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1.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies have documented the role of the "neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio" (NLR) in influenza virus infection. In addition, morphometric parameters derived from automated analyzers on the volume, scatter and conductivity of monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes in many viral etiologies have helped with their early differentiation. With this background, we aimed to characterize the hematological changes of coronavirus-positive cases and also compare them with the healthy controls and patients affected by non-COVID Influenza-like illnesses so that early isolation could be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study carried out in the years 2020-2022. All cases with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses and healthy controls above 18 years were included. Cases were diagnosed according to the WHO guidelines. All samples were processed on a Unicel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, California, USA) automated hematology analyzer. The demographic, clinical and regular hematological parameters along with additional parameters such as volume, conductivity and scatter (VCS) of the three groups were compared. RESULTS: The 169 COVID-19 cases were in the moderate to severe category. Compared with 140 healthy controls, the majority of the routine hematological values including the NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) showed statistically significant differences. A cutoff of an absolute neutrophil count of 4350 cell/cumm was found to have a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 70% in differentiating moderate and severe COVID-19 cases from healthy controls. COVID-19 and the non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses were similar statistically in all parameters except the PLR, mean neutrophilic and monocytic volume, scatter parameters in neutrophils, axial light loss in monocytes and NLR. Interestingly, there was a trend of higher mean volumes and scatter in neutrophils and monocytes in COVID-19 cases as compared to non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated morphological changes in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in COVID-19 infection and also non-COVID-19 Influenza-like illnesses with the help of VCS parameters. A cutoff for the absolute neutrophils count was able to differentiate COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization from healthy controls and eosinopenia was a characteristic finding in cases with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies
2.
Ann Afr Med ; 22(2): 204-212, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297404

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aims to evaluate the use of haematological indices and coagulation profiles as possible low-cost predictors of disease severity and their associations with clinical outcomes in COVID-19-hospitalized patients in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We carried out a hospital-based descriptive 3-month observational longitudinal study of 58 COVID-19-positive adult patients admitted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain the participants' relevant sociodemographic and clinical data, including disease severity. Basic haematologic indices, their derivatives, and coagulation profile were obtained from patients' blood samples. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare these laboratory-based values with disease severity. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 14.8 years. More than half of the participants were males (55.2%, n = 32) and most had at least one comorbidity (79.3%, n = 46). Significantly higher absolute neutrophil count (ANC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) were associated with severe disease (P < 0.05). Patients' hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.04), packed cell volume (P < 0.001), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.03) were also significantly associated with outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of disease severity was significant for the ANC, ALC, NLR, LMR, and SII. The coagulation profile did not show any significant associations with disease severity and outcomes in this study. Conclusion: Our findings identified haematological indices as possible low-cost predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 in Nigeria.


Résumé Contexte: Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer l'utilité des indices hématologiques et profils de coagulation comme prédicteurs à faible coût de la sévérité de la maladie et leurs associations avec les résultats cliniques chez les patients hospitalisés pour COVID-19 au Nigéria. Méthodes: Nous avons mené une étude longitudinale observationnelle descriptive pendant 3 mois portant sur 58 patients adultes positifs au COVID-19, admis à Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigéria. Un questionnaire structuré a été établit pour obtenir les données sociodémographiques et cliniques pertinentes des participants, y compris les données sur la sévérité de la maladie. Les indices hématologiques de base, leurs dérivés, et le profil de coagulation ont été obtenus à partir d'échantillons de sang de patients. La courbe caractéristique opérante du récepteur (ROC) a été utilisée pour comparer ces indices biologiques avec la sévérité de la maladie. Une valeur de P < 0.05 a été considéré statistiquement significatif. Résultats: L'âge moyen des patients était 54.4 ± 14.8 ans. Plus de la moitié des participants étaient des hommes (55.2 %, n = 32), et la majorité des participants présentaient au moins une comorbidité (79.3 %, n = 46). Un nombre absolu de neutrophiles (CNA), un rapport neutrophiles-lymphocytes (NLR), et une indice d'inflammation immunitaire systémique (SII) significativement élevé, et un nombre absolu de lymphocytes (ALC) et un rapport lymphocyte-monocytes (LMR) bas étaient associés à un maladie sévère (P < 0.05). La taux d'hémoglobine des patients (P = 0.04), l'hématocrite (P < 0.001), et concentration moyenne d'hémoglobine cellulaire (P = 0.03) étaient également significativement associés avec la sévérité de la maladie. L'analyse ROC de la gravité de la maladie était significative pour le ANC, ALC, NLR, LMR, et SII. Le profil de coagulation n'a montré aucune association significative avec la gravité de la maladie dans cette étude. Conclusion: Nos résultats ont identifié les indices hématologiques comme des prédicteurs potentielle à faible coût de la sévérité du COVID-19 au Nigeria. Mots-clés: Profil de coagulation, COVID-19, indices hématologiques, Nigéria, prédicteur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammation , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Nigeria/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280044, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305192

