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1.
Virulence ; 14(1): 2218077, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238214

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil dysregulation is well established in COVID-19. However, factors contributing to neutrophil activation in COVID-19 are not clear. We assessed if N-formyl methionine (fMet) contributes to neutrophil activation in COVID-19. Elevated levels of calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and fMet were observed in COVID-19 patients (n = 68), particularly in critically ill patients, as compared to HC (n = 19, p < 0.0001). Of note, the levels of NETs were higher in ICU patients with COVID-19 than in ICU patients without COVID-19 (p < 0.05), suggesting a prominent contribution of NETs in COVID-19. Additionally, plasma from COVID-19 patients with mild and moderate/severe symptoms induced in vitro neutrophil activation through fMet/FPR1 (formyl peptide receptor-1) dependent mechanisms (p < 0.0001). fMet levels correlated with calprotectin levels validating fMet-mediated neutrophil activation in COVID-19 patients (r = 0.60, p = 0.0007). Our data indicate that fMet is an important factor contributing to neutrophil activation in COVID-19 disease and may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methionine , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Peptides , N-Formylmethionine/pharmacology , Racemethionine , Neutrophils , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 37(1): e24809, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Predictive and prognostic biomarkers to guide 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are critically evolving. Dysregulated immune responses are the pivotal cause of severity mainly mediated by neutrophil activation. Thus, we evaluated the association of calprotectin, neutrophil secretory protein, and other mediators of inflammation with the severity and outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: This two-center prospective study focused on PCR-proven COVID-19 patients (n = 76) with different clinical presentations and SARS-CoV-2 negative control subjects (n = 24). Serum calprotectin (SC) was compared with IL-6 and other laboratory parameters. RESULTS: Median levels of SC were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients in comparison to the control group (3760 vs. 2100 ng/ml, p < 0.0001). Elevated SC was significantly respective of disease severity (3760 ng/ml in mild up to 5700 ng/ml in severe cases, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the significant positive and negative correlations of SC with disease severity and oxygenation status indicated disease progression and respiratory worsening, respectively. It was found that SC was high in severe patients during hospitalization and significantly declined to normal after recovery. The logistic analysis identified the independent predictive power of SC for respiratory status or clinical severity. Indeed, SC behaved as a better discriminator for both outcomes, as it exhibited the largest area under the curve (receiver operating curve analysis), with the highest specificity and sensitivity when the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers was compared. CONCLUSION: Calprotectin can be used as a reliable prognostic tool to predict the poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Biomarkers , Severity of Illness Index
3.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 11(2): 179-188, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Switching from originator infliximab (IFX) to biosimilar IFX is effective and safe. However, data on multiple switching are scarce. The Edinburgh inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit has undertaken three switch programmes: (1) Remicade to CT-P13 (2016), (2) CT-P13 to SB2 (2020), and (3) SB2 to CT-P13 (2021). OBJECTIVE: The primary endpoint of this study was to assess CT-P13 persistence following switch from SB2. Secondary endpoints included persistence stratified by the number of biosimilar switches (single, double and triple), effectiveness and safety. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, cohort study. All adult IBD patients on IFX biosimilar SB2 underwent an elective switch to CT-P13. Patients were reviewed in a virtual biologic clinic with protocol driven collection of clinical disease activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), faecal calprotectin (FC), IFX trough/antibody levels, and drug survival. RESULTS: 297 patients (CD n = 196 [66%], ulcerative colitis/inflammatory bowel disease unclassified n = 101, [34%]) were switched (followed-up: 7.5 months [6.8-8.1]). This was the third, second and first IFX switch for 67/297 (22.5%), 138/297 (46.5%) and 92/297 (31%) of the cohort respectively. 90.6% of patients remained on IFX during follow-up. The number of switches was not independently associated with IFX persistence after adjusting for confounders. Clinical (p = 0.77), biochemical (CRP ≤5 mg/ml; p = 0.75) and faecal biomarker (FC<250 µg/g; p = 0.63) remission were comparable at baseline, week 12 and week 24. CONCLUSION: Multiple successive switches from IFX originator to biosimilars are effective and safe in patients with IBD, irrespective of the number of IFX switches.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Drug Substitution , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
5.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0279897, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287405

