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1.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
2.
Allergy ; 77(12): 3704-3705, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136628
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1564-1569, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to research the effects of hematological and inflammatory parameters on the prognosis of COVID-19 disease and hospitalization duration. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and eighty-six patients with COVID-19 and a control group consisting of 187 healthy individuals were included in the study. Hematological variables and inflammatory parameters of the patients were recorded on the first and the fifth days of hospitalization. RESULTS: White blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were statistically lower, and mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels were higher in the patient group compared to the control group. It was observed that the neutrophil count and MPV level were lower, and the platelet count and ferritin level were statistically higher on the fifth day of follow-up compared to the admission day. In contrast, there was a significantly positive correlation between the duration of hospitalization and the fifth day D-dimer (r = 0.546, p < 0.001) and ferritin (r = 0.568, p < 0.001); in addition, there was a negative correlation between the duration of hospitalization and admission day lymphocyte count and the fifth-day lymphocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of ferritin and D-dimer, and decreased count of lymphocytes are among the important factors affecting the duration of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we think that neutrophil count and MPV levels are low, and platelet count and ferritin levels are high during the disease. Therefore, these parameters can be used as prognostic indicators of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Platelet Count , Leukocyte Count , Mean Platelet Volume , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Ferritins
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277340, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109331

ABSTRACT

Due to the high prevalence of patients attending with urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms, the use of flow-cytometry as a rapid screening tool to avoid unnecessary cultures is becoming a widely used system in clinical practice. However, the recommended cut-points applied in flow-cytometry systems differ substantially among authors, making it difficult to obtain reliable conclusions. Here, we present FlowUTI, a shiny web-application created to establish optimal cut-off values in flow-cytometry for different UTI markers, such as bacterial or leukocyte counts, in urine from patients with UTI symptoms. This application provides a user-friendly graphical interface to perform robust statistical analysis without a specific training. Two datasets are analyzed in this manuscript: one composed of 204 urine samples from neonates and infants (≤3 months old) attended in the emergency department with suspected UTI; and the second dataset including 1174 urines samples from an elderly population attended at the primary care level. The source code is available on GitHub (https://github.com/GuillermoMG-HUVR/Microbiology-applications/tree/FlowUTI/FlowUTI). The web application can be executed locally from the R console. Alternatively, it can be freely accessed at https://covidiario.shinyapps.io/flowuti/. FlowUTI provides an easy-to-use environment for evaluating the efficiency of the urinary screening process with flow-cytometry, reducing the computational burden associated with this kind of analysis.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Aged , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Flow Cytometry , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinalysis , Leukocyte Count , Software
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18262, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096810

ABSTRACT

Many resource-limited countries need an efficient and convenient method to assess disease progression in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study developed and validated a complete blood count-based multivariate model for predicting the recovery of patients with moderate COVID-19. We collected the clinical data and laboratory test results of 86 patients with moderate COVID-19. These data were categorized into two subgroups depending on the laboratory test time. Univariate logistic regression and covariance diagnosis were used to screen for independent factors, and multifactorial logistic regression was used for model building. Data from 38 patients at another hospital were collected for external verification of the model. Basophils (OR 6.372; 95% CI 3.284-12.363), mean corpuscular volume (OR 1.244; 95% CI 1.088-1.422), red blood cell distribution width (OR 2.585; 95% CI 1.261-5.297), and platelet distribution width (OR 1.559; 95% CI 1.154-2.108) could be combined to predict recovery of patients with moderate COVID-19. The ROC curve showed that the model has good discrimination. The calibration curve showed that the model was well-fitted. The DCA showed that the model is clinically useful. Small increases in the above parameters within the normal range suggest an improvement in patients with moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , Leukocyte Count , ROC Curve
6.
Ann Afr Med ; 21(3): 278-282, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055679

