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1.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 137-141, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Eosinopenia has been observed during infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. This study evaluated the role of eosinopenia as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Information on 429 patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, India between 04 June 2020 to 15 August 2020, was retrospectively collected through electronic records and analysed. RESULTS: 79.25% of the patients included in the study had eosinopenia on admission. The median eosinophil count in COVID-19-positive patients was 0.015 × 109 /L, and in negative patients, it was 0.249 × 109 /L. Eighteen per cent of the positive patients presented with 0 eosinophil count. Eosinopenia for early diagnosis of COVID-19 had a sensitivity of 80.68% and specificity of 100% with an accuracy of 85.24. Role of eosinopenia in prognostication of COVID-19 was found to be insignificant. There was no statistically significant difference between the median eosinophil counts in survivors and nonsurvivors. Eosinophil trends during the course of disease were found to be similar between survivors and nonsurvivors. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinopenia on admission is a reliable and convenient early diagnostic marker for COVID-19 infection, helping in early identification, triaging and isolation of the patients till nucleic acid test results are available. Role of eosinopenia as a prognostic indicator is insignificant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Eosinophils , Leukocyte Count , Leukopenia/etiology , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Eosinophilia/blood , Eosinophilia/etiology , Humans , India , Leukopenia/blood , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Selection Bias , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis
2.
J Autoimmun ; 125: 102742, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482679

ABSTRACT

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChA) (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (AD26) (Janssen) vaccines are virus-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines used worldwide. In spring 2021, venous blood clots and thrombocytopenia were described in some vaccine recipients. We evaluated the frequency of severe adverse events (SAEs) documented in the EudraVigilance European database in young adult (18-64 years old) and older (≥65 years old) vaccine recipients up to 23 June 2021 and related them to coagulation disorders and arterial, cardiac, and nervous system events. Comparison between the frequency of SAEs and SAE-related deaths in ChA and AD26 vs. BNT162b2 COVID-19 (BNT) (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine recipients demonstrated: 1) ChA and AD26 recipients than BNT recipients had higher frequencies of not only SAEs caused by venous blood clots and hemorrhage, but also thromboembolic disease and arterial events, including myocardial infarction and stroke; 2) a corresponding higher frequency of SAE-related deaths. The frequency was higher in both young adults and older adults. Comparison between the frequency of SAEs and SAE-related deaths in AD26 vs. ChA recipients demonstrated in AD26 recipients: 1) lower frequency of thrombocytopenia; 2) lower frequency of SAEs in young adult recipients; 3) higher frequency of SAEs in older recipients. Interestingly, most of the venous thrombotic SAEs associated with ChA and AD26 vaccines were not associated with thrombocytopenia, suggesting that TTS (thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome) is not the only type of thrombosis observed following virus-based vaccines. In conclusion, both virus-based COVID-19 vaccines show more SAEs than BNT, but the frequency of the SAE type in the different age groups differs, suggesting that the mechanisms responsible of SAEs overlap only partly.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Europe , Humans , Leukopenia/etiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
3.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(2): E232-E237, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127808