ABSTRACT

Although biomarkers to predict coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity have been studied since the early pandemic, no clear guidelines on using them in clinical practice are available. Here, we examined the ability of four biomarkers to predict disease severity using conserved sera from COVID-19 patients who received inpatient care between January 1, 2020 and September 21, 2021 at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, collected at the appropriate time for prediction. We predicted illness severity in two situations: 1) prediction of future oxygen administration for patients without oxygen support within 8 days of onset (Study 1) and 2) prediction of future mechanical ventilation support (excluding non-invasive positive pressure ventilation) or death of patients within 4 days of the start of oxygen administration (Study 2). Interleukin-6, IFN-λ3, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and calprotectin were measured retrospectively. Other laboratory and clinical information were collected from medical records. AUCs were calculated from ROC curves and compared for the predictive ability of the four biomarkers. Study 1 included 18 patients, five of whom had developed oxygen needs. Study 2 included 45 patients, 13 of whom required ventilator management or died. In Study 1, IFN-λ3 showed a good predictive ability with an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI 0.76-1.00). In Study 2, the AUC of each biomarker was 0.70-0.74. The number of biomarkers above the cutoff showed the possibility of good prediction with an AUC of 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.97). When two or more biomarkers were positive, sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 and 0.63, respectively. In terms of biomarker testing at times when prognostication may be clinically useful, IFN-λ3 was predictive of oxygenation demand and a combination of the four biomarkers was predictive of mechanical ventilator requirement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Biomarkers , Chemokine CCL17 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Oxygen , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Nephrol ; 99(4): 161-171, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent condition in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. There are only a few reports on the use of urinary biomarkers in COVID-19 and no data so far comparing the prognostic use of individual biomarkers in the prediction of adverse outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective mono-centric study on the value of urinary biomarkers in predicting the composite endpoint of a transfer to the intensive care unit, the need for renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. 41 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Urine samples were obtained shortly after admission to assess neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), calprotectin, and vascular non-inflammatory molecule-1 (vanin-1). RESULTS: We identified calprotectin as a predictor of a severe course of the disease requiring intensive care treatment (AUC 0.728, p = 0.016). Positive and negative predictive values were 78.6% and 76.9%, respectively, using a cut-off concentration of 127.8 ng/mL. NGAL tended to predict COVID-19-associated AKI without reaching statistical significance (AUC 0.669, p = 0.053). The best parameter in the prediction of in-hospital mortality was NGAL as well (AUC 0.674, p = 0.077). KIM-1 and vanin-1 did not reach significance for any of the investigated endpoints. CONCLUSION: While KIM-1 and vanin-1 did not provide prognostic clinical information in the context of COVID-19, the present study shows that urinary calprotectin is moderately predictive of the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and NGAL may be modestly predictive of AKI in COVID-19. Calprotectin and NGAL show promise as potential helpful adjuncts in the identification of patients at increased risk of poor outcomes or complications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Ureteral Diseases , Humans , Lipocalin-2 , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Biomarkers , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7277-7284, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Telemedicine (TM) has had a powerful impact in recent years, particularly on managing chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Knowing patients' expectations and concerns is essential to increase their confidence in this mode of medical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We interviewed a large cohort of IBD patients enrolled at two Italian tertiary referral centers to investigate their trust in TM. RESULTS: A total of 376 patients completed the survey and were included in the study: 293 (77.9%) considered TM valuable for managing their disease, and 307 (85%) wanted to have TM service at their center. However, only 99 patients (26.3%) believed that TM guarantees the same level of care as the in-person visit. Among the socio-demographic variables, those independently associated with trust in TM were the higher education qualification (p=0.02) and the level of competence in information and communication technologies (ICT) (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted the importance of equipping IBD patients with basic ICT skills to utilize TM services and increase their confidence in ICT with the help of caregivers. Additionally, to improve the perceived value of TM, it will be helpful to use additional tools such as telemonitoring of disease activity using patients' reported outcomes or remote measurement of fecal calprotectin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Trust , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066249

