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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1758, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886207

ABSTRACT

Fluorescence techniques dominate the field of live-cell microscopy, but bleaching and motion blur from too long integration times limit dynamic investigations of small objects. High contrast, label-free life-cell imaging of thousands of acquisitions at 160 nm resolution and 100 Hz is possible by Rotating Coherent Scattering (ROCS) microscopy, where intensity speckle patterns from all azimuthal illumination directions are added up within 10 ms. In combination with fluorescence, we demonstrate the performance of improved Total Internal Reflection (TIR)-ROCS with variable illumination including timescale decomposition and activity mapping at five different examples: millisecond reorganization of macrophage actin cortex structures, fast degranulation and pore opening in mast cells, nanotube dynamics between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, thermal noise driven binding behavior of virus-sized particles at cells, and, bacterial lectin dynamics at the cortex of lung cells. Using analysis methods we present here, we decipher how motion blur hides cellular structures and how slow structure motions cover decisive fast motions.


Subject(s)
Actins , Lighting , Fibroblasts , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884137

ABSTRACT

The indoor lighting environment is a key factor affecting human health and safety. In particular, people have been forced to study or work more for long periods of time at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we investigate the influence of physical indoor environmental factors, correlated color temperature (CCT), and illumination on computer work fatigue. We conducted a within-subject experiment consisting of a 10 min-long task test under two different illumination settings (300 lx and 500 lx) and two CCTs (3000 K and 4000 K). Physiological signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiograph (ECG), and eye movement, were monitored during the test to objectively measure fatigue. The subjective fatigue of eight participants was evaluated based on a questionnaire conducted after completing the test. The error rate of the task test was taken as the key factor representing the working performance. Through the analysis of the subjective and objective results, computer work fatigue was found to be significantly impacted by changes in the lighting environment, where human fatigue was negatively correlated with illumination and CCT. Improving the illumination and CCT of the work environment, within the scope of this study, helped to decrease the fatigue degree-that is, the fatigue degree was the lowest under the 4000 K + 500 lx environment, while it was relatively high at 3000 K + 300 lx. Under indoor environment conditions, the CCT factor was found to have the greatest effect on computer work fatigue, followed by illumination. The presented results are expected to be a valuable reference for improving the satisfaction associated with the lighting environment and to serve as guidance for researchers and reviewers conducting similar research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lighting , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computers , Fatigue , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Work ; 71(2): 335-343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a large increase in the use of the home office environment. Compared to traditional commercial offices, home offices typically have more variable lighting conditions that can affect the worker's performance and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss various lighting sources and their ergonomic impacts on the population of office employees now working from home. Specifically addressing the impacts of electronic light from screens, daylight, and task lighting's impact on health and well-being in the frame of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Over 75 ergonomic and lighting literature publications covering various work environments were reviewed, with a focus on the health effects of screen light, daylight, and task light. RESULTS: Resulting from the literature review, design recommendations regarding the safety and health of home office lighting conditions are discussed. CONCLUSION: As COVID-19 continues to encourage remote working, individuals will be exposed to daylight and screen light in different ways compared to a traditional office environment. The impact of these different lighting conditions should be further studied to understand best design and well-being practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , Ergonomics , Humans , Lighting , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497261

ABSTRACT

The artificial light at night (ALAN) present in many cities and towns has a negative impact on numerous organisms that live alongside humans, including bats. Therefore, we investigated if the artificial illumination of the historic Wisloujscie Fortress in Gdansk, Poland (part of the Natura 2000 network), during nighttime events, which included an outdoor electronic dance music (EDM) festival, might be responsible for increased light pollution and the decline in recent years of the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme). An assessment of light pollution levels was made using the methods of geographical information system (GIS) and free-of-charge satellite remote sensing (SRS) technology. Moreover, this paper reviewed the most important approaches for environmental protection of bats in the context of ecological light pollution, including International, European, and Polish regulatory frameworks. The analysis of this interdisciplinary study confirmed the complexity of the problem and highlighted, too, the need for better control of artificial illumination in such sensitive areas. It also revealed that SRS was not the best light pollution assessment method for this particular case study due to several reasons listed in this paper. As a result, the authors' proposal for improvements also involved practical recommendations for devising suitable strategies for lighting research and practice in the Natura 2000 Wisloujscie Fortress site located adjacent to urban areas to reduce the potential negative impact of ALAN on bats and their natural habitats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Lighting , Poland
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389370