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is common among immunodeficient people. Derangements of peripheral blood immune cells have been described to have a prognostic impact in DLBCL in high income countries, including a monocytosis, the ratios of lymphocytes to both monocytes (L:M) and neutrophils (N:L), as well as the numbers of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and immunosuppressive monocytes (HLA-DRlow monos). To date, the impact of these variables has not been assessed in the setting of HIV-associated DLBCL (HIV-DLBCL), which is among the most common malignancies seen in people living with HIV. In this study, we assessed these factors in a cohort of South African patients with DLBCL and a high HIV-seropositivity-rate. In addition, we evaluated the prognostic value of monocyte activation (as reflected by monocyte fluorescence (MO-Y) on a Sysmex haematology analyser). This parameter has to date not been assessed in the setting of DLBCL. METHODS: A full blood count and differential count as well as flow cytometry for HLA-DRlow monocyte and Treg enumeration were performed in patients with incident DLBCL referred to the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa between November 2019 and May 2022. Additional clinical and laboratory data were recorded from the patient charts and laboratory information system. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were included, of whom 81.3% were people living with HIV with a median CD4 count of 148 cells/ul. Most patients had advanced stage disease (74.8%) and were predominantly treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-based chemotherapy (without Rituximab). At a median follow-up period of 19 months, the median survival time was 3.5 months, with a 12-month survival rate of 27.0%. All of the immune-cell-related variables (with the exception of the CD4 count) were similar between the people living with HIV and the HIV-negative individuals. In contrast to previous studies, a high monocyte count, the L:M and increased numbers of HLA-DRlow monocytes were not significantly associated with survival in HIV-DLBCL, while a neutrophilia (>8 x 109/L), the N:L (>6:1), high numbers of Tregs (≥5.17% of CD4s) and lymphopenia (<1.3 x 109/L) were. In addition, increased monocyte fluorescence (MO-Y >115.5) was associated with superior outcomes, which we speculate to reflect a more robust antitumour immune response among individuals with high levels of monocyte activation. On Cox Proportional hazard analysis, immune-cell factors independently associated with survival included a CD4 count <150 cells/ul and a neutrophilia. CONCLUSION: The monocyte count, L:M and the number of HLA-DRlow monos are not strong prognostic indicators in HIV-DLBCL, while a low CD4 count and neutrophilia are. Elevation of the MO-Y shows some promise as a potential biomarker of antitumour immunity; further study in this regard would be of interest.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Monocytes , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Leukocyte Count , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Rituximab/therapeutic use , South Africa/epidemiology , Vincristine/therapeutic use , Fluorescence
5.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 135(9-10): 235-243, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The impact of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the setting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV­2) infection is not clearly defined. Blood eosinophil count is a standard diagnostic test which, according to the previously published literature, might have a potential prognostic role on mortality in patients with SARS-CoV­2 infection. AIM: To investigate the potential prognostic value of peripheral blood eosinophil count on all-cause mortality of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV­2 infection, as well as to assess the impact of asthma or COPD premorbidity on all-cause mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective registry-based cohort study. Survival analysis was performed by employing the Cox proportional hazards regression model at 30 days of follow-up. Prognostic value of eosinophil count on all-cause mortality was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5653 participants were included in the study. Our model did not reveal that pre-existing asthma or COPD is a statistically significant covariate for all-cause mortality but, indicated that higher eosinophil count at admission might have a protective effect (hazard ratio, HR 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.06-0.27), p = 0.0001). ROC curve analysis indicates cut-off value of 20 cells/mm3 (81% specificity; 30.9% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that eosinophil count at hospital admission might have a potential prognostic role for all-cause mortality at 30 days of follow-up; however this was not demonstrated for pre-existing obstructive lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Eosinophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Leukocyte Count , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Asthma/diagnosis
6.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 35(1): 80-83, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2019 novel coronavirus was discovered in Wuhan, China and declared pandemic by world health organization. The disease caused by this virus called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Among the corona family the actual virus responsible for COVID-19 is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective of the study was to determine the pattern of blood parameters in corona virus disease (COVID-19) positive cases and the association of these parameters with severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 105 participants who were confirmed positive by SARS-CoV-2 through real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, both genders, and Pakistani nationals. The participants who were below 18 years age and missing data were excluded. Haemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil and eosinophil counts were calculated. Comparison of blood parameters was done among various severity classes of COVID-19 by running one way ANOVA. The level of significance was p≤0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 50.6±6.26 years. Males were 78 (74.29%) and females were 27 (25.71%). In critical type COVID-19 the mean haemoglobin was least (10.21±1.07 g/dl) and highest in mild cases (15.76±1.16 g/dl) and these differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). TLC was highest in critical COVID cases (15.90±0.51x103 /µl) followed by moderate (12.44±0.65x103/µl). Similarly, neutrophil count was highest in critical (89±2.1) followed by severe (86±1.12). CONCLUSIONS: There is significant decrease in mean haemoglobin level and platelet count but increase in TLC in patients infected from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Leukocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemoglobins
7.
Analyst ; 148(9): 2021-2034, 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254524