ABSTRACT

Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a very sensitive marker of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Its clinical utility can be appreciated in both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Recent evidence suggests a link between intestinal inflammation and dermatological, rheumatic and neurological diseases. This review focuses on the role of FC in non-gastrointestinal disease, such as rheumatic, dermatologic, neurologic and last but not least SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Biomarkers , Intestines , Inflammation
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(37): e279, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on how the coronavirus pandemic has affected pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) are lacking. We aimed to investigate the trends in epidemiology, characteristics, initial management, and short-term outcomes of PIBD in South Korea over the recent three years including the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This multicenter study retrospectively investigated temporal trends in the epidemiology of PIBD in Korea. Annual occurrences, disease phenotypes, and initial management at diagnosis were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2021. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients from 17 institutions were included in this epidemiological evaluation. Analysis of the occurrence trend confirmed a significant increase in PIBD, regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic. In Crohn's disease, patients with post-coronavirus outbreaks had significantly higher fecal calprotectin levels than those with previous onset (1,339.4 ± 717.04 vs. 1,595.5 ± 703.94, P = 0.001). Patients with post-coronavirus-onset ulcerative colitis had significantly higher Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index scores than those with previous outbreaks (48 ± 17 vs. 36 ± 15, P = 0.004). In the initial treatment of Crohn's disease, the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and steroids significantly decreased (P = 0.006 and 0.001, respectively), and enteral nutrition and the use of infliximab increased significantly (P = 0.045 and 0.009, respectively). There was a significant increase in azathioprine use during the initial treatment of ulcerative colitis (P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients with PIBD is increasing significantly annually in Korea. The initial management trends for PIBD have also changed. More research is needed to establish appropriate treatment guidelines considering the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Korean PIBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Azathioprine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Infliximab , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105802, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049668

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea is the most common disease affecting calves in the neonatal period resulting in economic losses. Although predisposing factors play a role in the etiology of the disease, in most cases, different pathogens are involved in the development of the infection. In this study, hemogram data, glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were examined to determine lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in E. coli- and coronavirus-infected calves. Serum amyloid A and calprotectin levels were also analyzed to determine inflammatory status. The study included a total of 45 female Montofon calves aged 0-1 week, including the E. coli group (15 calves), the coronavirus group (15 calves), and the control group (15 calves). Analysis revealed that total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, malondialdehyde, serum amyloid A, and calprotectin levels increased in the coronavirus-infected calves compared with the E. coli group and the control group. In contrast, the levels of glutathione, one of the antioxidant markers, decreased. In conclusion, the main findings related to the determination of inflammation and oxidative status were characterized by the presence of E. coli and coronavirus diarrhea, and it is suggested that future studies may be guided by the fact that inflammatory conditions are higher in viral disease than in bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Escherichia coli Infections , Cattle , Animals , Female , Escherichia coli , Serum Amyloid A Protein , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oxidative Stress , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Glutathione , Malondialdehyde
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 996637, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043454

ABSTRACT

Increased neutrophils and elevated level of circulating calprotectin are hallmarks of severe COVID-19 and they contribute to the dysregulated immune responses and cytokine storm in susceptible patients. However, the precise mechanism controlling calprotectin production during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains elusive. In this study, we showed that Dok3 adaptor restrains calprotectin production by neutrophils in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein engagement of TLR4. Dok3 recruits SHP-2 to mediate the de-phosphorylation of MyD88 at Y257, thereby attenuating downstream JAK2-STAT3 signaling and calprotectin production. Blocking of TLR4, JAK2 and STAT3 signaling could prevent excessive production of calprotectin by Dok3-/- neutrophils, revealing new targets for potential COVID-19 therapy. As S protein from SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants can activate TLR4-driven calprotectin production in Dok3-/- neutrophils, our study suggests that targeting calprotectin production may be an effective strategy to combat severe COVID-19 manifestations associated with these emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
12.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(6): 481-485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042400

