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1.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home isolation during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown strongly impacted everyday life, affecting, in particular, eating habits and everyday activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on behaviors and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) in children from Southern Poland. METHODS: The study included 206 participants (104 females and 102 males) with a complete analysis of 177 participants (96 females and 81 males) with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.6 years admitted to three pediatric endocrinology clinics (Rzeszów, Kraków, and Katowice) due to simple obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus, somatotropin pituitary deficiency on growth hormone replacement therapy, and other endocrine and metabolic disorders between June and September 2020. The study used a self-prepared questionnaire regarding eating habits, physical activity, screen time, and sleep before and during the lockdown. Anthropometric measurements were performed under clinical settings twice (before the pandemic in January-March 2020, and in June-September 2020). RESULTS: During the lockdown, BMI z-scores increased over the whole group, especially in obese children (0.073 ± 0.18, p = 0.002). The number of children who declared low and high physical activity of more than 60 min per day declined from 41.2% and 18.6% to 31.1% and 6.2% (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001), respectively; sleep times over 8 h increased (46.9% vs. 60.4% p = 0.007); screen times over 5 h daily increased (14.7% to 46.9%, p < 0.001). Eating habits did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily physical activity and sleep levels were affected by the pandemic leading to the increase of BMI, especially in obese patients with endocrine disorders. During the COVID-19 pandemic, forward-thinking strategies must be developed to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142100, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603397

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although negative associations of COVID-19 pandemic high school closures with adolescents' health have been demonstrated repeatedly, some research has reported a beneficial association of these closures with adolescents' sleep. The present study was, to our knowledge, the first to combine both perspectives. Objective: To investigate associations between adolescents' sleep and health-related characteristics during COVID-19 pandemic school closures in Switzerland. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used cross-sectional online surveys circulated among the students of 21 public high schools in Zurich, Switzerland. The control sample completed the survey under regular, prepandemic conditions (May to July 2017) and the lockdown sample during school closures (May to June 2020). Survey respondents were included in the study if they provided their sex, age, and school. Exposures: High school closures during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave in Switzerland (March 13 to June 6, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: Sleep-wake patterns, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, assessed by the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire), substance use (caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine), and depressive symptoms (lockdown sample only; assessed using the withdrawn/depressed scale from the Youth Self Report). Multilevel regression models were used to assess sample differences and associations of health-related characteristics with sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Results: The total sample consisted of 8972 students, including 5308 (59.2%) in the control sample (3454 [65.1%] female) and 3664 (40.8%) in the lockdown sample (2429 [66.3%] female); the median age in both samples was 16 years (IQR, 15-17 years). During school closures, the sleep period on scheduled days was 75 minutes longer (semipartial R2 statistic [R2ß*], 0.238; 95% CI, 0.222-0.254; P < .001) and the students had better HRQoL (R2ß*, 0.007; 95% CI, 0.004-0.012; P < .001) and less consumption of caffeine (R2ß*, 0.010; 95% CI, 0.006-0.015; P < .001) and alcohol (R2ß*, 0.014; 95% CI, 0.008-0.022; P < .001). Longer sleep duration was associated with better HRQoL (R2ß*, 0.027; 95% CI, 0.020-0.034; P < .001) and less caffeine consumption (R2ß*, 0.013; 95% CI, 0.009-0.019; P < .001). In the lockdown sample, an inverse association was found between depressive symptoms and HRQoL (R2ß*, 0.285; 95% CI, 0.260-.0311; P < .001) and a positive association was found with caffeine consumption (R2ß*, 0.003; 95% CI, 0.000-0.008; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, 2 opposing associations between school closures and adolescents' health were identified: a negative association with psychological distress and a beneficial association with increased sleep duration. These findings should be considered when evaluating and implementing school closures. Furthermore, the findings provide support for delaying school start times for adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Schools , Sleep , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24502, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599356

