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1.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 275-289, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This investigation adapted a well-studied language treatment method, Enhanced Conversational Recast, paired with auditory bombardment to a teletherapy format. METHOD: The study used a single case series approach (n = 7) to determine the feasibility of teletherapy with children ages 5 and 6 years of age. Treatment targeted grammatical errors in the context of dialogic reading and craft activities. Clinicians administered 24 doses in the form of focused conversational recasting, followed by 12 doses consisting of simple sentences containing the grammatical forms targeted for remediation. Children were treated for up to 26 sessions, with four children treated on consecutive weekdays and three treated twice a week. Treatment progress was operationalized as generalization of target grammatical forms to untreated linguistic contexts, as well as spontaneous use of the treated form. To control for nontreatment effects, generalization of an untreated form was also tracked throughout the treatment period. RESULTS: Six of the seven children showed clinically meaningful gains in the use of the grammatical forms targeted for treatment within the treatment period. This was true for children enrolled in both treatment schedules. Learning for treated forms was retained after treatment was discontinued. In comparison, no change was seen for untreated forms for six of the seven children. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this treatment method is feasible in a telepractice format, even with young children. The range of individual results is generally comparable to previous face-to-face versions of this treatment.


Subject(s)
Language Development Disorders , Language Therapy , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Language Development Disorders/therapy , Language Tests , Language Therapy/methods , Linguistics
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1302598, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731341

ABSTRACT

Emergency intelligence capability is an important index reflecting the intelligence level of emergency management. The accuracy of emergency intelligence capability evaluation is related to the scientific nature of emergency decision-making. By analyzing the operation process and mechanism of the emergency intelligence system for major public health events, this paper establishes the evaluation index system of the emergency intelligence capability. By using the decision method of VIKOR and considering the preference of experts in the evaluation process, this paper proposes the evaluation model based on the probabilistic uncertain language environment. The use of probabilistic uncertain linguistic term set (PULTS) to describe the uncertain information is helpful to improve the scientific and accuracy of emergency rescue decision-making of major public health events and then realize the organic unity of emergency information and scientific decision-making of public health events.


Subject(s)
Language , Public Health , Intelligence , Linguistics , Uncertainty
3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(3): 991-1000, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Test for Rating Emotions in Speech (T-RES) has been developed in order to assess the processing of emotions in spoken language. In this tool, spoken sentences, which are composed of emotional content (anger, happiness, sadness, and neutral) in both semantics and prosody in different combinations, are rated by listeners. To date, English, German, and Hebrew versions have been developed, as well as online versions, iT-RES, to adapt to COVID-19 social restrictions. Since the perception of spoken emotions may be affected by linguistic (and cultural) variables, it is important to compare the acoustic characteristics of the stimuli within and between languages. The goal of the current report was to provide cross-linguistic acoustic validation of the T-RES. METHOD: T-RES sentences in the aforementioned languages were acoustically analyzed in terms of mean F0, F0 range, and speech rate to obtain profiles of acoustic parameters for different emotions. RESULTS: Significant within-language discriminability of prosodic emotions was found, for both mean F0 and speech rate. Similarly, these measures were associated with comparable patterns of prosodic emotions for each of the tested languages and emotional ratings. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the lack of dependence of prosody and semantics within the T-RES stimuli. These findings illustrate the listeners' ability to clearly distinguish between the different prosodic emotions in each language, providing a cross-linguistic validation of the T-RES and iT-RES.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , Acoustics , Emotions , Humans , Language , Linguistics , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 2180-2185, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566220

ABSTRACT

The Center for Eldercare and Rehabilitation Technology, at University of Missouri, has researched the use of smart, unobtrusive sensors for older adult residents' health monitoring and alerting in aging-in-place communities for many years. Sensors placed in the apartments of older adult residents generate a deluge of daily data that is automatically aggregated, analyzed, and summarized to aid in health awareness, clinical care, and research for healthy aging. When anomalies or concerning trends are detected within the data, the sensor information is converted into linguistic health messages using fuzzy computational techniques, so as to make it understandable to the clinicians. Sensor data are analyzed at the individual level, therefore, through this study we aim to discover various combinations of patterns of anomalies happening together and recurrently in the older adult's population using these text summaries. Leveraging various computational text data processing techniques, we are able to extract relevant analytical features from the health messages. These features are transformed into a transactional encoding, then processed with frequent pattern mining techniques for association rule discovery. At individual level analysis, resident ID 3027 was considered as an exemplar to describe the analysis. Seven combinations of anomalies/rules/associations were discovered in this resident, out of which rule group three showed an increased recurrence during the COVID lockdown of facility. At the population level, a total of 38 associations were discovered that highlight the health patterns, and we continue to explore the health conditions associated with them. Ultimately, our goal is to correlate the combinations of anomalies with certain health conditions, which can then be leveraged for predictive analytics and preventative care. This will improve the current clinical care systems for older adult residents in smart sensor, aging-in-place communities.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Linguistics , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Aged , COVID-19 , Health Services for the Aged , Home Care Services , Humans , Independent Living
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534037

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study language used by suicidal users on Reddit social media platform. To do that, we firstly collect a large-scale dataset of Reddit posts and annotate it with highly trained and expert annotators under a rigorous annotation scheme. Next, we perform a multifaceted analysis of the dataset, including: (1) the analysis of user activity before and after posting a suicidal message, and (2) a pragmalinguistic study on the vocabulary used by suicidal users. In the second part of the analysis, we apply LIWC, a dictionary-based toolset widely used in psychology and linguistic research, which provides a wide range of linguistic category annotations on text. However, since raw LIWC scores are not sufficiently reliable, or informative, we propose a procedure to decrease the possibility of unreliable and misleading LIWC scores leading to misleading conclusions by analyzing not each category separately, but in pairs with other categories. The analysis of the results supported the validity of the proposed approach by revealing a number of valuable information on the vocabulary used by suicidal users and helped to pin-point false predictors. For example, we were able to specify that death-related words, typically associated with suicidal posts in the majority of the literature, become false predictors, when they co-occur with apostrophes, even in high-risk subreddits. On the other hand, the category-pair based disambiguation helped to specify that death becomes a predictor only when co-occurring with future-focused language, informal language, discrepancy, or 1st person pronouns. The promising applicability of the approach was additionally analyzed for its limitations, where we found out that although LIWC is a useful and easily applicable tool, the lack of any contextual processing makes it unsuitable for application in psychological and linguistic studies. We conclude that disadvantages of LIWC can be easily overcome by creating a number of high-performance AI-based classifiers trained for annotation of similar categories as LIWC, which we plan to pursue in future work.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Suicidal Ideation , Humans , Language , Linguistics
6.
Genes Immun ; 23(1): 47-50, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462002

ABSTRACT

The rapid expansion of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has impacted various ethnic groups all over the world. The burden of infectious diseases including COVID-19 are generally reported to be higher for the Indigenous people. The historical knowledge have also suggested that the indigenous populations suffer more than the general populations in the pandemic. Recently, it has been reported that the indigenous groups of Brazil have been massively affected by COVID-19. Series of studies have shown that many of the indigenous communities reached at the verge of extinction due to this pandemic. Importantly, South Asia also has several indigenous and smaller communities, that are living in isolation. Till date, despite the two consecutive waves in India, there is no report on the impact of COVID-19 for indigenous tribes. Since smaller populations experiencing drift may have greater risk of such pandemic, we have analysed Runs of Homozygosity (ROH) among South Asian populations and identified several populations with longer homozygous segments. The longer runs of homozygosity at certain genomic regions may increases the susceptibility for COVID-19. Thus, we suggest extreme careful management of this pandemic among isolated populations of South Asia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , India , Linguistics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440509

ABSTRACT

Global cooperation rests on popular endorsement of cosmopolitan values-putting all humanity equal to or ahead of conationals. Despite being comparative judgments that may trade off, even sacrifice, the in-group's interests for the rest of the world, moral cosmopolitanism finds support in large, nationally representative surveys from Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, China, Japan, the United States, Colombia, and Guatemala. A series of studies probe this trading off of the in-group's interests against the world's interests. Respondents everywhere distinguish preventing harm to foreign citizens, which almost all support, from redistributing resources, which only about half support. These two dimensions of moral cosmopolitanism, equitable security (preventing harm) and equitable benefits (redistributing resources), predict attitudes toward contested international policies, actual charitable donations, and preferences for mask and vaccine allocations in the COVID-19 response. The dimensions do not reflect several demographic variables and only weakly reflect political ideology. Moral cosmopolitanism also differs from related psychological constructs such as group identity. Finally, to understand the underlying thought structures, natural language processing reveals cognitive associations underlying moral cosmopolitanism (e.g., world, both) versus the alternative, parochial moral mindset (e.g., USA, first). Making these global or local terms accessible introduces an effective intervention that at least temporarily leads more people to behave like moral cosmopolitans.


Subject(s)
Internationality , Morals , Humans , Judgment , Linguistics , Psychological Theory , Public Policy , Resource Allocation , Safety , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients face difficulties identifying appropriate physicians owing to the sizeable quantity and uneven quality of information in physician rating websites. Therefore, an increasing dependence of consumers on online platforms as a source of information for decision-making has given rise to the need for further research into the quality of information in the form of online physician reviews (OPRs). METHODS: Drawing on the signaling theory, this study develops a theoretical model to examine how linguistic signals (affective signals and informative signals) in physician rating websites affect consumers' decision making. The hypotheses are tested using 5521 physicians' six-month data drawn from two leading health rating platforms in the U.S (i.e., Healthgrades.com and Vitals.com) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sentic computing-based sentiment analysis framework is used to implicitly analyze patients' opinions regarding their treatment choice. RESULTS: The results indicate that negative sentiment, review readability, review depth, review spelling, and information helpfulness play a significant role in inducing patients' decision-making. The influence of negative sentiment, review depth on patients' treatment choice was indirectly mediated by information helpfulness. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is a first step toward the understanding of the linguistic characteristics of information relating to the patient experience, particularly the emerging field of online health behavior and signaling theory. It is also the first effort to our knowledge that employs sentic computing-based sentiment analysis in this context and provides implications for practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Internet , Linguistics , Patient Satisfaction , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e28346, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has affected individuals with lived experience of eating disorders (EDs), with many reporting higher psychological distress, higher prevalence of ED symptoms, and compensatory behaviors. The COVID-19 pandemic and the health and safety measures taken to contain its spread also disrupted routines and reduced access to familiar coping mechanisms, social support networks, and health care services. Social media and the ED communities on social media platforms have been an important source of support for individuals with EDs in the past. So far, it is unknown how discussions in online ED communities changed as offline support networks were disrupted and people spent more time at home in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify changes in language content and style in an online ED community during the initial onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We extracted posts and their comments from the ED community on the social media website Reddit and concatenated them to comment threads. To analyze these threads, we applied top-down and bottom-up language analysis methods based on topic modeling with latent Dirichlet allocation and 13 indicators from the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program, respectively. Threads were split into prepandemic (before March 11, 2020) and midpandemic (after March 11, 2020) groups. Standardized mean differences were calculated to estimate change between pre- and midpandemic threads. RESULTS: A total of 17,715 threads (n=8772, 49.5% prepandemic threads; n=8943, 50.5% midpandemic threads) were extracted from the ED community and analyzed. The final topic model contained 21 topics. CIs excluding zero were found for standardized mean differences of 15 topics and 9 Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count categories covering themes such as ED symptoms, mental health, treatment for EDs, cognitive processing, social life, and emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a reduction in discussions about ED symptoms, an increase in mental health and treatment-related topics was observed at the same time. This points to a change in the focus of the ED community from promoting potentially harmful weight loss methods to bringing attention to mental health and treatments for EDs. These results together with heightened cognitive processing, increased social references, and reduced inhibition of negative emotions detected in discussions indicate a shift in the ED community toward a pro-recovery orientation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Language , Pandemics , Social Media , Social Support , Emotions , Feeding and Eating Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Linguistics , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 2038-2046, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263515

