Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 315
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23390, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are very much like those of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP with clinical symptoms and imaging examination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct an effective model for the early identification of COVID-19 that would also distinguish it from CAP. METHODS: The clinical laboratory indicators (CLIs) of 61 COVID-19 patients and 60 CAP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Random combinations of various CLIs (ie, CLI combinations) were utilized to establish COVID-19 versus CAP classifiers with machine learning algorithms, including random forest classifier (RFC), logistic regression classifier, and gradient boosting classifier (GBC). The performance of the classifiers was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall rate in COVID-19 prediction using the test data set. RESULTS: The classifiers that were constructed with three algorithms from 43 CLI combinations showed high performance (recall rate >0.9 and AUROC >0.85) in COVID-19 prediction for the test data set. Among the high-performance classifiers, several CLIs showed a high usage rate; these included procalcitonin (PCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), uric acid, albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), neutrophil count, red blood cell (RBC) count, monocyte count, basophil count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. They also had high feature importance except for basophil count. The feature combination (FC) of PCT, AGR, uric acid, WBC count, neutrophil count, basophil count, RBC count, and MCHC was the representative one among the nine FCs used to construct the classifiers with an AUROC equal to 1.0 when using the RFC or GBC algorithms. Replacing any CLI in these FCs would lead to a significant reduction in the performance of the classifiers that were built with them. CONCLUSIONS: The classifiers constructed with only a few specific CLIs could efficiently distinguish COVID-19 from CAP, which could help clinicians perform early isolation and centralized management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572672

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses play a critical role in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this context, because the triggering-receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is considered an intrinsic amplifier of inflammatory signals, this study investigated the role of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) as a biomarker of the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Based on their clinical scores, we enrolled COVID-19 positive patients (n = 237) classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical groups. Clinical data and patient characteristics were obtained from medical records, and their plasma inflammatory mediator profiles were evaluated with immunoassays. Plasma levels of sTREM-1 were significantly higher among patients with severe disease compared to all other groups. Additionally, levels of sTREM-1 showed a significant positive correlation with other inflammatory parameters, such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and neutrophil counts, and a significant negative correlation was observed with lymphocyte counts. Most interestingly, sTREM-1 was found to be a strong predictive biomarker of the severity of COVID-19 and was related to the worst outcome and death. Systemic levels of sTREM-1 were significantly correlated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, which can release TREM-1 from the surface of peripheral blood cells. Our findings indicated that quantification of sTREM-1 could be used as a predictive tool for disease outcome, thus improving the timing of clinical and pharmacological interventions in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Leukocytes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/metabolism , Young Adult
3.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(3): 030501, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534569

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents a scientific and social crisis. One of the main unmet needs for coronavirus disease 2019 is its unpredictable clinical course, which can rapidly change in an irreversible outcome. COVID-19 patients can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe. Several haematological parameters, such as platelets, white blood cell total count, lymphocytes, neutrophils, (together with neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratio), and haemoglobin were described to be associated with COVID-19 infection and severity. The purpose of these review is to describe the current state of the art about complete blood count alterations during COVID-19 infection, and to summarize the crucial role of some haematological parameters during the course of the disease. Decreased platelet, lymphocyte, haemoglobin, eosinophil, and basophil count, increased neutrophil count and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratio have been associated with COVID-19 infection and a worse clinical outcome. Our study adds some novelty about the identification of effective biomarkers of progressive disease, and might be helpful for diagnosis, prevention of complications, and effective therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Cell Count , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 137-141, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Eosinopenia has been observed during infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. This study evaluated the role of eosinopenia as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Information on 429 patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, India between 04 June 2020 to 15 August 2020, was retrospectively collected through electronic records and analysed. RESULTS: 79.25% of the patients included in the study had eosinopenia on admission. The median eosinophil count in COVID-19-positive patients was 0.015 × 109 /L, and in negative patients, it was 0.249 × 109 /L. Eighteen per cent of the positive patients presented with 0 eosinophil count. Eosinopenia for early diagnosis of COVID-19 had a sensitivity of 80.68% and specificity of 100% with an accuracy of 85.24. Role of eosinopenia in prognostication of COVID-19 was found to be insignificant. There was no statistically significant difference between the median eosinophil counts in survivors and nonsurvivors. Eosinophil trends during the course of disease were found to be similar between survivors and nonsurvivors. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinopenia on admission is a reliable and convenient early diagnostic marker for COVID-19 infection, helping in early identification, triaging and isolation of the patients till nucleic acid test results are available. Role of eosinopenia as a prognostic indicator is insignificant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Eosinophils , Leukocyte Count , Leukopenia/etiology , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Eosinophilia/blood , Eosinophilia/etiology , Humans , India , Leukopenia/blood , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Selection Bias , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515267