ABSTRACT

In the era of COVID-19, essential workers are plagued with unforeseen and obfuscated challenges. Flight attendants are a unique subgroup of essential workers who face a multitude of health risks attributed to occupational exposures that are accentuated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Such risks can be ameliorated with strategies that target factors which enhance COVID-19 risk, including modifiable factors of diet and lifestyle. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to detect occupational dietary and lifestyle factors which could increase COVID-19 incidence amongst flight attendants. To identify potential risk factors, a questionnaire was administered to eighty-four flight attendants and examined the participants' diet and lifestyle, and COVID-19 incidence. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression indicated that the participants' perceived dietary quality at work (p = 0.003), sleep disruptions which impacted their consumption of a healthy diet (p = 0.013), job tenure (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46:0.98) and frequency of reported cold/flu (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.014-2.189) were all factors associated with confirmed/suspected COVID-19 incidence. This study also revealed that a lack of infrastructure for food storage and time limitations are considerable occupational barriers for flight attendants to consume healthy foods. Additional investigation can further elucidate these relationships and related solutions to mitigate COVID-19 risk in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Space Flight/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 744514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592963

ABSTRACT

Background: Older adult quality of life (QoL) is facing huge challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. New normal lifestyle behaviors, including getting adequate physical activity (PA), consuming sufficient fruits and vegetables (FV) and enacting individual preventive behaviors (frequent hand washing, facemask wearing, and social distancing), as a significant determinant for QoL, have not been adequately addressed in older adults during the pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of QoL in Chinese older adults after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei China. The objective of the study was to examine any associations of lifestyle behaviors with QoL, and to identify the moderating role of socioeconomic indicators in the associations identified. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hubei, China, from June 15, 2020, to July 10, 2020. Five hundred sixteen older adults completed an online survey (mean age = 67.6 ± 6.6; 57.9% women). The questionnaire consisted of demographic information, covariates (chronic diseases and infected cases of acquaintances), lifestyle behaviors [PA stage, FV intake (FVI) stage and three preventive behaviors], and QoL. T-tests, ANOVA tests, multiple linear regression models with simple slope analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Results: QoL significantly differed in relation to economic situation, chronic diseases, marital status, education, living situation, age group, and professional status. Participants' economic situation (ß average vs. below average = 0.17, p < 0.01; ß above average vs. below average = 0.15, p < 0.01), chronic diseases (ß yes vs. no = 0.19, p < 0.001), FVI stage (ß = 0.21, p < 0.001), and preventive behaviors (ß = 0.10, p < 0.05) indicated a significant association with QoL. Education level and economic situation significantly interacted with preventive behaviors on QoL, respectively (ß preventive behaviors × educational level = -1.3, p < 0.01; ß preventive behaviors × economic situation = -0.97, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings emphasize the importance of enhancing FVI and preventive behaviors on QoL improvement in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Older adults who are in a lower economic situation with lower education levels should be given priority when implementing interventions to improve preventive behaviors and QoL in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580809

ABSTRACT

In Japan, the community-based comprehensive care system is an important initiative. The purpose of this study was to understand COVID-19-related lifestyle changes experienced by older adults who lived in communities and used day-care services. Using a qualitative inductive research method, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 older adults who used day-care services in Kyoto City, which assessed lifestyle changes before and after the spread of COVID-19 during March-April 2021. The extracted lifestyle change codes were classified into six categories and 16 subcategories. The data revealed that older adults felt socially isolated and experienced multiple changes in their lives, including limited leisure activities, changes in roles, decreased interpersonal interaction with family and acquaintances, poor diet and sleep quality, and reduced attention to personal appearance and grooming. The findings suggest that during COVID-19, older adults had difficulty adapting to the various changes in their lives and showed a decline in physical and mental functioning. Thus, it is important for day-care facilities to create sustainable spaces in response to the various care needs of community-dwelling older adults whose lifestyles have changed as a result of the COVID-19 situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Independent Living , Aged , Humans , Life Style , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580556

ABSTRACT

The introduction of lockdowns and other containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic substantially altered people's lifestyle and dietary behavior. Several studies evaluated the short-term effects of these measures; yet reports on long-term consequences are scarce. We sought to address this gap in the literature by analyzing dietary and lifestyle data collected at an obesity center in Rome, Italy. The Italian region of Lazio was hit hard by the pandemic. To evaluate the potential health impacts, we compared the pre- and post-lockdown data of 118 individuals. Contrary to the common belief that lockdown had adverse effects solely on people's dietary habits, we observed a significantly increased consumption of raw vegetables, whole grains, and water in our study sample. Favorable effects, however, were also accompanied by adverse trends, such as a higher prevalence of sleeping difficulties. Our data emphasize that the lockdowns associated with the pandemic also influenced participants' social behavior, with less individuals reporting eating out or in company. Our study highlights the substantial impact of lockdowns on many dimensions of life. As such, it is of utmost importance in the critical evaluation of such stringent containment measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rome/epidemiology
7.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Health Promotion/methods , Life Style , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574048

