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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7277-7284, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Telemedicine (TM) has had a powerful impact in recent years, particularly on managing chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Knowing patients' expectations and concerns is essential to increase their confidence in this mode of medical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We interviewed a large cohort of IBD patients enrolled at two Italian tertiary referral centers to investigate their trust in TM. RESULTS: A total of 376 patients completed the survey and were included in the study: 293 (77.9%) considered TM valuable for managing their disease, and 307 (85%) wanted to have TM service at their center. However, only 99 patients (26.3%) believed that TM guarantees the same level of care as the in-person visit. Among the socio-demographic variables, those independently associated with trust in TM were the higher education qualification (p=0.02) and the level of competence in information and communication technologies (ICT) (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted the importance of equipping IBD patients with basic ICT skills to utilize TM services and increase their confidence in ICT with the help of caregivers. Additionally, to improve the perceived value of TM, it will be helpful to use additional tools such as telemonitoring of disease activity using patients' reported outcomes or remote measurement of fecal calprotectin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Trust , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066249

ABSTRACT

Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a very sensitive marker of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Its clinical utility can be appreciated in both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Recent evidence suggests a link between intestinal inflammation and dermatological, rheumatic and neurological diseases. This review focuses on the role of FC in non-gastrointestinal disease, such as rheumatic, dermatologic, neurologic and last but not least SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Biomarkers , Intestines , Inflammation
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(37): e279, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on how the coronavirus pandemic has affected pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) are lacking. We aimed to investigate the trends in epidemiology, characteristics, initial management, and short-term outcomes of PIBD in South Korea over the recent three years including the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This multicenter study retrospectively investigated temporal trends in the epidemiology of PIBD in Korea. Annual occurrences, disease phenotypes, and initial management at diagnosis were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2021. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients from 17 institutions were included in this epidemiological evaluation. Analysis of the occurrence trend confirmed a significant increase in PIBD, regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic. In Crohn's disease, patients with post-coronavirus outbreaks had significantly higher fecal calprotectin levels than those with previous onset (1,339.4 ± 717.04 vs. 1,595.5 ± 703.94, P = 0.001). Patients with post-coronavirus-onset ulcerative colitis had significantly higher Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index scores than those with previous outbreaks (48 ± 17 vs. 36 ± 15, P = 0.004). In the initial treatment of Crohn's disease, the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and steroids significantly decreased (P = 0.006 and 0.001, respectively), and enteral nutrition and the use of infliximab increased significantly (P = 0.045 and 0.009, respectively). There was a significant increase in azathioprine use during the initial treatment of ulcerative colitis (P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients with PIBD is increasing significantly annually in Korea. The initial management trends for PIBD have also changed. More research is needed to establish appropriate treatment guidelines considering the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Korean PIBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Azathioprine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Infliximab , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 996637, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043454

ABSTRACT

Increased neutrophils and elevated level of circulating calprotectin are hallmarks of severe COVID-19 and they contribute to the dysregulated immune responses and cytokine storm in susceptible patients. However, the precise mechanism controlling calprotectin production during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains elusive. In this study, we showed that Dok3 adaptor restrains calprotectin production by neutrophils in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein engagement of TLR4. Dok3 recruits SHP-2 to mediate the de-phosphorylation of MyD88 at Y257, thereby attenuating downstream JAK2-STAT3 signaling and calprotectin production. Blocking of TLR4, JAK2 and STAT3 signaling could prevent excessive production of calprotectin by Dok3-/- neutrophils, revealing new targets for potential COVID-19 therapy. As S protein from SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants can activate TLR4-driven calprotectin production in Dok3-/- neutrophils, our study suggests that targeting calprotectin production may be an effective strategy to combat severe COVID-19 manifestations associated with these emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
5.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(6): 481-485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042400