ABSTRACT

Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis is a rare life-threatening adverse reaction characterised by an absolute neutrophil count <500 cells/µL of blood. Nitrofurantoin has been associated with haematological adverse events, but few agranulocytosis cases worldwide have been reported. We present a case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with fever and agranulocytosis following treatment with nitrofurantoin. Extensive workup for agranulocytosis, including a bone marrow aspirate, was unremarkable. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was discontinued, which led to a complete recovery of the complete blood count. This case stresses the importance of monitoring treatments, given that widely used drugs are not free from severe adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Neutropenia , Nitrofurantoin , Aged , Blood Cell Count , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Neutrophils , Nitrofurantoin/adverse effects
6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 370-376, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513257

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) diagnostic and prognostic value in the context of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A case-control study in which 701 confirmed COVID-19 patients (of which 41 were intensive care unit [ICU]-admitted) and 250 control subjects were enrolled. The study was conducted retrospectively in October on patients admitted to 3 separate hospitals in Saudi Arabia namely: King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital (Riyadh), Ohud Hospital (Madinah), and Nojood Medical Center (Madinah) between May and September 2020. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated based on absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte count. Institutional ethical approval was obtained prior to the study. RESULTS: Patients (median age 35 years), of which 54.8% were females, were younger than the control cohort (median age 48 years). Patients had significantly higher NLR compared to the control group. Intensive care unit admitted patients had significantly higher platelet, WBC and neutrophil counts. The ICU patients' NLR was almost twice as of the non-intensive patients. The NLR value of 5.5 was found to be of high specificity (96.4%) and positive predictive value (91.4%) in diagnosing COVID-19. Furthermore, it had a very good sensitivity (86.4%) in predicting severe forms of disease, such as, ICU admission. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an important tool in determining the COVID-19 clinical status. This study further confirms the prognostic value of NLR in detecting severe infection, and those patients with high NLR should be closely monitored and managed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Neutrophils , Adult , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Med Oncol ; 39(1): 6, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506526

ABSTRACT

To assess the prognostic role of different inflammatory indices on the outcome of cancer patients with COVID-19. Sixty-two adults and 22 pediatric cancer patients with COVID-19 infection were assessed for the prognostic value of certain inflammatory indices including the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), derived NLR (dNLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), mean platelet volume to platelet ratio (MPR), C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CRP/L), aggregate index of systemic inflammation (AISI), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), and neutrophil to lymphocyte, platelet ratio (NLPR). Data were correlated to patients' outcome regarding ICU admission, and incidence of mortality. Increased CRP/L ratio in adult COVID-19 cancer patients was significantly associated with inferior survival [152 (19-2253) in non-survivors, compared to 27.4 (0.8-681) in survivors (P = 0.033)]. It achieved a sensitivity (60%) and a specificity (90.2%) at a cut-off 152, while it achieved a sensitivity of 60% and specificity 95.1% at a cut-off 252 (AUC 0.795, P = 0.033). When combining both CRP/L and NLPR for the prediction of poor outcome in adult cancer patients with COVID19, the sensitivity increased to 80% and the specificity was 70.7% (AUC 0.805, P = 0.027). Increased incidence of ICU admission in pediatric cancer patients associated significantly with the severity of covid19 infection, decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) < 28.3, increased red cell distribution width (RDW) > 16, lymphopenia < 1.04, pseudo Pelger-Huet appearance, and PLR < 196.4 (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, P = 0.029, P = 0. 0.039, P = 0.050, and P = 0.040; respectively). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), MCH, and RDW could be useful prognostic markers for poor outcome in COVID-19 pediatric cancer patients (P < 0.05 for all). Increased both CRP/L and NLPR associated significantly with poor survival in adult COVID-19 cancer patients, while PLR associated significantly with ICU admission in pediatric COVID-19 cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Leukocyte Count/methods , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
8.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4496488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495709