ABSTRACT

Blood analysis through complete blood count is the most basic medical test for disease diagnosis. Conventional blood analysis requires bulky and expensive laboratory facilities and skilled technicians, limiting the universal medical use of blood analysis outside well-equipped laboratory environments. Here, we propose a multiparameter mobile blood analyzer combined with label-free contrast-enhanced defocusing imaging (CEDI) and machine vision for instant and on-site diagnostic applications. We designed a low-cost and high-resolution miniature microscope (size: 105 mm × 77 mm × 64 mm, weight: 314 g) that comprises a pair of miniature aspheric lenses and a 415 nm LED for blood image acquisition. The analyzer, adopting CEDI, can obtain both the refractive index distributions of the white blood cell (WBC) and hemoglobin spectrophotometric information, enabling the analyzer to supply rich blood parameters, including the five-part WBC differential count, red blood cell (RBC) count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) quantification with machine vision algorithms and the Lambert-Beer law. We have shown that our assay can analyze a blood sample within 10 minutes without complex staining, and measurements (30 samples) from the analyzer have a strong linear correlation with clinical reference values (significance level of 0.0001). This study provides a miniature, light weight, low-cost, and easy-to-use blood analysis technique that overcomes the challenge of simultaneously realizing FWD count, RBC count, and MCH analysis using a mobile device and has great potential for integrated surveillance of various epidemic diseases, including coronavirus infection, invermination, and anemia, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Tests , Hemoglobins , Blood Cell Count/methods , Hematologic Tests/methods , Erythrocyte Count/methods , Leukocyte Count , Hemoglobins/analysis
8.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(6): 2415-2421, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2226512