ABSTRACT

North of Italy was severely hit by the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 19) pandemic. This induced the government to adopt severely restrictive measures to reduce the contagion risk, forcing most of the population to stop working and from leisure activities, and to remain at home for several weeks. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-related quarantine on smoking and dietary habits of a well-characterized northern Italian rural population. For this purpose, while lockdown restrictions were in place (February-April 2020), 359 subjects from the Brisighella Heart Study cohort underwent a phone interview about their lifestyle habit changes during COVID-19-related quarantine. Quarantine did not significantly modify smoking habit nor body mass index. Subjects significantly increased daily carbohydrates consumption, all fresh vegetables, healthy vegetable oils, milk and yogurt, alcoholic drinks, sugars and sweets, and coffee. The weekly consumption of low-fat meat, cured meat other than ham, cheeses, eggs, nuts and mixed seed oils significantly increased, while the weekly intake of fish, mussels, and legumes significantly decreased during lockdown. The Dietary Quality Index was reduced from 42.4 ± 4.1 to 37.8 ± 4.7 (p < 0.03). In accordance with our findings, COVID-19-related quarantine might worsen the quality of diet, also leading to an increased intake of almost all food categories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Quarantine , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0248446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571977

ABSTRACT

We examined the changes in cognitive function due to restrictions in daily life during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive decline. This was a retrospective, case-control study. The participants include 88 older adults with mild cognitive decline (mean age = 81.0 [standard deviation = 6.5] years) who participated in a class designed to help prevent cognitive decline. This class was suspended from early-March to end of May 2020 to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and resumed in June 2020. We collected demographic and cognitive function test data (Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale [TDAS]) before and after class suspension and questionnaire data on their lifestyle and thoughts during the suspension. Change in TDAS scores from before and after the suspension was used to divide the participants into decline (2 or more points worsening) and non-decline (all other participants) groups, with 16 (18.2%) and 72 (81.8%) participants in each group, respectively. A logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio (OR) for cognitive decline was lower in participants whose responses were "engaged in hobbies" (OR = 0.07, p = 0.015), "worked on a worksheet about cognitive training provided by the town hall" (OR = 0.19, p = 0.026), and "had conversations over the phone" (OR = 0.28, p = 0.0495). There was a significant improvement in TDAS scores after class was resumed (p < 0.01). A proactive approach to intellectual activities and social ties may be important for the prevention of cognitive decline during periods of restrictions due to COVID-19. We found that cognitive function test scores before class suspension significantly improved after resuming classes. We speculate that continued participation in this class led to positive behavioral changes in daily life during periods of restriction due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Independent Living/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Humans , Japan , Life Style , Logistic Models , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1947, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Western Australian government imposed multiple restrictions that impacted daily life activities and the social life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on the community's physical, mental and psychosocial health. METHODS: Approximately 2 months after a three-month lockdown, a cross-sectional study was opened to Western Australian adults for an 8-week period (25th August - 21 October 2020). Participants competed a 25-min questionnaire adapted from the Western Australia Health and Wellbeing Surveillance system. Participants provided information on their socio-demographic status, lifestyle behaviours, mental health, and psychosocial health during and post-lockdown. Open-ended questions explored key issues in greater detail. Changes between the lockdown and post-lockdown period were assessed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Normal tests as appropriate. Sex differences were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. A content analysis approach examined responses to the open-ended questions with frequencies and variations in responses determined using Chi-Square tests. RESULTS: A total of 547 complete responses were obtained. Compared to post-lockdown period, lockdown was associated with a significantly lower levels of physical activity, poorer mental well-being and sense of control over one's life, and a higher level of loneliness. Similarly, during lockdown, there was a significantly higher consumption of junk food, soft drinks and alcoholic drinks but no change in fruit and vegetable intake. Participants recalled health campaigns on hand washing and social distancing and there was a retrospective view that more timely and informative campaigns on physical activity, nutrition and mental well-being should have been available during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: While advice on infection control measures were appropriately provided, there is a need for concurrent health promotional information to help combat the changes in physical, mental and psychosocial well-being observed during quarantine to prevent negative health consequences in the community even if there are minimal effects of the pandemic itself.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Australia , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nurs Adm Q ; 46(1): 5-18, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550626