ABSTRACT

Persisting inflammation has been discovered in lungs and other parenchymatous organs of some COVID-19 convalescents. Calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), syndecan-1 and neopterin are general key inflammatory markers, and systemically enhanced levels of them may remain after the COVID-19 infection. These inflammatory markers were therefore measured in serum samples of 129 COVID-19 convalescent and 27 healthy blood donors or employees at Oslo Blood bank, Norway. Also antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were measured, and timing of sampling and severity of infection noted. Whereas neopterin and NETs values remained low and those for syndecan-1 were not raised to statistically significant level, concentrations for calprotectin, as measured by a novel mixed monoclonal assay, were significantly increased in the convalescents. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were elevated, but did not correlate with levels of inflammatory markers. Difference between the groups in only one biomarker makes evaluation of ongoing or residual inflammation in the convalescents difficult. If there is a low-grade inflammation, it would in that case involve neutrophils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neopterin , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
6.
Clin Immunol ; 242: 109091, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) has been identified as a reliable marker of COVID-19 severity, helping in personalizing COVID-19 therapy. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between suPAR levels and COVID-19 severity, in relation to the traditional inflammatory markers. METHODS: Sera from 71 COVID-19 patients were tested for suPAR levels using Chorus suPAR assay (Diesse Diagnostica Senese SpA, Italy). suPAR levels were compared with other inflammatory markers: IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, circulating calprotectin, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and Neutrophil/Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR). Respiratory failure, expressed as P/F ratio, and mortality rate were used as indicators of disease severity. RESULTS: A positive correlation of suPAR levels with IL-6 (r = 0.479, p = 0.000), TNF-α (r = 0.348, p = 0.003), circulating calprotectin (r = 0.369, p = 0.002), neutrophil counts (r = 0.447, p = 0.001), NLR (r = 0.492, p = 0.001) has been shown. Stratifying COVID-19 population by suPAR concentration above and below 6 ng/mL, we observed higher levels of circulating calprotectin (10.1 µg/mL, SD 7.9 versus 6.4 µg/mL, SD 7.5, p < 0.001), higher levels of P/F ratio (207.5 IQR 188.3 vs 312.0 IQR 127.8, p = 0.013) and higher mortality rate. Median levels of suPAR were increased in all COVID-19 patients requiring additional respiratory support (Nasal Cannula, Venturi Mask, BPAP and CPAP) (6.5 IQR = 4.9) compared to the group at room air (4.6 IQR = 4.2). CONCLUSION: suPAR levels correlate with disease severity and survival rate of COVID-19 patients, representing a promising prognostic biomarker for the risk assessment of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Biomarkers , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005871

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies to multiple targets are found during acute COVID-19. Whether all, or some, persist after 6 months, and their correlation with sustained anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity, is still controversial. Herein, we measured antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens (Wuhan-Hu-1 nucleoprotein (NP), whole spike (S), spike subunits (S1, S2 and receptor binding domain (RBD)) and Omicron spike) and 102 human proteins with known autoimmune associations, in plasma from healthcare workers 8 months post-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 (n=31 with confirmed COVID-19 disease and n=21 uninfected controls (PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 negative) at baseline). IgG antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens were significantly higher in the convalescent cohort than the healthy cohort, highlighting lasting antibody responses up to 8 months post-infection. These were also shown to be cross-reactive to the Omicron variant spike protein at a similar level to lasting anti-RBD antibodies (correlation r=0.89). Individuals post COVID-19 infection recognised a common set of autoantigens, specific to this group in comparison to the healthy controls. Moreover, the long-term level of anti-Spike IgG was associated with the breadth of autoreactivity post-COVID-19. There were further moderate positive correlations between anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses and 11 specific autoantigens. The most commonly recognised autoantigens were found in the COVID-19 convalescent cohort. Although there was no overall correlation in self-reported symptom severity and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, anti-calprotectin antibodies were associated with return to healthy normal life 8 months post infection. Calprotectin was also the most common target for autoantibodies, recognized by 22.6% of the overall convalescent cohort. Future studies may address whether, counter-intuitively, such autoantibodies may play a protective role in the pathology of long-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5758-5765, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) has been identified as a biomarker that can aid in predicting the severity of disease in COVID-19 patients. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between levels of circulating calprotectin (cCP) and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Sera from 245 COVID-19 patients and 110 apparently healthy individuals were tested for calprotectin levels using a chemiluminescent immunoassay (Inova Diagnostics). Intensive care unit (ICU) admission and type of respiratory support administered were used as indicators of disease severity, and their correlation with calprotectin levels was assessed. RESULTS: Samples from patients in the ICU had a median calprotectin concentration of 11.6 µg/ml as compared to 3.5 µg/ml from COVID-19 patients who were not in the ICU. The median calprotectin concentration in a cohort of healthy individuals collected before the COVID-19 pandemic was 3.0 µg/ml (95% CI: 2.820-2.969 µg/ml). Patients requiring a Venturi mask, continuous positive airway pressure, or orotracheal intubation all had significantly higher values of calprotectin than controls, with the increase of cCP levels proportional to the increasing need of respiratory support. CONCLUSION: Calprotectin levels in serum correlate well with disease severity and represent a promising serological biomarker for the risk assessment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calgranulin A , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(17): 1570-1576, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896295