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The triaging of COVID-19 patients is of paramount importance to plan further management. There are several clinical and laboratory parameters that help in categorizing the disease severity, triaging, and prognostication. Little is known about the prognostic significance of eosinopenia in predicting the severity of COVID-19 from large hospital data, especially from low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of eosinopenia as an early prognostic marker for assessing the outcomes in COVID-19 patients and to assess the superiority of eosinopenia as a prognostic marker for assessing the outcomes in COVID-19 patients compared to lymphopenia and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Methods: The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. A retrospective longitudinal approach was adopted wherein the hospital records of COVID-19 patients were analyzed. In our study, two separate groups of patients were included for analysis to describe the association between initial eosinophil counts of the patients and the clinical outcomes. In the first group, the disease severity in terms of clinical and radiological parameters was compared in patients of COVID-19 presenting with and without the presence of initial eosinopenia. Commonly used markers for triage, namely lymphopenia and NLR, were compared with the presence of initial eosinopenia among the patients who progressed to moderate and severe disease. In the second group, an analysis of eosinopenia was made among the patients who succumbed to the illness. Results: It was seen that 29.6% of patients with eosinopenia had moderate and severe disease compared to those without eosinopenia where only 10.8% had moderate disease, none had severe disease. It was seen that 19.7% of patients with eosinopenia but no lymphopenia had more severe disease compared to patients with lymphopenia but no eosinopenia where 10.8% of the patients had moderate disease, none had severe disease. In patients younger than 60 years who died of COVID-19, it was found that initial eosinopenia was found in 86%, whereas a high NLR >17 was seen in only 25.6% of patients who died, thus implying that is eosinopenia is an important marker of disease severity in COVID-19. Conclusions: Eosinopenia is an important parameter in the evaluation of COVID-19 and the presence of it should alert the clinicians regarding the further progression of the disease. It is not only an important marker but also an early marker for severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eosinophils , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5963-5970, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 might present with multisystem involvement due to its entry into many cells with ACE2 receptors on their surfaces, such as heart, endothelial, and lung alveoli cells. Studies have indicated that COVID-19 infection causes a severe clinical presentation in diabetic patients due to dysregulation of the metabolic and immune systems. The hematological effects of COVID-19 and the relationship of lymphopenia with the severity of the disease have been reported previously. The parameter of percentage of large unstained cells (LUCs) reflects active lymphocytes and peroxidase-negative cells. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is another reliable marker of inflammation in cases of cardiac diseases, solid tumors, and sepsis. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the parameters of LUCs and NLR differed between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals with COVID-19. Associations with disease severity were also sought. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our retrospective study, the data of 1,053 patients [230 diabetic patients (21.83%) and 823 nondiabetic patients (78.15%)] were reviewed. The white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, neutrophil%, lymphocyte count, lymphocyte%, LUC count, %LUCs, NLR, platelet count, hemoglobin level, HbA1c, history of diabetes, surveillance during hospitalization, and pulmonary infiltration status within the first 24 hours after admission to the hospital were analyzed from the records. RESULTS: When diabetic patients were compared with nondiabetics, the age [65 (20-90) vs. 42 (18-94) years], WBC count [6.72 (2.6-24.04) vs.  5.91 (1.35-52.68)], neutrophil count [4.29 (1.28-65) vs. 3.68 (0.02-50.47)], neutrophil% [67.53±12.3 vs.  64.08±13.28], NLR [3.35 (0.83-38.11) vs. 2.48 (0.01-68.58)], and LUC count [0.11 (0.03-0.98) vs. 0.1 (0.02-3.06)] of the diabetic group were found to be higher and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.015, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that LUC counts and NLR values in COVID-19-positive patients with diabetes were statistically significantly higher compared to nondiabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021902

ABSTRACT

AIM: To develop an accurate lab score based on in-hospital patients' potent clinical and biological parameters for predicting COVID-19 patient severity during hospital admission. METHODS: To conduct this retrospective analysis, a derivation cohort was constructed by including all the available biological and clinical parameters of 355 COVID positive patients (recovered = 285, deceased = 70), collected in November 2020-September 2021. For identifying potent biomarkers and clinical parameters to determine hospital admitted patient severity or mortality, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Fischer's test analysis was performed. Relative risk regression was estimated to develop laboratory scores for each clinical and routine biological parameter. Lab score was further validated by ROC curve analysis of the validation cohort which was built with 50 COVID positive hospital patients, admitted during October 2021-January 2022. RESULTS: Sensitivity vs. 1-specificity ROC curve (>0.7 Area Under the Curve, 95% CI) and univariate analysis (p<0.0001) of the derivation cohort identified five routine biomarkers (neutrophil, lymphocytes, neutrophil: lymphocytes, WBC count, ferritin) and three clinical parameters (patient age, pre-existing comorbidities, admitted with pneumonia) for the novel lab score development. Depending on the relative risk (p values and 95% CI) these clinical parameters were scored and attributed to both the derivation cohort (n = 355) and the validation cohort (n = 50). ROC curve analysis estimated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the derivation and validation cohort which was 0.914 (0.883-0.945, 95% CI) and 0.873 (0.778-0.969, 95% CI) respectively. CONCLUSION: The development of proper lab scores, based on patients' clinical parameters and routine biomarkers, would help physicians to predict patient risk at the time of their hospital admission and may improve hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients' survivability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4705, 2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000883