ABSTRACT

The pandemic generated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to a forced increase in the number of hours spent at home. In many cases, the lockdown situations, both in social and work terms, have meant that homes have suddenly also become workplaces. Based on all the indicators, this new relational scenario in the labor market displays a clear upward trend and is far from being a temporary situation. It is known that sunlight affects people's circadian rhythm and that its reduction and even absence during this period of isolation has had a psychological impact on the population. This makes it necessary to reconsider the regulations applied in homes, in order to guarantee their habitability, given their recent widespread use as offices, as well as domestic spaces. In historic centers, the comprehensive renovations being carried out include improvements in energy efficiency and thermal comfort, which play a fundamental role. However, the energy consumption linked to artificial lighting and the quality of this lighting itself have remained in the background, as improvement strategies consist mainly in the replacement of incandescent or fluorescent lamps with LED lamps. Prior to the pandemic, the electric consumption of lighting systems accounted for 10-15% of the total, a figure which increased to 40-50% during the lockdown period. Aiming to improve people's well-being while reducing energy expenditure on lighting, this article presents a quantitative approach to improving the levels of natural lighting in residential heritage buildings located in historic centers. According to data obtained from previous surveys of a sector of the population, homes built prior to 1950 were characterized by good natural lighting conditions and a very low incidence of health issues among occupants compared to contemporary homes. The objective was to quantify the circadian stimulus and lighting levels and to identify the areas or work areas in homes in order to optimize consumption related to lighting and to generate healthy and comfortable spaces. Results show that historic homes have enough naturally lit areas to perform office work during business hours. However, in the most unfavorable seasons, winter and autumn, it is necessary to use artificial lighting at the start and end of the working day.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Housing , Humans , Lighting , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Photochem Photobiol ; 97(3): 532-541, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388390

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 and tuberculosis global pandemics, public health and infection prevention and control professionals wrestle with cost-effective means to control airborne transmission. One technology recommended by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization for lowering indoor concentration of these and other microorganisms and viruses is upper-room ultraviolet 254 nm (UVC254 ) systems. Applying both a material balance as well as some nondimensional parameters developed by Rudnick and First, the impact of several critical parameters and their effect on the fraction of microorganisms surviving UVC254 exposure was evaluated. Vertical airspeed showed a large impact at velocities <0.05 m s-1 but a lesser effect at velocities >0.05 m s-1 . In addition, the efficacy of any upper-room UVC system is influenced greatly by the mean room fluence rate as opposed to a simple volume- or area-based dosing criteria. An alternative UVC254 dosing strategy was developed based on the fluence rate as a function of the UVC254 luminaire output (W) and the square root of the product of the room volume and the ceiling height.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/methods , Lighting , Ultraviolet Rays , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environment, Controlled , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
7.
Photochem Photobiol ; 97(3): 532-541, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159007

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 and tuberculosis global pandemics, public health and infection prevention and control professionals wrestle with cost-effective means to control airborne transmission. One technology recommended by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization for lowering indoor concentration of these and other microorganisms and viruses is upper-room ultraviolet 254 nm (UVC254 ) systems. Applying both a material balance as well as some nondimensional parameters developed by Rudnick and First, the impact of several critical parameters and their effect on the fraction of microorganisms surviving UVC254 exposure was evaluated. Vertical airspeed showed a large impact at velocities <0.05 m s-1 but a lesser effect at velocities >0.05 m s-1 . In addition, the efficacy of any upper-room UVC system is influenced greatly by the mean room fluence rate as opposed to a simple volume- or area-based dosing criteria. An alternative UVC254 dosing strategy was developed based on the fluence rate as a function of the UVC254 luminaire output (W) and the square root of the product of the room volume and the ceiling height.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/methods , Lighting , Ultraviolet Rays , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environment, Controlled , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
8.
Photochem Photobiol ; 97(3): 471-476, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096925

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a great deal of interest in ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) as an important means to disinfect air and surfaces. The traditional lamp employed for UVGI has been the low-pressure mercury-discharge lamp that emits primarily at 254 nm in the ultraviolet photobiological band UV-C (100-280 nm). The recent development of even shorter-wavelength UV-C lamps, such as the Krypton-Chloride, 222-nm lamp, has led to greater concerns about the UV-C generation of ozone. It is well known that wavelengths below 240 nm more readily generate ozone. However, there is a great misunderstanding with regard to the actual generation and dissipation of ozone molecules by UV-C lamps. A review of this subject is much warranted. An overview of the ozone generation of various UV-C light sources is presented to give users a better understanding of risk and how to assure control of ozone when employing UV-C lamps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/instrumentation , Lighting/adverse effects , Ozone , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 7-8, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932446

ABSTRACT

Discussion on the observed association between unique populations of circulating monocytes and severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , Lighting , Monocytes , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2020: 5047976, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833098