ABSTRACT

D-dimer is an established biomarker of thromboembolism and severity in COVID-19. We and others have recently reported the dysregulation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), FXIII, fibrinolytic pathway, inflammatory markers, and tissue injury markers, particularly in severe COVID-19. However, association of these markers with thromboembolism in COVID-19 remains elusive. The correlation analyses between these markers in patients with moderate (non-ICU) and severe COVID-19 (ICU) were performed to delineate the potential pathomechanisms and impact of thromboembolism. We observe a negative correlation of plasma TFPI (r2 = 0.148, P = 0.035), FXIII (r2 = 0.242, P = 0.006), and plasminogen (r2 = 0.27, P = 0.003) with D-dimer, a biomarker of thromboembolism, levels in these patients. Further analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between fibrinolytic markers tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (r2 = 0.584, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, a significant positive correlation of PAI-1, but not tPA, was observed with platelets and endothelial cells dysfunction markers P-selectin (r2 = 0.184, P = 0.01) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40 L) (r2 = 0.163, P = 0.02). Moreover, calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and cystatin C (CST3), previously linked with thromboembolism, exhibited positive correlations with each other (r2 = 0.339, P = 0.0007) and with the level of D-dimer independently in COVID-19. Finally, the tissue injury marker myoglobin demonstrated a strong positive correlation with D-dimer (r2 = 0.408, P = 0.0001). Taken together, inverse correlations of TFPI and FXIII with D-dimer suggest the TF pathway activation and aberrant fibrin polymerization in COVID-19 patients. The elevated level of PAI-1 is potentially contributed by activated platelets and endothelial cells. S100A8/A9 may also play roles in impaired fibrinolysis and thromboembolism, in part, through regulating the CST3. These findings strengthen the understanding of thromboembolism and tissue injury and may help in better management of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Biomarkers , CD40 Ligand/metabolism , Cystatin C/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Lipoproteins , Myoglobin/metabolism , P-Selectin/metabolism , Plasminogen/metabolism , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
11.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 23(5): 310-320, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892473

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is related to the direct cytopathic effect and associated hyper-inflammation due to exaggerated immune response. Different experimental and clinical studies revealed that many biomarkers could be used to determine the Covid-19 severity, such as Ddimer, procalcitonin, C-reaction protein (CRP), IL-6, and ferritin. Calprotectin (CP) is associated with intestinal inflammation, intestinal injury, and different respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Thus, CP might be a possible biomarker linking intestinal injury and acute lung injury (ALI) in Covid-19. Therefore, this study aimed to find a potential role of CP regarding GITI and ALI in Covid-19. CP is a complex protein consisting of S100A8 and S100A9, belonging to the Ca+2-binding proteins S100 family abundant in the cytosol of neutrophils and expressed on the monocyte membranes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cells. CP is a proinflammatory protein that acts through activation of the receptor for the advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). CP is a biomarker of neutrophil activation and is released following the turnover of neutrophils. CP could be controversial; it increases airway inflammation or protects lung and airway epithelium from an exaggerated immune response. Therefore, a high level of CP in different respiratory disorders might be protective and compensate against abnormal immune responses. CP level is high in Covid-19 and correlated with Covid-19 severity and oxygen demand due to activation of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory signaling pathways. Therefore, CP level is elevated in both ALI and intestinal inflammation so that it could be a potential biomarker that links the respiratory and intestinal injury in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Ferritins , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Procalcitonin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
12.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104077, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 is associated with a high circulating level of calprotectin, the S100A8/S100A9 alarmin heterodimer. Baseline calprotectin amount measured in peripheral blood at diagnosis correlates with disease severity. The optimal use of this biomarker along COVID-19 course remains to be delineated. METHODS: We focused on patients with a WHO-defined moderate COVID-19 requiring hospitalization in a medical ward. We collected plasma and serum from three independent cohorts (N = 626 patients) and measured calprotectin amount at admission. We performed longitudinal measures of calprotectin in 457 of these patients (1461 samples) and used a joint latent class mixture model in which classes were defined by age, body mass index and comorbidities to identify calprotectin trajectories predicting the risk of transfer into an intensive care unit or death. FINDINGS: After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidities, the predictive value of baseline calprotectin in patients with moderate COVID19 could be refined by serial monitoring of the biomarker. We discriminated three calprotectin trajectories associated with low, moderate, and high risk of poor outcome, and we designed an algorithm available as online software (https://calpla.gustaveroussy.fr:8443/) to monitor the probability of a poor outcome in individual patients with moderate COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: These results emphasize the clinical interest of serial monitoring of calprotectin amount in the peripheral blood to anticipate the risk of poor outcomes in patients with moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in a standard care unit. FUNDING: The study received support (research grants) from ThermoFisher immunodiagnostics (France) and Gustave Roussy Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820290

ABSTRACT

The trajectory from moderate and severe COVID-19 into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) necessitating mechanical ventilation (MV) is a field of active research. We determined serum levels within 24 h of presentation of 20 different sets of mediators (calprotectin, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interferons) of patients with COVID-19 at different stages of severity (asymptomatic, moderate, severe and ARDS/MV). The primary endpoint was to define associations with critical illness, and the secondary endpoint was to identify the pathways associated with mortality. Results were validated in serial measurements of mediators among participants of the SAVE-MORE trial. Levels of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-8, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-9, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and calprotectin (S100A8/A9) were significantly higher in patients with ARDS and MV. Levels of the anti-inflammatory IL-1ra and IL-33r were also increased; IL-38 was increased only in asymptomatic patients but significantly decreased in the more severe cases. Multivariate ordinal regression showed that pathways of IL-6, IL-33 and calprotectin were associated with significant probability for worse outcome. Calprotectin was serially increased from baseline among patients who progressed to ARDS and MV. Further research is needed to decipher the significance of these findings compared to other acute-phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) or ferritin, for the prognosis and development of effective treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Calgranulin A , Critical Illness , Humans , Interleukins , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22001, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758318

ABSTRACT

Intestinal epithelial cell damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was thought to be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and decreased fecal consistency. The association of the gastrointestinal symptoms with the COVID-19-mediated inflammatory response triggered by the gastrointestinal immune system was investigated in this paper. Intestinal inflammation marker fecal calprotectin along with serum calprotectin and other inflammatory markers were measured in COVID-19 cases with and without GI manifestations as well as healthy individuals. Analyses were performed to compare COVID-19 patient subgroups and healthy controls and examine the relationship between fecal and serum calprotectin levels with gastrointestinal symptoms and disease severity. COVID-19 patients (n = 70) were found to have markedly elevated median levels of fecal (124.3 vs. 25.0 µg/g; P < 0/0001) and serum calprotectin (3500 vs. 1060 ng/mL; P < 0/0001) compared with uninfected controls. Fecal and serum calprotectin levels were not significantly different between COVID-19 patients who displayed GI symptoms and those who did not. Compared with other acute phase markers, both fecal and serum calprotectin were superior in identifying COVID-19 patients who progressed to severe illness. Although the progression of COVID-19 disease is marked by an elevation of fecal and serum calprotectin, gastrointestinal symptoms or diarrhea were not correlated with calprotectin increase level.


