combination of biological and nonbiological factors. Aside from COVID-19, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and the first among Hispanic Americans. The Hispanic population is the largest minority group in the United States, which is rapidly growing in size. Unfortunately, U.S. Hispanics and other minority groups experience many different health disparities, resulting in poor survival outcomes and a reduced quality of life. Factors such as genomic mutations, lower socioeconomic status, lack of education, reduced access to health care, comorbidities, and environmental factors all contribute to these health-care inequalities. In the context of blood cancer health disparities, Hispanic patients are often diagnosed at a younger age and have worse outcomes compared with non-Hispanic individuals. In this commentary, we highlight the existing knowledge about cancer health disparities in the Hispanic population, with a focus on chronic and acute leukemia. In our experience at the U.S./Mexican border, analysis of several different blood cancers demonstrated that younger Hispanic patients with acute lymphoid or myeloid leukemia have higher incidence rates and worse prognoses. A combined approach, involving improved health-care access and better knowledge of the underlying factors, will allow for more timely diagnoses and the development of intervention strategies aimed at reducing or eliminating the disparities.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
9.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e737-e745, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several small studies on patients with COVID-19 and haematological malignancies are available showing a high mortality in this population. The Italian Hematology Alliance on COVID-19 aimed to collect data from adult patients with haematological malignancies who required hospitalisation for COVID-19. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with diagnosis of a WHO-defined haematological malignancy admitted to 66 Italian hospitals between Feb 25 and May 18, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed and symptomatic COVID-19. Data cutoff for this analysis was June 22, 2020. The primary outcome was mortality and evaluation of potential predictive parameters of mortality. We calculated standardised mortality ratios between observed death in the study cohort and expected death by applying stratum-specific mortality rates of the Italian population with COVID-19 and an Italian cohort of 31 993 patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19 (data up to March 1, 2019). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with overall survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556, and the prospective part of the study is ongoing. FINDINGS: We enrolled 536 patients with a median follow-up of 20 days (IQR 10-34) at data cutoff, 85 (16%) of whom were managed as outpatients. 440 (98%) of 451 hospitalised patients completed their hospital course (were either discharged alive or died). 198 (37%) of 536 patients died. When compared with the general Italian population with COVID-19, the standardised mortality ratio was 2·04 (95% CI 1·77-2·34) in our whole study cohort and 3·72 (2·86-4·64) in individuals younger than 70 years. When compared with the non-COVID-19 cohort with haematological malignancies, the standardised mortality ratio was 41·3 (38·1-44·9). Older age (hazard ratio 1·03, 95% CI 1·01-1·05); progressive disease status (2·10, 1·41-3·12); diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (3·49, 1·56-7·81), indolent non-Hodgin lymphoma (2·19, 1·07-4·48), aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2·56, 1·34-4·89), or plasma cell neoplasms (2·48, 1·31-4·69), and severe or critical COVID-19 (4·08, 2·73-6·09) were associated with worse overall survival. INTERPRETATION: This study adds to the evidence that patients with haematological malignancies have worse outcomes than both the general population with COVID-19 and patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19. The high mortality among patients with haematological malignancies hospitalised with COVID-19 highlights the need for aggressive infection prevention strategies, at least until effective vaccination or treatment strategies are available. FUNDING: Associazione italiana contro le leucemie, linfomi e mieloma-Varese Onlus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Inpatients , Italy/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/therapy , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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