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is the physiologic reaction to cellular and tissue damage caused by trauma, ischemia, infection, and other pathologic conditions. Elevation of white blood cell count (WBC) and altered levels of other acute phase reactants are cardinal signs of inflammation, but the dynamics of these changes and their resolution are not well established. Here we studied inflammatory recovery from trauma, ischemia, and infection by tracking longitudinal dynamics of clinical laboratory measurements in hospitalized patients. We identified a universal recovery trajectory defined by exponential WBC decay and delayed linear growth of platelet count (PLT). Co-regulation of WBC-PLT dynamics is a fundamental mechanism of acute inflammatory recovery and provides a generic approach for identifying high-risk patients: 32x relative risk (RR) of adverse outcomes for cardiac surgery, 9x RR of death from COVID-19, 9x RR of death from sepsis, and 5x RR of death from myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Inflammation , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Platelet Count
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(8): 1301-1307, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994307

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute phase reactants and inflammation biomarkers such as ferritin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and complete blood count parameters (White blood cell, platelet count) are usually used to evaluate and monitor the disease severity and treatment response of systemic inflammatory diseases. In addition to these parameters, Immature granulocytes (IG) that increase during systemic infection, hematological malignancy, and drug treatments (such as chemotherapy and glucocorticoids) are important parameters for evaluating systemic inflammation. The sensitivity and specificity of IG are as high as the abovementioned inflammatory biomarkers for monitoring disease severity and treatment response. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between IG count and the need for mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients and Methods: The medical records of the 401 patients who were followed up in the ICU due to COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome between October 2020 and February 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. On the day of admission to the ICU complete blood count (CBC), arterial blood gas analysis, coagulation parameters (fibrinogen, D-dimer) are recorded. CRP, procalcitonin, and ferritin levels are also recorded at the day of admission. During the follow-up period, the survival status and mechanical ventilation status of the patients were recorded and the relation between IG count and these parameters was evaluated. Results: The mean IG at the admission was 0.2 ± 0.4 109/L. The IG level of the intubated patients at the time of intubation was 0.3 ± 0.5 109/L. There was a significant positive correlation between mortality and IG levels at admission and at the time of intubation (IG admission; P = 0.001, r = 0.347 and IG at intubation; P = 0.001, r = 0.228). Conclusion: IG levels in CBC data could be a potential practical biomarker. This issue requires further research and the development of therapies targeting IG cells is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Granulocytes , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Procalcitonin , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(9): e24652, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) profoundly affects the immune and hematopoietic systems with various degrees of reactive changes in the blood cell counts. Immuno-inflammatory indices are considered a simple and effective tool in the prediction of COVID-19 outcomes. We aimed to evaluate and compare the usefulness of leukocyte and platelet counts-based immuno-inflammatory indices on admission to hospital in predicting COVID-19 progression and mortality. METHODS: A total of 945 patients were enrolled. In addition to blood cell counts, we assessed hemogram-derived immuno-inflammatory indices in relation to COVID-19 progression and death. The indices were tested by analysis of variance, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and binomial logistic regressions. RESULTS: Patients with severe COVID-19 had significantly higher counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, and large immature cells (LIC), while decreased counts of platelets and monocytes. Lymphopenia was found in all of the patients, but without significant association with the outcomes. Patients with a LIC count ≥0.265 x 09 /L had 54.7% more odds of having COVID-19 progression. In multivariable analyses, platelets/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P/NLR) and platelets-to-neutrophil radio (P/N) were significant independent predictors of COVID-19 progression and mortality. The odds of a poor outcome were two times higher in cases with P/NLR < 43 x 109 /L and P/N < 29 x 109 /L. CONCLUSION: Indices that include platelet count in combination with neutrophil and/or lymphocyte counts displayed the best discriminatory ability and prognostic value of COVID-19 outcomes. Additionally, LIC showed promising results in the early identification of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
12.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 140(5): 627-635, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which leads to high mortality rates. Tocilizumab suppresses CRS by blocking the signal transduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality among patients receiving tocilizumab treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study conducted in the chest disease departments of two different training and research hospitals in the center of Ankara, Turkey. METHODS: Patients who were hospitalized and treated with tocilizumab in September 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Their laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics were obtained from the hospital information system database. Comparative analyses were performed between the patients who died and the ones who survived. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients who received tocilizumab treatment were included in this study, among whom 35 (60.3%) died. There was no difference between the mortality and survival groups in terms of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, ferritin or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels detected on admission. WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil and CRP levels measured on the third and fifth days after tocilizumab administration were found to be significantly lower in the survival group (P < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, age and oxygen saturation were determined to be independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Persistently high WBC, CRP and neutrophil levels and low lymphocyte levels could be considered to be valuable indicators of mortality among COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab. Age and low oxygen saturation are independent risk factors for mortality among patients receiving tocilizumab treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9447, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947477