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) produced severe acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome (SARS-CoV-2; formerly known as 2019-nCoV) and has mild to fatal symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the different blood markers in confirmed positive COVID-19 individuals and see how they associated with the severity of the condition. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2020 to March 2021 on seventy-six (20 female and 56 male) Iraqi patients unvaccinated against COVID-19. The mean age of the study subjects was (47.00±13.31; 43.86±14.27) for males and females, respectively. 68.42% of the cases with mild illness, 14.47% with moderate illness, and 17.10% were severely ill. The severity of COVID-19 was assessed by several hematological parameters, including white blood cell (WBC) count, derived indicators such as neutrophils to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and IL6, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and S-ferritin. The results showed that lymphocyte count was lower in severely ill patients compared to patients with mild and moderate symptoms, with a significant difference between the three groups (2.274.83). Additionally, the NLR results showed a significant rise (11.56±1.23) in severe COVID-19. The results of the present study indicated that serum levels of IL6, CRP, and S-ferritin revealed significant differences (41.20±6.23 pg/ml), (50.66±12.55 mg/l), and (454.60±95.69 ng/ml) at (P≤0.05) in sever ill compared with mild and moderately ill patients respectively. The results indicated a highly significant positive correlation between IL6 and severity of COVID-19 infection at P<0.01. Furthermore, a positive connection is seen in Neutrophil, CRP, and NLR (0.229, 0.264, and 0.277) at (P≤0.05) respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukin-6 , Leukocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Exp Hematol ; 118: 53-64.e1, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210281

ABSTRACT

The manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality has been associated with dysregulation of the immune response, often influenced by racial disparities and conferred by changes in hematologic and immunologic parameters. These biological and hematologic parameters as well as cytokine profiles were investigated in a cohort of 61 COVID-19-positive patients (categorized into mild, moderate, and severe groups) from Bangladesh using standard analytical methods. The data reported that the interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 levels were significantly increased, whereas the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were significantly reduced in patients with severe COVID-19 (p < 0.05) compared with those in patients with mild and/or moderate COVID-19. The extent of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); neutrophil count; and levels of ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer (p < 0.05) were found to be significantly increased, whereas the white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, eosinophil, and platelet counts (p < 0.05) were observed to be significantly reduced in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with those in the patients in other 2 groups. Our study exhibited a significantly higher IL-6-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with severe COVID-19 than in those with mild and moderate COVID-19. The calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and ferritin-to-ESR ratio were significantly increased in patients with severe COVID-19. The increase in the IL-4 and IL-6 levels along with CRP and D-dimer levels may envisage a hyperinflammatory environment and immune dysregulation, which contribute to prolonged viral persistence, leading to severe disease. However, the reduced level of IFN-γ can be attributed to a less fatality toll in Bangladesh compared with that in the rest of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Lymphocytes , Leukocyte Count , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Neutrophils , Interferon-gamma , Retrospective Studies
10.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
11.
Allergy ; 77(12): 3704-3705, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136628
12.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2998-3006, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available in COVID-19 patients on the prediction of treatment response to systemic corticosteroid therapy based on systemic inflammatory markers. There is a concern whether the response to systemic corticosteroid is different according to white blood cell (WBC) counts in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to assess whether WBC count is related with the clinical outcomes after treatment with systemic corticosteroids in severe COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study and analysed the patients hospitalised for severe COVID-19 and received systemic corticosteroids between July 2020 and June 2021. The primary endpoint was to compare the composite poor outcome of mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and mortality among the patients with different WBC counts. RESULTS: Of the 585 COVID-19 patients who required oxygen supplementation and systemic corticosteroids, 145 (24.8%) belonged to the leukopoenia group, 375 (64.1%) belonged to the normal WBC group, and 65 (11.1%) belonged to the leukocytosis group. In Kaplan-Meier curve, the composite poor outcome was significantly reduced in leukopoenia group compared to leukocytosis group (log-rank p-value < 0.001). In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, leukopoenia group was significantly associated with a lower risk of the composite poor outcome compared to normal WBC group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.76, p-value = 0.009) and leukocytosis group (aHR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.12-0.78, p-value = 0.013). There was no significant difference in aHR for composite poor outcome between leukocytosis and normal WBC group. CONCLUSION: Leukopoenia may be related with a better response to systemic corticosteroid therapy in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen supplementation.KEY MESSAGESIn severe COVID-19 treated with systemic corticosteroids, patients with leukopoenia showed a lower hazard for composite poor outcome compared to patients with normal white blood cell counts or leukocytosis.Leukopoenia may be a potential biomarker for better response to systemic corticosteroid therapy in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Leukocytosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Leukocyte Count , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1564-1569, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to research the effects of hematological and inflammatory parameters on the prognosis of COVID-19 disease and hospitalization duration. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and eighty-six patients with COVID-19 and a control group consisting of 187 healthy individuals were included in the study. Hematological variables and inflammatory parameters of the patients were recorded on the first and the fifth days of hospitalization. RESULTS: White blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were statistically lower, and mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels were higher in the patient group compared to the control group. It was observed that the neutrophil count and MPV level were lower, and the platelet count and ferritin level were statistically higher on the fifth day of follow-up compared to the admission day. In contrast, there was a significantly positive correlation between the duration of hospitalization and the fifth day D-dimer (r = 0.546, p < 0.001) and ferritin (r = 0.568, p < 0.001); in addition, there was a negative correlation between the duration of hospitalization and admission day lymphocyte count and the fifth-day lymphocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of ferritin and D-dimer, and decreased count of lymphocytes are among the important factors affecting the duration of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we think that neutrophil count and MPV levels are low, and platelet count and ferritin levels are high during the disease. Therefore, these parameters can be used as prognostic indicators of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Platelet Count , Leukocyte Count , Mean Platelet Volume , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Ferritins
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277340, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109331