ABSTRACT

Otsu's algorithm is one of the most well-known methods for automatic image thresholding. 2D Otsu's method is more robust compared to 1D Otsu's method. However, it still has limitations on salt-and-pepper noise corrupted images and uneven illumination images. To alleviate these limitations and improve the overall performance, here we propose an improved 2D Otsu's algorithm to increase the robustness to salt-and-pepper noise together with an adaptive energy based image partition technology for uneven illumination image segmentation. Based on the partition method, two schemes for automatic thresholding are adopted to find the best segmentation result. Experiments are conducted on both synthetic and real world uneven illumination images as well as real world regular illumination cell images. Original 2D Otsu's method, MAOTSU_2D, and two latest 1D Otsu's methods (Cao's method and DVE) are included for comparisons. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations are introduced to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method is more robust to salt-and-pepper noise and acquires better segmentation results on uneven illumination images in general without compromising its performance on regular illumination images. For a test group of seven real world uneven illumination images, the proposed method could lower the ME value by 15% and increase the DSC value by 10%.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Lighting
11.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 63(2): 169-170, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820105
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805179

ABSTRACT

The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day-night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The "development for mankind" escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Coronaviridae. The "threatened" and "endangered" status of the majority of bat species is mainly because of the destruction of their proper habit and habitat predominantly through artificial illumination. The stress exerted by ALAN leads to the impaired body functions, especially endocrine, immune, genomic integration, and overall rhythm features of different physiological variables and behaviors in nocturnal animals. Night-light disturbs "virus-host" synchronization and may lead to mutation in the genomic part of the virus and excessive virus shedding. We also proposed some future strategies to mitigate the repercussions of ALAN and for the protection of the living system in the earth as well.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lighting , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Ecosystem , Environment , Humans , Light , Melatonin/physiology , Pandemics
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(5): 102576, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592522

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID19) pandemic has pushed health workers to find creative solutions to a global shortage of personal protection equipment (PPE). 3D-printing technology is having an essential role during the pandemic providing solutions for this problem, for instance, modifying full-face snorkel masks or creating low-cost face shields to use as PPE (Ishack and Lipner, 2020 [1]). Otolaryngologists are at increased occupational risk to COVID19 infection due to the exposure to respiratory droplets and aerosols, especially during the routine nose and mouth examinations where coughing and sneezing happen regularly (Rna et al., 2017 [2]; Tysome and Bhutta, 2020 [3]). The use of a headlight is essential during these examinations. However, to our knowledge, none of the commercially available or 3D-printable face shields are compatible with a headlight. Hence, using a face shield and a headlight at the same time can be very uncomfortable and sometimes impossible. To solve this problem, we have designed a 3D-printable adapter for medical headlights, which can hold a transparent sheet to create a face shield as an effective barrier protection that can be used comfortably with the headlight. The adapter can be printed in different materials with the most commonly used nowadays being the cost-efficient PLA (Polylactic Acid) used for this prototype. The resulting piece weighs only 7 g and has an estimated cost of $0.15 USD. The transparent sheets, typically made from polyester and used for laser printing, can be purchased in any office material store with a standard price of 0.4 USD per unit. After use, the transparent sheet can be easily removed. We trialed the adapter in 7 different headlights. All of these headlights accommodated the printed blocks extremely well. The headlights were used in many different settings, including the ENT clinic, the operating room, the emergency room, the ENT ward and the COVID19 intensive care unit (ICU) for a two weeks period. All doctors using the headlight felt they were fully protected from respiratory droplets, blood, sputum and other fluids. The face shield with the headlight has been found very useful for treating epistaxis, changing tracheostomy cannulas and during routine nasal and oral examinations. The headlight face shield adapter was designed to solve a specific problem among the ENT community; however other specialist can find it useful as well. Nonetheless, manufacturers should take care of specifics problems like this and provide commercially available products to protect the ENT workforce in this new era.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Lighting/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Printing, Three-Dimensional , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(9): 1113-1117, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-273188

ABSTRACT

Virtual visits (VVs) are necessitated due to the public health crisis and social distancing mandates due to COVID-19. However, these have been rare in ophthalmology. Over 3.5 years of conducting >350 ophthalmological VVs, our group has gained numerous insights into best practices. This communication shares these experiences with the medical community to support patient care during this difficult time and beyond. We highlight that mastering the technological platform of choice, optimizing lighting, camera positioning, and "eye contact," being thoughtful and creative with the virtual eye examination, and ensuring good documenting and billing will make a successful and efficient VV. Moreover, we think these ideas will stimulate further VV creativity and expertise to be developed in ophthalmology and across medicine. This approach, holds promise for increasing its adoption after the crisis has passed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Ophthalmology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confidentiality/standards , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/standards , Documentation , Humans , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement , Lighting , Pandemics , Physician-Patient Relations , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , SARS-CoV-2
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