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring of white cell counts during clozapine treatment leads to cessation of therapy if levels fall below predetermined values. Reductions in white cell counts, driven by lower levels of lymphocytes, have been observed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neutropenia during COVID-19 has not been reported. We present data for 56 patients who were taking clozapine and had COVID-19. Methods: We included patients who were taking clozapine at the time they tested positive for COVID-19. We compared absolute neutrophil counts, lymphocyte counts and white cell counts between baseline and the first week of infection, and baseline and the second week of infection. Results: We observed reductions in absolute neutrophil counts (p = 0.005), lymphocyte counts (p = 0.003) and white cell counts (p < 0.001) between baseline and the first 7 days of COVID-19. All cell counts had returned to baseline levels by days 8 to 14. Six patients experienced neutropenia (absolute neutrophil counts < 2.0 × 109/L) and of those, 4 underwent mandatory cessation of clozapine. For 3 patients, clozapine treatment had been established for more than 6 months with no previous neutropenia, neutrophil levels returned to baseline within 2 weeks and no further neutropenia was observed on restarting treatment. Limitations: This was a retrospective chart review; larger cohorts are required. Clozapine plasma levels were largely not measured by clinicians. Conclusion: These data strongly suggest that mild neutropenia in the acute phase of COVID-19 in patients who are well established on clozapine is more likely to be a consequence of the virus than of clozapine treatment.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Clozapine/adverse effects , Neutropenia/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukopenia/etiology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(6): e13413, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus has become a global threat and healthcare concern. The manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia in transplant patients are not well understood and may have more severe symptoms, longer duration, and a worse prognosis than in immunocompetent populations. AIMS: This study proposed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients. PATIENTS/METHODS: Clinical records, laboratory results, radiological characteristics, and clinical outcome of 24 kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated from March 20, 2020, to May 20, 2020. RESULTS: The most common symptom was shortness of breath (70.8%), followed by fever (62.5%) and cough (45.8%). Five patients had leukopenia, and only one patient had leukocytosis, while 75% of the patients had a white blood cell (WBC) count in the normal range, and 79% of recipients developed lymphopenia. All of the patients had an elevated concentration of C-reactive protein and an increase in blood urea levels. Chest CT images of 23 patients (95.8%) showed typical findings of patchy ground-glass shadows in the lungs. Of the 24 patients, 12 were admitted to ICU (invasive care unit), and ten of 24 patients (41.6%) died, and 14 patients were discharged after complete recovery. CONCLUSION: It seems that COVID-19 is more severe in transplant patients and has poorer outcomes. Multiple underlying diseases, low O2 saturation, and multilobar view in chest CT scan may be of prognostic value. However, many SARS-CoV-2 demonstrations are similar to those of the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Leukopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplant Recipients , Urea/blood
5.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 50(3): 299-307, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An outbreak of pneumonia named COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus in Wuhan is rapidly spreading worldwide. The objective of the present study was to clarify further the clinical characteristics and blood parameters in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three suspected patients and 64 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection were admitted to a designated hospital. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 64 patients studied, 47 (73.4%) had been exposed to a confirmed source of COVID-19 transmission. On admission, the most common symptoms were fever (75%) and cough (76.6%). Twenty-eight (43.8%) COVID-19 patients showed leukopenia, 10 (15.6%) showed lymphopenia, 47 (73.4%) and 41 (64.1%) had elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), respectively, and 30 (46.9%) had increased fibrinogen concentration. After the treatment, the counts of white blood cells and platelets, and the level of prealbumin increased significantly, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and hsCRP decreased. COVID-19 patients with the hospital stay longer than 12 days had higher body mass index (BMI) and increased levels of AST, LDH, fibrinogen, hsCRP, and ESR. CONCLUSIONS: Results of blood tests have potential clinical value in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/blood , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/etiology , Humans , Leukopenia/blood , Leukopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ann Hematol ; 99(6): 1205-1208, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60295

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus has spread throughout China and across the world, causing a continuous increase in confirmed cases within a short period of time. Some studies reported cases of thrombocytopenia, but hardly any studies mentioned how the virus causes thrombocytopenia. We propose several mechanisms by which coronavirus disease 2019 causes thrombocytopenia to better understand this disease and provide more clinical treatment options.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Leukopenia/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombopoiesis
7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(2): 131-138, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18396

ABSTRACT

This review summarizes the ongoing researches regarding etiology, epidemiology, transmission dynamics, treatment, and prevention and control strategies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and pandemic H1N1 virus. SARS-CoV-2 may be originated from bats, and the patients and asymptomatic carriers are the source of epidemic infection. The virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people at all ages are susceptible to this virus. The main clinical symptoms of the patients are fever and cough, accompanied with leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Effective drugs have been not yet available thus far. In terms of the prevention and control strategies, vaccine development as the primary prevention should be accelerated. Regarding the secondary prevention, ongoing efforts of the infected patients and close contacts quarantine, mask wearing promotion, regular disinfection in public places should be continued. Meanwhile, rapid detection kit for serological monitoring of the virus in general population is expected so as to achieve early detection, early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment. In addition, public health education on this disease and prevention should be enhanced so as to mitigate panic and mobilize the public to jointly combat the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Leukopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention , Viral Vaccines
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