ABSTRACT

Due to the high prevalence of patients attending with urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms, the use of flow-cytometry as a rapid screening tool to avoid unnecessary cultures is becoming a widely used system in clinical practice. However, the recommended cut-points applied in flow-cytometry systems differ substantially among authors, making it difficult to obtain reliable conclusions. Here, we present FlowUTI, a shiny web-application created to establish optimal cut-off values in flow-cytometry for different UTI markers, such as bacterial or leukocyte counts, in urine from patients with UTI symptoms. This application provides a user-friendly graphical interface to perform robust statistical analysis without a specific training. Two datasets are analyzed in this manuscript: one composed of 204 urine samples from neonates and infants (≤3 months old) attended in the emergency department with suspected UTI; and the second dataset including 1174 urines samples from an elderly population attended at the primary care level. The source code is available on GitHub (https://github.com/GuillermoMG-HUVR/Microbiology-applications/tree/FlowUTI/FlowUTI). The web application can be executed locally from the R console. Alternatively, it can be freely accessed at https://covidiario.shinyapps.io/flowuti/. FlowUTI provides an easy-to-use environment for evaluating the efficiency of the urinary screening process with flow-cytometry, reducing the computational burden associated with this kind of analysis.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Aged , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Flow Cytometry , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinalysis , Leukocyte Count , Software
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(3): 495-505, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100081

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) caused by corona virus (SARS Cov-2) has affected millions of people around the world. Many diagnostic modalities have been tested but the blood complete picture remains the initial and most easily accessible investigation in Covid-19. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the haematological abnormalities in relation to Covid-19 severity and outcome. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2020 to July 2020. One--hundred and fifty polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed Covid-19 patients were inducted by random sampling. Haematological profile at admission was recorded. Data thus obtained was analyzed with respect to Covid-19 severity and outcome. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. Results: Out of a total of 150 patients included in the study, 77(51.3%) patients had mild disease at the time of admission, 42 (28%) had moderate disease while 31 (20.7%) had critical disease at the time of admission. Medians (interquartile range) of total leucocyte count (TLC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR), platelets to lymphocytes ratio (PLR), neutrophils to monocyte ratio (NMR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were 8.11 (IQR=4.88), 5.95 (IQR=4.58), 1.66 (IQR=1.10), 3.48 (IQR=4.20), 146.24 (IQR=130.75), 18.87 (IQR=14.07), 0.16 (IQR=0.13). Median NLR was higher in patients with critical illness 11.23 (IQR=10.70) as compared to those with stable 2.51 (IQR=1.77) and moderate 3.22 (IQR=3.60) disease (p< 0.000). Similarly TLC (p< 0.000), neutrophils (p< 0.000), lymphocytes (p< 0.000), NLR (p< 0.000), PLR (p< 0.000, p=0.001), MLR (p< 0.000), NMR (p< 0.000) had significant relationship with the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection. Conclusion: Many haematological parameters are significantly different and can be used to predict the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18262, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096810