ABSTRACT

Work cultures supportive of wellness and shorter shift length have been associated with better mental/physical health outcomes in nurses, but how the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted such outcomes is not known. This study's aims were to (1) describe the mental/physical health, well-being, and healthy lifestyle behaviors of nurses during the pandemic; (2) explore the pandemic's impact on their health and healthy lifestyle behaviors; and (3) determine the associations of perceived workplace wellness support and shift length with nurses' health, well-being, and healthy lifestyle behaviors. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with 264 nurses associated with Trusted Health. Nurses completed a survey containing valid and reliable scales measuring depression, anxiety, burnout and quality of life, perceived wellness culture, and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Results indicated that more than 50% of nurses had worsening mental/physical health relating to the pandemic. Compared with nurses whose workplaces provided little/no wellness support, nurses with workplaces that supported their wellness were 3 to 9 times as likely to have better mental/physical health, no/little stress, no burnout, and high quality of life. Nurses who worked longer shifts had poorer health outcomes. These findings indicate that workplace wellness support and shorter shifts positively impacted nurse mental/physical health and professional quality of life amidst the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Life Style , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
12.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542689

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to perform a 12-month follow-up of health parameters after a 17-week lifestyle intervention in overweight airline pilots. A parallel-group (intervention and control) study was conducted amongst 72 overweight airline pilots (body mass index > 25) over a 12-month period following the emergence of COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 35) received a personalized dietary, sleep, and physical activity program over a 17-week period. The control group (n = 37) received no intervention. Measurements for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) via an electronic survey, and objective measures of body mass and blood pressure were taken at baseline and at 12 months. Significant interactions for group × time from baseline to 12-months were found for all outcome measures (p < 0.001). Body mass and mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Outcome measures for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) significantly increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Results provide preliminary evidence that a brief three-component healthy sleep, diet and physical activity intervention can elicit and sustain long-term improvements in body mass and blood pressure management, health behaviors, and perceived subjective health in pilots and may support quality of life during an unprecedented global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Health Behavior , Life Style , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight
13.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1298-1303, 2021 Aug.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524924

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to study the factorial conditionality of the state of health and the features of medical activity (MA) of patients with COVID-19 who were treated on an outpatient basis using telemedicine technologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study of lifestyle factors (LS) and MA was conducted by an anonymous survey of 7,743 patients with COVID-19. The patients' health was assessed based on the study of the course of the underlying disease and the presence of concomitant diseases, which were detected in 24.3% of COVID-19 patients according to the data of copying information from medical records. RESULTS: It was revealed that the prevalence of tobacco smoking was 33.25 cases per 100 respondents, 45.4% of respondents were overweight, 75.6% of patients had a low level of physical activity, 68.2% and 53.8% of patients had low medical literacy and MA, respectively. It is established that the greatest impact on the health status of the patients interviewed was provided by the bio-social activity (Smoking) (h = 0.702; m = 0.0063; p = 0.0022), physical activity (h = 0.624; m = 0.0026; p < 0.001, health behavior (h = 0.527; m = 0.0030; p < 0.001) and health literacy (h = 0.532; m = 0.0028; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The studied risk factors affecting the health status of COVID-19 patients, most of which are manageable, should be taken into account when forming therapeutic and preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Life Style , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523796

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic is an emergency on a global scale, with huge swathes of the population required to remain indoors for prolonged periods to tackle the virus. In this new context, individuals' health-promoting routines are under greater strain, contributing to poorer mental and physical health. Additionally, individuals are required to keep up to date with latest health guidelines about the virus, which may be confusing in an age of social-media disinformation and shifting guidelines. To tackle these factors, we developed Elena+, a smartphone-based and conversational agent (CA) delivered pandemic lifestyle care intervention. Methods: Elena+ utilizes varied intervention components to deliver a psychoeducation-focused coaching program on the topics of: COVID-19 information, physical activity, mental health (anxiety, loneliness, mental resources), sleep and diet and nutrition. Over 43 subtopics, a CA guides individuals through content and tracks progress over time, such as changes in health outcome assessments per topic, alongside user-set behavioral intentions and user-reported actual behaviors. Ratings of the usage experience, social demographics and the user profile are also captured. Elena+ is available for public download on iOS and Android devices in English, European Spanish and Latin American Spanish with future languages and launch countries planned, and no limits on planned recruitment. Panel data methods will be used to track user progress over time in subsequent analyses. The Elena+ intervention is open-source under the Apache 2 license (MobileCoach software) and the Creative Commons 4.0 license CC BY-NC-SA (intervention logic and content), allowing future collaborations; such as cultural adaptions, integration of new sensor-related features or the development of new topics. Discussion: Digital health applications offer a low-cost and scalable route to meet challenges to public health. As Elena+ was developed by an international and interdisciplinary team in a short time frame to meet the COVID-19 pandemic, empirical data are required to discern how effective such solutions can be in meeting real world, emergent health crises. Additionally, clustering Elena+ users based on characteristics and usage behaviors could help public health practitioners understand how population-level digital health interventions can reach at-risk and sub-populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506549

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic is an emergency on a global scale, with huge swathes of the population required to remain indoors for prolonged periods to tackle the virus. In this new context, individuals' health-promoting routines are under greater strain, contributing to poorer mental and physical health. Additionally, individuals are required to keep up to date with latest health guidelines about the virus, which may be confusing in an age of social-media disinformation and shifting guidelines. To tackle these factors, we developed Elena+, a smartphone-based and conversational agent (CA) delivered pandemic lifestyle care intervention. Methods: Elena+ utilizes varied intervention components to deliver a psychoeducation-focused coaching program on the topics of: COVID-19 information, physical activity, mental health (anxiety, loneliness, mental resources), sleep and diet and nutrition. Over 43 subtopics, a CA guides individuals through content and tracks progress over time, such as changes in health outcome assessments per topic, alongside user-set behavioral intentions and user-reported actual behaviors. Ratings of the usage experience, social demographics and the user profile are also captured. Elena+ is available for public download on iOS and Android devices in English, European Spanish and Latin American Spanish with future languages and launch countries planned, and no limits on planned recruitment. Panel data methods will be used to track user progress over time in subsequent analyses. The Elena+ intervention is open-source under the Apache 2 license (MobileCoach software) and the Creative Commons 4.0 license CC BY-NC-SA (intervention logic and content), allowing future collaborations; such as cultural adaptions, integration of new sensor-related features or the development of new topics. Discussion: Digital health applications offer a low-cost and scalable route to meet challenges to public health. As Elena+ was developed by an international and interdisciplinary team in a short time frame to meet the COVID-19 pandemic, empirical data are required to discern how effective such solutions can be in meeting real world, emergent health crises. Additionally, clustering Elena+ users based on characteristics and usage behaviors could help public health practitioners understand how population-level digital health interventions can reach at-risk and sub-populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021399, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic determined a profound impact in everyday life and in routine follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this context, telemedicine represented an important tool to guarantee a regular care for these patients. Aim of our work was to assess metabolic control before and after lockdown in the cohort of T1D patients followed-up by our Service, to evaluate the impact of restrictive measures and of disease management through telemedicine. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. Subjects were enrolled among children, adolescents and young adults affected by T1D and followed at the Regional Paediatric Diabetology Centre of the University-Hospital of Parma, Italy. We collected data about age, gender, ethnicity, anthropometric measurements, duration of disease, type of blood glucose monitoring used, type of insulin administration, daily insulin requirement and metabolic control, assessed using capillary HbA1c. RESULTS: We enrolled 139 patients, mean age 13.9 years. During lockdown, we reported significantly more contacts through telemedicine between patients and medical team. Global glycol-metabolic control significantly improved, without differences in daily insulin requirement. Patients with a previous poor-controlled diabetes showed a greater improvement. Finally, mean weekly hours of physical activity decreased significantly, without worsening in BMI z-score. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a global improvement in mean HbA1c, with a stronger result for patients with a previous non satisfactory control. In our setting, despite regulatory rules and physical and logistic limitations related to pandemic, no worsening of metabolic control has been shown for patients with type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1974, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Countrywide lockdown or stay-at-home order has been implemented to slow down the transmission of emergent coronavirus. However, the influence on attitudes and lifestyle due to lockdown amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the influence on attitudes and lifestyle due to lockdown amidst the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi residents. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey carried out involving 1635 community dwellers across eight divisions in Bangladesh conducted from April 15, 2020 to May 10, 2020. A structured questionnaire incorporating socio-demographic, attitudes towards lockdown and adverse lifestyle amidst lockdown measures was employed to collect data using the Google Forms. Multiple regression analyses were executed to determine the associated factors of positive attitudes towards lockdown and adverse lifestyle. RESULTS: The mean scores of attitudes towards lockdown were 67.9 (SD = 8.4) out of 85 with an overall correct rate (positive attitudes) of 79.9%; whereas the mean scores of adverse lifestyle amidst lockdown were 16.1 (SD = 4.8) out of 34 with an overall rate of 47.4%. The factors associated with more positive attitudes towards lockdown included being female, divorced, higher educated, and students. Conversely, being male, having no formal education, and rural residence were associated factors of adverse lifestyle amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reflect how the COVID-19 lockdown has preciously impacted the attitudes, and lifestyle of Bangladeshi citizens, which will contribute to promoting appropriate measures during a subsequent zonal or complete lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Attitude , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101505, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487607