Subject(s)
Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Adult , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 42, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on clinical and genetic associations, axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are suspected to have a linked pathogenesis. Gut dysbiosis, intrinsic to IBD, has also been observed in axSpA. It is, however, not established to what degree gut dysbiosis is associated with axSpA disease severity. The objective of this study was to compare gut dysbiosis frequency between controls, non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and investigate whether gut dysbiosis is cross-sectionally associated with axSpA disease activity, physical function, mobility, or pain. METHODS: Gut dysbiosis was assessed by 16SrRNA analysis of feces from 44/88 nr-axSpA/AS patients (ASAS/mNY criteria) without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 46 controls without IBD or rheumatic disease. The GA-map™ Dysbiosis Test was used, grading gut microbiota aberrations on a 1-5 scale, where ≥3 denotes dysbiosis. Proportions with dysbiosis were compared between the groups. Furthermore, standard axSpA measures of disease activity, function, mobility, and pain were compared between patients (nr-axSpA and AS combined) with and without dysbiosis, univariately, and adjusted for relevant confounders (ANCOVA). RESULTS: Gut dysbiosis was more frequent in AS than controls (36% versus 17%, p=0.023), while nr-axSpA (25% dysbiosis) did not differ significantly from either AS or controls. Univariately, most axSpA measures were significantly worse in patients with dysbiosis versus those without: ASDAS-CRP between-group difference 0.6 (95% CI 0.2-0.9); BASDAI 1.6 (0.8-2.4); evaluator's global disease activity assessment (Likert scale 0-4) 0.3 (0.1-0.5), BASFI 1.5 (0.6-2.4), and VAS pain (cm) 1.3 (0.4-2.2). Differences remained significant after adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, treatments, gut inflammation (fecal calprotectin ≥50 mg/kg), and gut symptoms, except for VAS pain. BASMI and CRP were not associated with dysbiosis. CONCLUSION: Gut dysbiosis, more frequent in AS patients than controls, is associated with worse axSpA disease activity and physical function, seemingly irrespective of both gut inflammation and treatments. This provides further evidence for an important link between disturbances in gastrointestinal homeostasis and axSpA.


Subject(s)
Spondylarthritis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Dysbiosis , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Spondylarthritis/diagnosis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/diagnosis
17.
J Immunol ; 208(4): 979-990, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631932