ABSTRACT

When managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, radiological imaging complements clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of chest radiography findings in detecting COVID-19, describe those findings, and assess the association of positive chest radiography findings with clinical and laboratory findings. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted involving all primary health care corporation-registered patients (2485 patients) enrolled over a 1-month period during the peak of the 2020 pandemic wave in Qatar. These patients had reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and underwent chest radiography within 72 hours of the swab test. A positive result on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. The sensitivity of chest radiography was calculated. The airspace opacities were mostly distributed in the peripheral and lower lung zones, and most of the patients had bilateral involvement. Pleural effusion was detected in some cases. The risk of having positive chest X-ray findings increased with age, Southeast Asian nationality, fever, or a history of fever and diarrhoea. Patients with cardiac disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were at a higher risk of having positive chest X-ray findings. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean serum albumin, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and serum C-reactive protein, hepatic enzymes, and total bilirubin with an increase in the radiographic severity score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fever , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Noncommunicable Diseases , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Primary Health Care , Qatar/epidemiology , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum Albumin , X-Rays , Young Adult
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493346

ABSTRACT

Since the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing evidence suggests that the innate immune responses play an important role in the disease development. A dysregulated inflammatory state has been proposed as a key driver of clinical complications in COVID-19, with a potential detrimental role of granulocytes. However, a comprehensive phenotypic description of circulating granulocytes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients is lacking. In this study, we used high-dimensional flow cytometry for granulocyte immunophenotyping in peripheral blood collected from COVID-19 patients during acute and convalescent phases. Severe COVID-19 was associated with increased levels of both mature and immature neutrophils, and decreased counts of eosinophils and basophils. Distinct immunotypes were evident in COVID-19 patients, with altered expression of several receptors involved in activation, adhesion, and migration of granulocytes (e.g., CD62L, CD11a/b, CD69, CD63, CXCR4). Paired sampling revealed recovery and phenotypic restoration of the granulocytic signature in the convalescent phase. The identified granulocyte immunotypes correlated with distinct sets of soluble inflammatory markers, supporting pathophysiologic relevance. Furthermore, clinical features, including multiorgan dysfunction and respiratory function, could be predicted using combined laboratory measurements and immunophenotyping. This study provides a comprehensive granulocyte characterization in COVID-19 and reveals specific immunotypes with potential predictive value for key clinical features associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Granulocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Granulocytes/cytology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Leukocyte Count , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Organ Dysfunction Scores , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488556

ABSTRACT

Despite its severe adverse effects, such as agranulocytosis, clozapine is the primary treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The established clozapine monitoring system has contributed to reducing agranulocytosis incidence and mortality rates. However, the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused changes in the monitoring system. This review aimed to assess the current evidence on the neutrophil changes in the patient on clozapine treatment and infected with COVID-19. Individual cases reported various absolute neutrophil count (ANC) levels, normal, reduced, or elevated. No agranulocytosis case was reported. One case had a borderline moderate-severe ANC level, but the patient was in the 18-week period of clozapine treatment. A cumulative analysis of case the series initially reported inconclusive results. However, a more recent study with a larger sample size reported a significant reduction in the ANC during COVID-19 infection. Nevertheless, this effect is transient as no significant difference was found between the baseline and the post-infection period in ANC levels. In conclusion, COVID-19 is associated with a temporary reduction in ANC levels. The results supported the recommendation to reduce the frequency of clozapine monitoring in the eligible candidates. However, more data are required to confirm the current findings given the limitations, including study design, sample size, and statistical analysis.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Clozapine , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/adverse effects , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5889-5903, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports a sex disparity in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients, with men exhibiting higher mortality rates compared to women. We aimed to test the correlation between serum levels of sex hormones [total testosterone, estradiol (E2), estradiol to testosterone (E2/T) ratio, progesterone), prolactin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of inflammation, coagulation and sepsis at admission in hospitalized men with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an exploratory retrospective study including symptomatic men with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were consecutively admitted to our Institution between April 1 and May 31, 2020. RESULTS: Patients were divided into survivors (n=20) and non-survivors (n=39). As compared to survivors, non-survivors showed significantly higher median neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) values, D-dimer and procalcitonin (PCT) levels, along with significantly lower median 25(OH)D levels and total testosterone levels. Non-survivors exhibited significantly higher median values of E2/T ratio (a marker of aromatase activity). Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that total testosterone levels were significantly and inversely correlated with NLR, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6, D-dimer and PCT. Conversely, E2/T ratio values were significantly and positively correlated with the aforementioned markers and with white blood cell (WBC) count. In a multivariate analysis performed by a logistic regression model after adjusting for major confounders (age, body mass index, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and malignancy), total testosterone levels were significantly and inversely associated with risk of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Low total testosterone levels and elevated E2/T ratio values at admission are associated with hyperinflammatory state in hospitalized men with COVID-19. Low total testosterone levels at admission represent an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in such patients. Therefore, total testosterone and E2/T ratio may serve as prognostic markers of disease severity in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Estradiol/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Testosterone/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Vitamin D/blood
12.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
14.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but potentially severe illness that follows exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Kawasaki disease (KD) shares several clinical features with MIS-C, which prompted the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a mainstay therapy for KD. Both diseases share a robust activation of the innate immune system, including the IL-1 signaling pathway, and IL-1 blockade has been used for the treatment of both MIS-C and KD. The mechanism of action of IVIG in these 2 diseases and the cellular source of IL-1ß have not been defined.METHODSThe effects of IVIG on peripheral blood leukocyte populations from patients with MIS-C and KD were examined using flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) and live-cell imaging.RESULTSCirculating neutrophils were highly activated in patients with KD and MIS-C and were a major source of IL-1ß. Following IVIG treatment, activated IL-1ß+ neutrophils were reduced in the circulation. In vitro, IVIG was a potent activator of neutrophil cell death via PI3K and NADPH oxidase, but independently of caspase activation.CONCLUSIONSActivated neutrophils expressing IL-1ß can be targeted by IVIG, supporting its use in both KD and MIS-C to ameliorate inflammation.FUNDINGPatient Centered Outcomes Research Institute; NIH; American Asthma Foundation; American Heart Association; Novo Nordisk Foundation; NIGMS; American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cell Death/immunology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Fas Ligand Protein/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/classification , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20254, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467135

ABSTRACT

Monocytes are thought to play an important role in host defence and pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, a comprehensive examination of monocyte numbers and function has not been performed longitudinally in acute and convalescent COVID-19. We examined the absolute counts of monocytes, the frequency of monocyte subsets, the plasma levels of monocyte activation markers using flowcytometry and ELISA in seven groups of COVID-19 individuals, classified based on days since RT-PCR confirmation of SARS-CoV2 infection. Our data shows that the absolute counts of total monocytes and the frequencies of intermediate and non-classical monocytes increases from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateau thereafter. In contrast, the frequency of classical monocytes decreases from Days 15-30 till Days 121-150. The plasma levels of sCD14, CRP, sCD163 and sTissue Factor (sTF)-all decrease from Days 15-30 till Days 151-180. COVID-19 patients with severe disease exhibit higher levels of monocyte counts and higher frequencies of classical monocytes and lower frequencies of intermediate and non-classical monocytes and elevated plasma levels of sCD14, CRP, sCD163 and sTF in comparison with mild disease. Thus, our study provides evidence of dynamic alterations in monocyte counts, subset frequencies and activation status in acute and convalescent COVID-19 individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 2571912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463050

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious and continues to spread rapidly. However, there are no simple and timely laboratory techniques to determine the severity of COVID-19. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the potential of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an indicator of severe versus nonsevere COVID-19 cases. Methods: A search for studies on the NLR in severe and nonsevere COVID-19 cases published from January 1, 2020, to July 1, 2021, was conducted on the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were done on Stata 14.0 and Meta-disc 1.4 to assess the performance of the NLR. Results: Thirty studies, including 5570 patients, were analyzed. Of these, 1603 and 3967 patients had severe and nonsevere COVID-19, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-0.87) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.83), respectively; positive and negative correlation ratios were 3.6 (95% CI, 2.7-4.7) and 0.23 (95% CI, 0.17-0.30), respectively; DOR was 16 (95% CI, 10-24), and the AUC was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.90). Conclusion: The NLR could accurately determine the severity of COVID-19 and can be used to identify patients with severe disease to guide clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Confidence Intervals , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Likelihood Functions , Odds Ratio , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Infection ; 49(6): 1325-1329, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Eosinopenia has been described in COVID-19. With this study, we aim to study the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in COVID-19 patients and to investigate whether there is an association between the peripheral blood eosinophil counts and disease severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We revised the electronical medical records of confirmed COVID-19 patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in the Groene Hart Ziekenhuis, Gouda, The Netherlands. We divided patients in mild, moderate and severe groups based on clinical severity of COVID-19. Clinical severity was based on the therapy needed and the outcome of patients. We compared clinical characteristics, laboratory results and outcome between the three groups. RESULTS: Of the 230 patients included in this study, the mild, moderate and severe groups consisted of 16.5%, 45.7% and 37.8% of the included patients, respectively. The mean age was 68 years (IQR 57-78). 63% of patients were male. A significant decrease in the peripheral eosinophil counts was found corresponding to the increase of COVID-19 severity. In the mild, moderate and severe groups, the percentage of patients with eosinopenia was 73.7%, 86.7% and 94.3%, respectively (p value 0.002). CONCLUSION: Eosinopenia is significantly more frequent present in patients with a severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Eosinophils , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741765, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441111

ABSTRACT

The long-term impact of COVID-19 on transplant recipients remains unknown. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male kidney transplant recipient from Wuhan, China that was treated for severe COVID-19 in February 2020. He suffered an acute lung and renal injury and required systemic treatment including adjustment of his immunosuppressant regime. He was followed up to 1-year after discharge. No chronic lung fibrosis or deterioration of his pulmonary function was observed. Despite COVID-19 mediated damage to his renal tubular cells, no transplant rejection occurred. His immunological profile demonstrated both cellular anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity and specific humoral immunity, indicating that it is beneficial for the transplanted patients to be immunized with SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine. This case will help guide clinical decision making for immunocompromised individuals that become infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Leukocyte Count , Male , Oxygen/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transplant Recipients
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 717461, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435990

ABSTRACT

Data on the impact of lymphocytes and neutrophils on the incidence of liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients are limited. This study aimed to investigate the lateral and longitudinal associations of lymphocyte ratio (LR) and neutrophil ratio (NR) on liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. We tested 1,409 blood samples from 245 COVID-19 patients in China between January 2020 and June 2021. The lateral U-shaped relationships, determined by smooth curve fitting and the piecewise-linear mixed-effect model, were observed between LR, NR, and AST and the incidence of AST-linked liver dysfunction, with the threshold cutoffs of 26.1 and 62.0, respectively. Over the 1,409 tests, the LR ≤ 26.1 and NR ≥ 62.0 related to the occurrence of mild liver dysfunction (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.82), moderate liver dysfunction (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.85), and severe liver dysfunction (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.90). For the patients with preexisting AST ≥ 35 U/L, the baseline LR ≤ 26.1 and NR ≥ 62.0 (b.LLCHN) groups had a fully adjusted 8.85-, 7.88-, and 5.97-fold increased risk of mild and moderate liver dysfunction after being hospitalized of 3, 6, and 9 days compared to the baseline LR > 26.1 and NR < 62.0 (b.normal) groups. Severe liver dysfunction only presents significant differences after being adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. Consistently, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that b.LLCHN reflects a better predictive value for different subsequent magnitude liver dysfunctions after admission of 3 and 6 days. To improve liver function in patients with preexisting AST ≥35 U/L, future management strategies should pay more attention to baseline LR ≤ 26.1 and NR ≥ 62.0 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434221

ABSTRACT

Since the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing evidence suggests that the innate immune responses play an important role in the disease development. A dysregulated inflammatory state has been proposed as a key driver of clinical complications in COVID-19, with a potential detrimental role of granulocytes. However, a comprehensive phenotypic description of circulating granulocytes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients is lacking. In this study, we used high-dimensional flow cytometry for granulocyte immunophenotyping in peripheral blood collected from COVID-19 patients during acute and convalescent phases. Severe COVID-19 was associated with increased levels of both mature and immature neutrophils, and decreased counts of eosinophils and basophils. Distinct immunotypes were evident in COVID-19 patients, with altered expression of several receptors involved in activation, adhesion, and migration of granulocytes (e.g., CD62L, CD11a/b, CD69, CD63, CXCR4). Paired sampling revealed recovery and phenotypic restoration of the granulocytic signature in the convalescent phase. The identified granulocyte immunotypes correlated with distinct sets of soluble inflammatory markers, supporting pathophysiologic relevance. Furthermore, clinical features, including multiorgan dysfunction and respiratory function, could be predicted using combined laboratory measurements and immunophenotyping. This study provides a comprehensive granulocyte characterization in COVID-19 and reveals specific immunotypes with potential predictive value for key clinical features associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Granulocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Granulocytes/cytology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Leukocyte Count , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Organ Dysfunction Scores , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...