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Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 405-408, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188640


OBJECTIVES: Multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a post-viral inflammatory vasculopathy of children and adolescents following Covid-19 infection. Since the incidence of SARS-CoV-infections has been increasing in Germany since October 2020, we observe an increasing number of children presenting with MIS-C. DESIGN: We present detailed clinical characteristics of a cohort of nine children with MIS-C admitted to a tertiary PICU at the University Hospital of Cologne between March 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: The clinical sings and symptoms are largely in line with recent reports. All but one patient had positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Latency form infection to MIS-C was 4-6 weeks. Two children presented with unusual findings: A girl had encephalomyelitis and a boy developed MIS-C side to side with acute leukemia. CONCLUSION: MIS-C has been increasing in Germany paralell to SARS-CoV-2 infections. Rarely, unuasual findings may be associated with MIS-C.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abnormalities, Multiple , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Germany , Hospitalization , Humans , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/complications , Infant , Limb Deformities, Congenital/complications , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 153-155, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729245


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may lead to a severe inflammatory response referred to as a cytokine storm. We describe a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a recently diagnosed pediatric Crohn disease patient successfully treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockade. The patient presented with 5 days of fever, an erythematous maculopapular facial rash, and abdominal pain without respiratory symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction was positive. Despite inpatient treatment for COVID-19 and a perianal abscess, the patient acutely decompensated, with worsening fever, tachycardia, fluid-refractory hypotension, elevation of liver enzymes, and transformation of the rash into purpura extending from the face to the trunk, upper and lower extremities, including the palmar and plantar surfaces of the hands and feet. Cytokine profile revealed rising levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, higher than those described in either inflammatory bowel disease or severe COVID-19 alone. The patient was treated with infliximab for TNF-α blockade to address both moderately to severely active Crohn disease and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19. Within hours of infliximab treatment, fever, tachycardia, and hypotension resolved. Cytokine profile improved with normalization of TNF-α, a decrease in IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations. This case supports a role for blockade of TNF-α in the treatment of COVID-19 inflammatory cascade. The role of anti-TNF agents in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19 requires further investigation.

Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/complications , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Limb Deformities, Congenital/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Abnormalities, Multiple , Adolescent , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood