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1.
J Neurol ; 269(5): 2293-2300, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604983

ABSTRACT

Numerous reports support the possible occurrence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following COVID-19. Herein, we report a case of ADEM in a 53-year-old man 2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We reviewed the reports of adult cases of ADEM and its variant acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (ANHLE) to check for possible prognostic factors and clinical/epidemiological peculiarities. We performed a descriptive analysis of clinical and cerebrospinal fluid data. Ordinal logistic regressions were performed to check the effect of clinical variables and treatments on ADEM/ANHLE outcomes. We also compared ADEM and ANHLE patients. We identified a total of 20 ADEM (9 females, median age 53.5 years) and 23 ANHLE (11 females, median age 55 years). Encephalopathy was present in 80% of ADEM and 91.3% of ANHLE patients. We found that the absence of encephalopathy predicts a better clinical outcome in ADEM (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.001-0.611, p = 0.023), also when correcting for the other variables (OR 0.032, 95% CI 0.001-0.995, p = 0.05). Conversely, we identified no significant prognostic factor in ANHLE patients. ANHLE patients showed a trend towards a worse clinical outcome (lower proportion of good/complete recovery, 4.5% vs 16.7%) and higher mortality (36.4% vs 11.1%) as compared to ADEM. Compared to pre-pandemic ADEM, we observed a higher median age of people with post-COVID-19 ADEM and ANHLE, a shorter interval between infection and neurological symptoms, and a worse prognosis both in terms of high morbidity and mortality. Despite being affected by the retrospective nature of the study, these observations provide new insights into ADEM/ANHLE following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Neuroradiology ; 63(5): 653-661, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084384

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a rare and severe form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Only a few reports of AHLE in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been described to date. We report a case of COVID-19-related AHLE along with a literature review describing salient clinical and imaging characteristics. METHODS: A literature search was performed on Medline (2020-present), PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google scholar on 28 January 2021 for all articles published using MeSH terms "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" with "Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis" or "Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis." Relevant case reports and case series describing clinical and imaging features of AHLE associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, data compiled, and critically reviewed. RESULTS: Acute onset encephalopathy and rapidly deteriorating neurological status is the common clinical presentation in AHLE. CSF analysis reveals elevated proteins and lymphocytic pleocytosis. Typical neuroimaging features include multifocal, variable-sized, poorly defined cerebral white matter lesions with cortical sparing. Involvement of the brainstem, cerebellar peduncles, and deep grey matter can also occur, although rarely. Lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted (T2W) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, hypointense on T1W images, and show microhemorrhages, variable diffusion restriction, and post-contrast enhancement. Extensive microhemorrhages, brainstem involvement, and gross hemorrhage often portend a poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Heightened awareness about the clinical and imaging presentation of COVID-19-related AHLE can positively alter the outcome in a select few by enabling early diagnosis and aggressive management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Neurology ; 95(10): 445-449, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999777

ABSTRACT

Here, we report a case of COVID-19-related acute necrotizing encephalopathy where SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in CSF 19 days after symptom onset after testing negative twice. Although monocytes and protein levels in CSF were only marginally increased, and our patient never experienced a hyperinflammatory state, her neurologic function deteriorated into coma. MRI of the brain showed pathologic signal symmetrically in central thalami, subinsular regions, medial temporal lobes, and brain stem. Extremely high concentrations of the neuronal injury markers neurofilament light and tau, as well as an astrocytic activation marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, were measured in CSF. Neuronal rescue proteins and other pathways were elevated in the in-depth proteomics analysis. The patient received IV immunoglobulins and plasma exchange. Her neurologic status improved, and she was extubated 4 weeks after symptom onset. This case report highlights the neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 in selected patients and emphasizes the importance of repeated lumbar punctures and CSF analyses in patients with suspected COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neurofilament Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Pandemics , Plasma Exchange , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Tropism , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid
9.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 7(5)2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) in a patient with aplastic anemia where there was early brain stem-predominant involvement. METHODS: Evaluation of cause, clinical symptoms, and treatment response. RESULTS: A 59-year-old woman with a background of transfusion-dependent aplastic anemia presented with seizures and reduced level of consciousness 10 days after the onset of subjective fever, cough, and headache. Nasopharyngeal swab testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was positive, and CT during admission demonstrated diffuse swelling of the brain stem. She required intubation and mechanical ventilation for airway protection, given her reduced level of consciousness. The patient's condition deteriorated, and MRI on day 6 demonstrated worsening brain stem swelling with symmetrical hemorrhagic lesions in the brain stem, amygdalae, putamina, and thalamic nuclei. Appearances were consistent with hemorrhagic ANE with early brain stem involvement. The patient showed no response to steroid therapy and died on the eighth day of admission. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 may be associated with an acute severe encephalopathy and, in this case, was considered most likely to represent an immune-mediated phenomenon. As the pandemic continues, we anticipate that the spectrum of neurologic presentation will broaden. It will be important to delineate the full clinical range of emergent COVID-19-related neurologic disease.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Amygdala/diagnostic imaging , Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , Brain Edema/physiopathology , Brain Edema/therapy , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Fatal Outcome , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Transfusion , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Putaminal Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Putaminal Hemorrhage/etiology , Putaminal Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Seizures/etiology , Thalamic Nuclei/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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