ABSTRACT

Calprotectin is released by activated neutrophils along with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteases. It plays numerous roles in inflammation and infection, and is used as an inflammatory biomarker. However, calprotectin is readily oxidized by MPO-derived hypohalous acids to form covalent dimers of its S100A8 and S100A9 subunits. The dimers are susceptible to degradation by proteases. We show that detection of human calprotectin by ELISA declines markedly because of its oxidation by hypochlorous acid and subsequent degradation. Also, proteolysis liberates specific peptides from oxidized calprotectin that is present at inflammatory sites. We identified six calprotectin-derived peptides by mass spectrometry and detected them in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the peptides as biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation and infection. The content of the calprotectin peptide ILVI was related to calprotectin (r = 0.72, p = 0.01, n = 10). Four of the peptides were correlated with the concentration of MPO (r > 0.7, p ≤ 0.01, n = 21), while three were higher (p < 0.05) in neutrophil elastase-positive (n = 14) than -negative samples (n = 7). Also, five of the peptides were higher (p < 0.05) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with CF with infections (n = 21) than from non-CF children without infections (n = 6). The specific peptides liberated from calprotectin will signal uncontrolled activity of proteases and MPO during inflammation. They may prove useful in tracking inflammation in respiratory diseases dominated by neutrophils, including coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/genetics , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , Male , Neutrophil Activation , Oxidation-Reduction , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Proteolysis
18.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(6): 911-921, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Subcutaneous [SC] vedolizumab presents the opportunity for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients to manage their treatment at home. There are currently no data on the process of transitioning patients established on intravenous [IV] to SC vedolizumab as part of routine clinical care. The aim of this programme is to evaluate the clinical and biochemical outcomes of switching a cohort of IBD patients established on IV vedolizumab to SC, at 12 weeks following the transition. METHODS: In all, 178 adult patients were offered the opportunity to transition to SC vedolizumab. Patients who agreed were reviewed prior to switching and at Week 12 [W12] after their first SC dose. Evaluation outcomes included disease activity scores, the IBD-Control Patient-Reported Outcome Measures [PROMs], and faecal calprotectin [FCP]. Reasons for patients declining or accepting transitioning, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug reactions, and risk factors for a poor outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients agreed to transition, of whom 106 patients had been on IV vedolizumab for at least 4 months. There were no statistically significant differences in disease activity scores or IBD-Control PROMs between baseline and W12. A statistically significant increase in FCP was observed [31 µg/g vs. 47 µg/g; p = 0.008], although this was unlikely to be clinically relevant. The most common adverse drug reaction reported was injection site reactions [15%]. Based on this cohort of patients, an expected reduction of £572,000 per annum is likely to be achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Transitioning patients established on IV vedolizumab to SC appears to be safe and effective, with high patient satisfaction and multiple benefits for the health service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/chemically induced , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 59(3): 171-177, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: NICE recommends measurement of faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) using faecal immunochemical test (FIT) when colorectal cancer is suspected and calprotectin (f-Cal) in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, though neither is disease specific. During the COVID-19 pandemic, f-Hb has been a requirement prior to referral for endoscopy in England; f-Cal is often performed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate test performance of both tests for significant bowel disease in those patients referred. DESIGN: All adult patients with simultaneous measurements of f-Hb and f-Cal between April 2019 and September 2020 were included. For those referred, outcomes were determined from clinical records. RESULTS: 650 patients with simultaneous samples for f-Hb an f-Cal were managed in Primary Care; 319 patients were referred to hospital; SBD was found in 32 (10.0%) (CRC 5, high risk adenomas 5, IBD 22). At a cut-off of 10 µg/g for f-Hb and 200 µg/g for f-Cal, the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value for diagnosis of SBD were 84.4%, 58.2% and 96.7% and 68.8%, 89.6% and 95.7%, respectively. Performance of both tests would have enabled diagnosis of two more cases of significant, but non-malignant, bowel disease but required over 4% more referrals for investigation. CONCLUSION: Use of FIT has become established to assist prioritisation of patients for referral from Primary Care. Whilst introduced specifically for CRC, FIT performs well as a rule out for IBD in Primary Care and the use of f-Cal is not required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Clin Chim Acta ; 525: 54-61, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568543

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, circulating calprotectin (cCLP) gained interest as biomarker to predict the severity of COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of cCLP measured in serum, heparin, EDTA and citrate plasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: COVID-19 patients were prospectively included, in parallel with two SARS-CoV-2 negative control populations. The prognostic value of cCLP was compared with IL-6, CRP, LDH, procalcitonin, and the 4C-mortality score by AUROC analysis. RESULTS: For the 136 COVID-19 patients, cCLP levels were higher compared to the respective control populations, with significantly higher cCLP levels in serum and heparin than in EDTA or citrate. Higher cCLP levels were obtained for COVID-19 patients with i) severe/critical illness (n = 70), ii) ICU admission (n = 66) and iii) need for mechanical ventilation/ECMO (n = 25), but iv) not in patients who deceased within 30 days (n = 41). The highest discriminatory power (AUC [95% CI]) for each defined outcome was i) CRP (0.835 [0.755-0.914]); ii) EDTA cCLP (0.780 [0.688-0.873]); iii) EDTA cCLP (0.842 [0.758-0.925]) and iv) the 4C-mortality score (0.713 [0.608-0.818]). CONCLUSION: Measuring cCLP in COVID-19 patients helps the clinician to predict the clinical course of COVID-19. The discriminatory power of EDTA and citrate plasma cCLP levels often outperforms heparin plasma cCLP levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Citrates , Citric Acid , Edetic Acid , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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