ABSTRACT

Persisting inflammation has been discovered in lungs and other parenchymatous organs of some COVID-19 convalescents. Calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), syndecan-1 and neopterin are general key inflammatory markers, and systemically enhanced levels of them may remain after the COVID-19 infection. These inflammatory markers were therefore measured in serum samples of 129 COVID-19 convalescent and 27 healthy blood donors or employees at Oslo Blood bank, Norway. Also antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were measured, and timing of sampling and severity of infection noted. Whereas neopterin and NETs values remained low and those for syndecan-1 were not raised to statistically significant level, concentrations for calprotectin, as measured by a novel mixed monoclonal assay, were significantly increased in the convalescents. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were elevated, but did not correlate with levels of inflammatory markers. Difference between the groups in only one biomarker makes evaluation of ongoing or residual inflammation in the convalescents difficult. If there is a low-grade inflammation, it would in that case involve neutrophils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neopterin , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
13.
Clin Immunol ; 242: 109091, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) has been identified as a reliable marker of COVID-19 severity, helping in personalizing COVID-19 therapy. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between suPAR levels and COVID-19 severity, in relation to the traditional inflammatory markers. METHODS: Sera from 71 COVID-19 patients were tested for suPAR levels using Chorus suPAR assay (Diesse Diagnostica Senese SpA, Italy). suPAR levels were compared with other inflammatory markers: IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, circulating calprotectin, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and Neutrophil/Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR). Respiratory failure, expressed as P/F ratio, and mortality rate were used as indicators of disease severity. RESULTS: A positive correlation of suPAR levels with IL-6 (r = 0.479, p = 0.000), TNF-α (r = 0.348, p = 0.003), circulating calprotectin (r = 0.369, p = 0.002), neutrophil counts (r = 0.447, p = 0.001), NLR (r = 0.492, p = 0.001) has been shown. Stratifying COVID-19 population by suPAR concentration above and below 6 ng/mL, we observed higher levels of circulating calprotectin (10.1 µg/mL, SD 7.9 versus 6.4 µg/mL, SD 7.5, p < 0.001), higher levels of P/F ratio (207.5 IQR 188.3 vs 312.0 IQR 127.8, p = 0.013) and higher mortality rate. Median levels of suPAR were increased in all COVID-19 patients requiring additional respiratory support (Nasal Cannula, Venturi Mask, BPAP and CPAP) (6.5 IQR = 4.9) compared to the group at room air (4.6 IQR = 4.2). CONCLUSION: suPAR levels correlate with disease severity and survival rate of COVID-19 patients, representing a promising prognostic biomarker for the risk assessment of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Biomarkers , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005871

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies to multiple targets are found during acute COVID-19. Whether all, or some, persist after 6 months, and their correlation with sustained anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity, is still controversial. Herein, we measured antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens (Wuhan-Hu-1 nucleoprotein (NP), whole spike (S), spike subunits (S1, S2 and receptor binding domain (RBD)) and Omicron spike) and 102 human proteins with known autoimmune associations, in plasma from healthcare workers 8 months post-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 (n=31 with confirmed COVID-19 disease and n=21 uninfected controls (PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 negative) at baseline). IgG antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens were significantly higher in the convalescent cohort than the healthy cohort, highlighting lasting antibody responses up to 8 months post-infection. These were also shown to be cross-reactive to the Omicron variant spike protein at a similar level to lasting anti-RBD antibodies (correlation r=0.89). Individuals post COVID-19 infection recognised a common set of autoantigens, specific to this group in comparison to the healthy controls. Moreover, the long-term level of anti-Spike IgG was associated with the breadth of autoreactivity post-COVID-19. There were further moderate positive correlations between anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses and 11 specific autoantigens. The most commonly recognised autoantigens were found in the COVID-19 convalescent cohort. Although there was no overall correlation in self-reported symptom severity and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, anti-calprotectin antibodies were associated with return to healthy normal life 8 months post infection. Calprotectin was also the most common target for autoantibodies, recognized by 22.6% of the overall convalescent cohort. Future studies may address whether, counter-intuitively, such autoantibodies may play a protective role in the pathology of long-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5758-5765, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) has been identified as a biomarker that can aid in predicting the severity of disease in COVID-19 patients. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between levels of circulating calprotectin (cCP) and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Sera from 245 COVID-19 patients and 110 apparently healthy individuals were tested for calprotectin levels using a chemiluminescent immunoassay (Inova Diagnostics). Intensive care unit (ICU) admission and type of respiratory support administered were used as indicators of disease severity, and their correlation with calprotectin levels was assessed. RESULTS: Samples from patients in the ICU had a median calprotectin concentration of 11.6 µg/ml as compared to 3.5 µg/ml from COVID-19 patients who were not in the ICU. The median calprotectin concentration in a cohort of healthy individuals collected before the COVID-19 pandemic was 3.0 µg/ml (95% CI: 2.820-2.969 µg/ml). Patients requiring a Venturi mask, continuous positive airway pressure, or orotracheal intubation all had significantly higher values of calprotectin than controls, with the increase of cCP levels proportional to the increasing need of respiratory support. CONCLUSION: Calprotectin levels in serum correlate well with disease severity and represent a promising serological biomarker for the risk assessment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calgranulin A , Humans , Pandemics
17.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(17): 1570-1576, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896295

ABSTRACT

D-dimer is an established biomarker of thromboembolism and severity in COVID-19. We and others have recently reported the dysregulation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), FXIII, fibrinolytic pathway, inflammatory markers, and tissue injury markers, particularly in severe COVID-19. However, association of these markers with thromboembolism in COVID-19 remains elusive. The correlation analyses between these markers in patients with moderate (non-ICU) and severe COVID-19 (ICU) were performed to delineate the potential pathomechanisms and impact of thromboembolism. We observe a negative correlation of plasma TFPI (r2 = 0.148, P = 0.035), FXIII (r2 = 0.242, P = 0.006), and plasminogen (r2 = 0.27, P = 0.003) with D-dimer, a biomarker of thromboembolism, levels in these patients. Further analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between fibrinolytic markers tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (r2 = 0.584, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, a significant positive correlation of PAI-1, but not tPA, was observed with platelets and endothelial cells dysfunction markers P-selectin (r2 = 0.184, P = 0.01) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40 L) (r2 = 0.163, P = 0.02). Moreover, calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and cystatin C (CST3), previously linked with thromboembolism, exhibited positive correlations with each other (r2 = 0.339, P = 0.0007) and with the level of D-dimer independently in COVID-19. Finally, the tissue injury marker myoglobin demonstrated a strong positive correlation with D-dimer (r2 = 0.408, P = 0.0001). Taken together, inverse correlations of TFPI and FXIII with D-dimer suggest the TF pathway activation and aberrant fibrin polymerization in COVID-19 patients. The elevated level of PAI-1 is potentially contributed by activated platelets and endothelial cells. S100A8/A9 may also play roles in impaired fibrinolysis and thromboembolism, in part, through regulating the CST3. These findings strengthen the understanding of thromboembolism and tissue injury and may help in better management of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Biomarkers , CD40 Ligand/metabolism , Cystatin C/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Lipoproteins , Myoglobin/metabolism , P-Selectin/metabolism , Plasminogen/metabolism , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
18.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 23(5): 310-320, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892473