ABSTRACT

Beneficial effects of vitamin D on COVID-19 progression have been discussed in several studies. Vitamin D stimulates the expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, and evidence shows that LL-37 can antagonize SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we investigated the association between LL-37 and vitamin D serum levels and the severity of COVID-19. To this end, 78 COVID-19 patients were divided into 5 groups according to disease severity. We determined serum levels of LL-37, vitamin D, and routine laboratory parameters. We demonstrated a correlation of CRP, IL-6, PCT, leukocyte count, and LDH with the severity of COVID-19. Our study did not demonstrate a direct relationship between serum levels of LL-37 and vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19. LL-37 is produced by granulocytes and released at the site of inflammation. Therefore, the analysis of LL-37 in broncho-alvelolar lavage rather than in patient serum seems critical. However, since LL-37 is produced by granulocytes, we determined serum LL-37 levels as a function of leukocyte count. The LL-37/leukocyte count ratio correlates highly significantly inversely proportional with COVID-19 severity. Our results indicate that the LL-37/leukocyte count ratio could be used to assess the risk of COVID-19 progression as early as hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
15.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(2): 163-166, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934794
16.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 47(1): 111-116, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low testosterone (mainly total testosterone [TTe]) has been noted in patients with COVID-19. Calculated free testosterone (FTe) and bioavailable testosterone (BavTe) may reflect more accurately this hormone's levels. In this study, we sought to assess TTe, FTe as well as BavTe in male patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera were collected upon admission from 65 men (10 in the intensive care units [ICU] and 55 in the wards) with polymerase chain reaction - proven COVID-19. A group of age-matched COVID-19-negative men (N.=29) hospitalized in general medical wards served as controls. Age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and 28-day mortality were noted. Measurements included TTe, sex-hormone binding globulin, albumin (the latter two for calculating FTe and BavTe) and laboratory markers of inflammation (white blood cell count [WBC], D-Dimers [D-D], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], ferritin [Fer] and C-reactive protein [CRP]). RESULTS: Profoundly low TTe, FTe and BavTe were noted in most patients, and were associated with disease severity/outcome (being the lowest in COVID-19 patients in the ICU and overall being lower in non-survivors; analysis of covariance P<0.05). Pearson's correlations for logTe, logFTe or logBavTe versus WBC, D-D, LDH, Ferr or CRP were negative, ranging from -0.403 to -0.293 (P=0.009 to 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: TTe, FTe and BavTe are prone to be low in patients with COVID-19, are negatively associated with disease severity and may be considered to have prognostic value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testosterone , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male
17.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(3): 369-373, 2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924809

ABSTRACT

No abstract No abstract No abstract No abstract No abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukocyte Count
18.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(6): 659-667, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911004