ABSTRACT

Many resource-limited countries need an efficient and convenient method to assess disease progression in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study developed and validated a complete blood count-based multivariate model for predicting the recovery of patients with moderate COVID-19. We collected the clinical data and laboratory test results of 86 patients with moderate COVID-19. These data were categorized into two subgroups depending on the laboratory test time. Univariate logistic regression and covariance diagnosis were used to screen for independent factors, and multifactorial logistic regression was used for model building. Data from 38 patients at another hospital were collected for external verification of the model. Basophils (OR 6.372; 95% CI 3.284-12.363), mean corpuscular volume (OR 1.244; 95% CI 1.088-1.422), red blood cell distribution width (OR 2.585; 95% CI 1.261-5.297), and platelet distribution width (OR 1.559; 95% CI 1.154-2.108) could be combined to predict recovery of patients with moderate COVID-19. The ROC curve showed that the model has good discrimination. The calibration curve showed that the model was well-fitted. The DCA showed that the model is clinically useful. Small increases in the above parameters within the normal range suggest an improvement in patients with moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , Leukocyte Count , ROC Curve
17.
Ann Afr Med ; 21(3): 278-282, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055679

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The triaging of COVID-19 patients is of paramount importance to plan further management. There are several clinical and laboratory parameters that help in categorizing the disease severity, triaging, and prognostication. Little is known about the prognostic significance of eosinopenia in predicting the severity of COVID-19 from large hospital data, especially from low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of eosinopenia as an early prognostic marker for assessing the outcomes in COVID-19 patients and to assess the superiority of eosinopenia as a prognostic marker for assessing the outcomes in COVID-19 patients compared to lymphopenia and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Methods: The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. A retrospective longitudinal approach was adopted wherein the hospital records of COVID-19 patients were analyzed. In our study, two separate groups of patients were included for analysis to describe the association between initial eosinophil counts of the patients and the clinical outcomes. In the first group, the disease severity in terms of clinical and radiological parameters was compared in patients of COVID-19 presenting with and without the presence of initial eosinopenia. Commonly used markers for triage, namely lymphopenia and NLR, were compared with the presence of initial eosinopenia among the patients who progressed to moderate and severe disease. In the second group, an analysis of eosinopenia was made among the patients who succumbed to the illness. Results: It was seen that 29.6% of patients with eosinopenia had moderate and severe disease compared to those without eosinopenia where only 10.8% had moderate disease, none had severe disease. It was seen that 19.7% of patients with eosinopenia but no lymphopenia had more severe disease compared to patients with lymphopenia but no eosinopenia where 10.8% of the patients had moderate disease, none had severe disease. In patients younger than 60 years who died of COVID-19, it was found that initial eosinopenia was found in 86%, whereas a high NLR >17 was seen in only 25.6% of patients who died, thus implying that is eosinopenia is an important marker of disease severity in COVID-19. Conclusions: Eosinopenia is an important parameter in the evaluation of COVID-19 and the presence of it should alert the clinicians regarding the further progression of the disease. It is not only an important marker but also an early marker for severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eosinophils , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
18.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58(12): 802-808, 2022 Dec.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041578