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is related to the direct cytopathic effect and associated hyper-inflammation due to exaggerated immune response. Different experimental and clinical studies revealed that many biomarkers could be used to determine the Covid-19 severity, such as Ddimer, procalcitonin, C-reaction protein (CRP), IL-6, and ferritin. Calprotectin (CP) is associated with intestinal inflammation, intestinal injury, and different respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Thus, CP might be a possible biomarker linking intestinal injury and acute lung injury (ALI) in Covid-19. Therefore, this study aimed to find a potential role of CP regarding GITI and ALI in Covid-19. CP is a complex protein consisting of S100A8 and S100A9, belonging to the Ca+2-binding proteins S100 family abundant in the cytosol of neutrophils and expressed on the monocyte membranes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cells. CP is a proinflammatory protein that acts through activation of the receptor for the advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). CP is a biomarker of neutrophil activation and is released following the turnover of neutrophils. CP could be controversial; it increases airway inflammation or protects lung and airway epithelium from an exaggerated immune response. Therefore, a high level of CP in different respiratory disorders might be protective and compensate against abnormal immune responses. CP level is high in Covid-19 and correlated with Covid-19 severity and oxygen demand due to activation of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory signaling pathways. Therefore, CP level is elevated in both ALI and intestinal inflammation so that it could be a potential biomarker that links the respiratory and intestinal injury in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Ferritins , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Procalcitonin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
19.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104077, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 is associated with a high circulating level of calprotectin, the S100A8/S100A9 alarmin heterodimer. Baseline calprotectin amount measured in peripheral blood at diagnosis correlates with disease severity. The optimal use of this biomarker along COVID-19 course remains to be delineated. METHODS: We focused on patients with a WHO-defined moderate COVID-19 requiring hospitalization in a medical ward. We collected plasma and serum from three independent cohorts (N = 626 patients) and measured calprotectin amount at admission. We performed longitudinal measures of calprotectin in 457 of these patients (1461 samples) and used a joint latent class mixture model in which classes were defined by age, body mass index and comorbidities to identify calprotectin trajectories predicting the risk of transfer into an intensive care unit or death. FINDINGS: After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidities, the predictive value of baseline calprotectin in patients with moderate COVID19 could be refined by serial monitoring of the biomarker. We discriminated three calprotectin trajectories associated with low, moderate, and high risk of poor outcome, and we designed an algorithm available as online software (https://calpla.gustaveroussy.fr:8443/) to monitor the probability of a poor outcome in individual patients with moderate COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: These results emphasize the clinical interest of serial monitoring of calprotectin amount in the peripheral blood to anticipate the risk of poor outcomes in patients with moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in a standard care unit. FUNDING: The study received support (research grants) from ThermoFisher immunodiagnostics (France) and Gustave Roussy Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820290

ABSTRACT

The trajectory from moderate and severe COVID-19 into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) necessitating mechanical ventilation (MV) is a field of active research. We determined serum levels within 24 h of presentation of 20 different sets of mediators (calprotectin, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interferons) of patients with COVID-19 at different stages of severity (asymptomatic, moderate, severe and ARDS/MV). The primary endpoint was to define associations with critical illness, and the secondary endpoint was to identify the pathways associated with mortality. Results were validated in serial measurements of mediators among participants of the SAVE-MORE trial. Levels of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-8, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-9, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and calprotectin (S100A8/A9) were significantly higher in patients with ARDS and MV. Levels of the anti-inflammatory IL-1ra and IL-33r were also increased; IL-38 was increased only in asymptomatic patients but significantly decreased in the more severe cases. Multivariate ordinal regression showed that pathways of IL-6, IL-33 and calprotectin were associated with significant probability for worse outcome. Calprotectin was serially increased from baseline among patients who progressed to ARDS and MV. Further research is needed to decipher the significance of these findings compared to other acute-phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) or ferritin, for the prognosis and development of effective treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Calgranulin A , Critical Illness , Humans , Interleukins , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
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