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients who experience clinical deterioration from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) require blood transfusion support. We analyzed blood component usage in COVID-19 patients and identified the predictors of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in elderly (≥65 years) patients. Methods: Blood component usage in 882 COVID-19 patients hospitalized between January 24, 2020 and April 30, 2021 was analyzed. Elderly patients were categorized into transfused and non-transfused groups according to their RBC transfusion history; their demographic and clinical characteristics, disease severity, and outcomes were compared. Associations were determined using multiple logistic regression. Results: The overall transfusion rate was 8.3% (73/882), and the transfusion rate was 2.7% (14/524) in patients aged <65 years and 16.5% (59/358) in those aged ≥65 years. Among the 358 elderly patients, 344 patients, including 50 who received transfusion and 294 who did not, were enrolled for the analysis. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on admission were significantly higher in the transfused group, whereas Hb and platelet counts were significantly lower. Disease severity in the transfused group was relatively high on admission and increased thereafter. DM, intensive care unit entrance on admission, Hb, platelet count, and NLR on admission were independently associated with RBC transfusion. Conclusions: This study presents transfusion rates in COVID-19 patients according to age groups and predictors of RBC transfusion in elderly patients. The results provide a basis for developing a strategy for the medical treatment of infectious diseases emerging during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
19.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(9): 1623-1628, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901788

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of the delta neutrophil index (DNI), an index expressing the number of immature granulocytes as a proportion of the total, as an inflammatory marker in predicting serious bacterial infections (SBIs). METHODS: Paediatric patients admitted to our hospital with fever were divided into four groups: SBI, non-SBI, COVID-19 and control group. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and the DNI were recorded, and their accuracy in predicting SBI was evaluated. RESULTS: Mean DNI was 4.96 ± 8.38 in the SBI group (150 patients), 0.67 ± 1.68 in the non-SBI group (397 patients), 0.29 ± 0.99 in the COVID-19 group (112 patients) and 0.14 ± 0.21 in the control group (102 patients). The DNI was significantly higher in the SBI group compared with the non-SBI (P < 0.001); the non-SBI group also had higher levels than the COVID-19 group (P = 0.005). One percent increase in the DNI increased the SBI rate 1.36 times (odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.49), P < 0.001). Based on the determined cut-off value (>2.5%), the DNI (odds ratio 6.27 (95% confidence interval 3.85-10.21), P < 0.001) significantly predicted SBIs with 90.4% specificity and 47.7% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: SBIs in childrenare associated with an increase in DNI levels. Compared to other biomarkers, the DNI had higher specificity in predicting SBIs. The DNI may also be usefulin differentiating bacterial and non-bacterial infections in individualclinical syndromes. Currently, there is no evidence that serum DNI aids indifferentiating COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies
20.
Acta Cytol ; 66(6): 532-541, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902153

ABSTRACT

Information on cellular analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with COVID-19 is limited. Some studies have described an increase in lymphocyte percentage or exuberant plasmacytosis. Some reports addressed the importance of molecular testing on BAL samples to confirm COVID-19 pneumonia, in clinically highly suspected patients with consecutive negative nasopharyngeal swab results. In addition to atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, morphologic findings of atypical lymphocytes in BAL were also reported in a few patients. The objective of this study was to describe the cytopathic characteristics identified, any data presented here are descriptives and intended to trigger further research. Three general aspects have been evaluated in each sample: reactive changes, virus-related pathological changes, and differential leukocyte count. Seventeen samples were collected. All samples were negative for malignancy, with an inflammatory background, predominantly lymphohistiocytic in 5 samples, histiocytic in 9, and 3 with predominantly neutrophilic. Hemosiderin-laden macrophages were observed in 12/17. Nonspecific reactive cell changes were identified in 4 samples, including bronchial, alveolar, and reserve cell hyperplasia. Virus-related pathological changes were observed in 14 samples, such as loss of nuclear chromatin pattern, lymphocytes with atypical nuclei, nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions, multinucleations in bronchial cells and macrophages, or multinucleated giant cells. The identification of multinucleated giant cells could represent a cytopathic effect induced by the virus, at the same time the nuclear clearance of pneumocytes as a possible direct effect. BAL is a procedure aimed at obtaining cells from the respiratory tract that can provide valuable and rapid information. It is important to collect and describe as many cytopathological findings as possible, which can provide relevant information for future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Leukocyte Count , Bronchi
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