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The main aim of this study was to assess the utility of differential white cell count and cell population data (CPD) for the detection of COVID-19 in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) of different etiologies. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, prospective study of adults aged ≥18 years admitted to three teaching hospitals in Spain from November 2019 to November 2021 with a diagnosis of CAP. At baseline, a Sysmex XN-20 analyzer was used to obtain detailed information related to the activation status and functional activity of white cells. RESULTS: The sample was split into derivation and validation cohorts of 1065 and 717 patients, respectively. In the derivation cohort, COVID-19 was confirmed in 791 patients and ruled out in 274 patients, with mean ages of 62.13 (14.37) and 65.42 (16.62) years, respectively (p<0.001). There were significant differences in all CPD parameters except MO-Y. The multivariate prediction model showed that lower NE-X, NE-WY, LY-Z, LY-WY, MO-WX, MO-WY, and MO-Z values and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were related to COVID-19 etiology with an AUC of 0.819 (0.790, 0.846). No significant differences were found comparing this model to another including biomarkers (p=0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in white blood cell morphology based on a few cell population data values as well as NLR were able to accurately identify COVID-19 etiology. Moreover, systemic inflammation biomarkers currently used were unable to improve the predictive ability. We conclude that new peripheral blood biomarkers can help determine the etiology of CAP fast and inexpensively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Leukocyte Count , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Biomarkers
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5963-5970, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 might present with multisystem involvement due to its entry into many cells with ACE2 receptors on their surfaces, such as heart, endothelial, and lung alveoli cells. Studies have indicated that COVID-19 infection causes a severe clinical presentation in diabetic patients due to dysregulation of the metabolic and immune systems. The hematological effects of COVID-19 and the relationship of lymphopenia with the severity of the disease have been reported previously. The parameter of percentage of large unstained cells (LUCs) reflects active lymphocytes and peroxidase-negative cells. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is another reliable marker of inflammation in cases of cardiac diseases, solid tumors, and sepsis. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the parameters of LUCs and NLR differed between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals with COVID-19. Associations with disease severity were also sought. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our retrospective study, the data of 1,053 patients [230 diabetic patients (21.83%) and 823 nondiabetic patients (78.15%)] were reviewed. The white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, neutrophil%, lymphocyte count, lymphocyte%, LUC count, %LUCs, NLR, platelet count, hemoglobin level, HbA1c, history of diabetes, surveillance during hospitalization, and pulmonary infiltration status within the first 24 hours after admission to the hospital were analyzed from the records. RESULTS: When diabetic patients were compared with nondiabetics, the age [65 (20-90) vs. 42 (18-94) years], WBC count [6.72 (2.6-24.04) vs.  5.91 (1.35-52.68)], neutrophil count [4.29 (1.28-65) vs. 3.68 (0.02-50.47)], neutrophil% [67.53±12.3 vs.  64.08±13.28], NLR [3.35 (0.83-38.11) vs. 2.48 (0.01-68.58)], and LUC count [0.11 (0.03-0.98) vs. 0.1 (0.02-3.06)] of the diabetic group were found to be higher and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.015, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that LUC counts and NLR values in COVID-19-positive patients with diabetes were statistically significantly higher compared to nondiabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021902

ABSTRACT

AIM: To develop an accurate lab score based on in-hospital patients' potent clinical and biological parameters for predicting COVID-19 patient severity during hospital admission. METHODS: To conduct this retrospective analysis, a derivation cohort was constructed by including all the available biological and clinical parameters of 355 COVID positive patients (recovered = 285, deceased = 70), collected in November 2020-September 2021. For identifying potent biomarkers and clinical parameters to determine hospital admitted patient severity or mortality, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Fischer's test analysis was performed. Relative risk regression was estimated to develop laboratory scores for each clinical and routine biological parameter. Lab score was further validated by ROC curve analysis of the validation cohort which was built with 50 COVID positive hospital patients, admitted during October 2021-January 2022. RESULTS: Sensitivity vs. 1-specificity ROC curve (>0.7 Area Under the Curve, 95% CI) and univariate analysis (p<0.0001) of the derivation cohort identified five routine biomarkers (neutrophil, lymphocytes, neutrophil: lymphocytes, WBC count, ferritin) and three clinical parameters (patient age, pre-existing comorbidities, admitted with pneumonia) for the novel lab score development. Depending on the relative risk (p values and 95% CI) these clinical parameters were scored and attributed to both the derivation cohort (n = 355) and the validation cohort (n = 50). ROC curve analysis estimated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the derivation and validation cohort which was 0.914 (0.883-0.945, 95% CI) and 0.873 (0.778-0.969, 95% CI) respectively. CONCLUSION: The development of proper lab scores, based on patients' clinical parameters and routine biomarkers, would help physicians to predict patient risk at the time of their hospital admission and may improve hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients' survivability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
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