ABSTRACT

Up to 40% of dementias may be preventable via risk factor modification. This inference has motivated the development of lifestyle interventions for reducing cognitive decline. Typically delivered to older adults face-to-face, the COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated their adaptation for remote delivery. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials of remotely delivered lifestyle interventions (≥4 weeks duration and delivered >50% remotely), for adults aged ≥ 60 without dementia, examining effects on objective cognitive measures. Comparators were active (face-to-face or remote) or passive. Ten studies (n = 2967) comprising multidomain (k = 4), physical activity (k = 3) or psychosocial (k = 3) remote interventions were included. Data were synthesized using robust variance estimation meta-analysis. The pooled estimate comparing the effect of remote interventions versus comparators on cognition was not significant (g=-0.02; 95%CI [-0.14, 0.09]; p = .66); subgroup analyses by type of intervention or comparator also yielded non-significant effects. Most studies had low risk of bias. Current evidence to support remote lifestyle interventions is limited. Included studies were conducted pre-pandemic, and evaluated individual, rather than group interventions. Future studies may exploit the greater digital connectivity of older people since the pandemic. Group formats, more frequently efficacious than individual interventions in face-to-face dementia prevention trials, may be a rational approach for future remote trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Cognition , Humans , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 209, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social consequences of COVID-19 pandemic are universally known. In particular, the pediatric population is dealing with a radical lifestyle change. For some risk categories, such as overweight or obese children, the impact of home confinement has been greater than for others. The increased sedentary life, the wrong diet and social distancing have stopped the chance of losing weight. The aims of this study were to analyse the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior changes in a obese pediatric population and to explore the correlation between the new lifestyle and the level of parental instruction. METHODS: Data show features of 40 obese and overweight pediatric patients of our Clinic in Messina (Italy). We evaluated weight, height, BMI and other biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, transaminases, glycemia and insulinemia. After the lockdown, we contacted all patients in order to get some information about diet, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle changes in correlation to the level of their parents' instruction. Additionally, we also evaluated 20 children twice from a clinical and laboratory perspective. RESULTS: The study showed an increase of daily meals during COVID-19 lockdown (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 5 ± 1, P < 0.001). In particular, children whose parents have primary school diploma ate a greater significant number of meals during the lockdown, compared to those who have parents with secondary school diploma (P = 0.0019). In addition, the 95% of patients did low physical activity during the lockdown and the 97.5% spent more time in sedentary activity. Even if BMI's values don't show significant differences, they have increased after the lockdown. We didn't find any correlation between biochemical parameters before and after the lockdown. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had bad consequences on good style of life's maintenance in overweight and obese children. The absence of a significant correlation between the worsening of biochemical parameters and the lockdown doesn't allow to exclude any long-term consequences. It's safe to assume that, if the hours spent in sedentary activity and the number of meals don't diminish, there will probably repercussion on the biochemical parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise/physiology , Life Style , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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