ABSTRACT

Purpose The use of technology (e.g., telehealth) in clinical settings has rapidly increased, and its use in research settings continues to grow. The aim of this report is to present one potential solution to a clinical issue that of virtual and remote assessment for the purposes of spoken language research in persons with aphasia (PWA). To do so, we report detailed methods for conducting a multitimepoint (test-retest) virtual paradigm, assessing lifestyle, physiological, cognitive, and linguistic factors in persons with and without aphasia. Method Procedures for virtual assessment are detailed in a sample of adults with no brain damage (N = 24) and PWA (N = 25) on a test-retest paradigm (data collection approximately 10 ± 3 days apart). This report provides practical information about pre-assessment (e.g., recruitment, scheduling), assessment (e.g., aphasia-friendly consent presentation, investigator fidelity), and postassessment (e.g., data storage, quality check) procedures for human behavior research using a virtual platform. Results Preliminary study data are provided, indicating high retention rates, high rates of data acquisition, and feasibility. Common technological troubles and solutions are discussed, and solutions are offered. The results suggest that our pre-assessment, assessment, and postassessment procedures contributed to the success of our study. Conclusions We provide a practical methodology for conducting a multitimepoint study, with considerations for PWA, adding to the body of research on telehealth in clinical populations. Future studies should continue to evaluate telemethodology, which may be core for diversifying studies, improving study retention, and enrolling larger sample sizes. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14608101.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Brain Injuries , Adult , Humans , Linguistics
11.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 90, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO has raised concerns about the psychological consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic, negatively affecting health across societies, cultures and age-groups. METHODS: This online survey study investigated mental health, subjective experience, and behaviour (health, learning/teaching) among university students studying in Egypt or Germany shortly after the first pandemic lockdown in May 2020. Psychological assessment included stable personality traits, self-concept and state-like psychological variables related to (a) mental health (depression, anxiety), (b) pandemic threat perception (feelings during the pandemic, perceived difficulties in describing, identifying, expressing emotions), (c) health (e.g., worries about health, bodily symptoms) and behaviour including perceived difficulties in learning. Assessment methods comprised self-report questions, standardized psychological scales, psychological questionnaires, and linguistic self-report measures. Data analysis comprised descriptive analysis of mental health, linguistic analysis of self-concept, personality and feelings, as well as correlational analysis and machine learning. N = 220 (107 women, 112 men, 1 = other) studying in Egypt or Germany provided answers to all psychological questionnaires and survey items. RESULTS: Mean state and trait anxiety scores were significantly above the cut off scores that distinguish between high versus low anxious subjects. Depressive symptoms were reported by 51.82% of the student sample, the mean score was significantly above the screening cut off score for risk of depression. Worries about health (mental and physical health) and perceived difficulties in identifying feelings, and difficulties in learning behaviour relative to before the pandemic were also significant. No negative self-concept was found in the linguistic descriptions of the participants, whereas linguistic descriptions of feelings during the pandemic revealed a negativity bias in emotion perception. Machine learning (exploratory) predicted personality from the self-report data suggesting relations between personality and subjective experience that were not captured by descriptive or correlative data analytics alone. CONCLUSION: Despite small sample sizes, this multimethod survey provides important insight into mental health of university students studying in Egypt or Germany and how they perceived the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in May 2020. The results should be continued with larger samples to help develop psychological interventions that support university students across countries and cultures to stay psychologically resilient during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Egypt/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Germany , Humans , Linguistics , Machine Learning , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
12.
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247981, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122236

ABSTRACT

Stance markers are critical linguistic devices for writers to convey their personal attitudes, judgments or assessments about the proposition of certain messages. Following Hyland's framework of stance, this study investigated the distribution of stance markers in two different genres: medical research articles (medical RA) and newspaper opinion columns (newspaper OC). The corpus constructed for the investigation includes 52 medical research articles and 175 newspaper opinion articles, which were both written in English and published from January to April in 2020 with the topic focusing on COVID-19. The findings of this study demonstrated that the occurrences of stance markers in newspaper OC were far more frequent than those in medical RA, indicating the different conventions of these two genres. Despite the significant difference in the occurrences of stance markers between the two sub-corpora, similarities of the most frequent stance markers in two genres were also highlighted. The study indicated that the topic content seems to play an important role in shaping the way of how writers construct their stance. The lack of information or evidence on the topic of COVID-19 could restrain writers from making high degree of commitment to their claims, which make them adopt a more tentative stance to qualify their statements.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Linguistics , Newspapers as Topic , Writing , Humans
14.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(2): 87-90, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099868

ABSTRACT

The combined forces of economic globalization and international migration have resulted in specific challenges to palliative care systems. The COVID-19 pandemic has and is still greatly affecting elder populations as well as those across the age continuum living with long-standing chronic conditions or with pre-existing diverse unmet needs. While health promotion and palliative care may appear to be conceptually opposing fields, we argue that palliative care can and should fit under the umbrella of the health promotion continuum. This commentary seeks to discuss the importance of linguistic literacy and communication imperatives in the context of access to palliative care, given the broad, diversified and sensitive scope of care. While the pandemic has demonstrated that the public health responses of migrant host societies are deeply intertwined with policies as well as local rules and constraints, the promotion and provision of safe, timely and appropriate palliative care can be achieved through a sensitive assessment of differential contexts of diversity. The pandemic has painfully illustrated the need for a strong, respectful and equitable working partnership within the professions as well as with the civic society in order for the palliative needs of those exposed to a sustained risk not to be forgotten.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Palliative Care , Humans , Linguistics , Pandemics
15.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 8831114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090826

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a worldwide pandemic since March 2020. Although most patients complain of moderate or severe pain, these symptoms are generally underestimated and appropriate treatment is not applied. This study aims to guide physicians in selecting and ranking various alternatives for the treatment of pain in COVID-19 patients. However, the choice of treatment for pain requires the consideration of many different conflicting criteria. Therefore, we have studied this problem as a multicriteria decision-making problem. Throughout the solution procedure, first, the criteria and subcriteria affecting the preferences are defined. Then, weight values are determined with respect to these criteria, as they have different degrees of importance for the problem. At this stage, hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs) are used, and thus, experts can convey their ideas more accurately. In this first phase of the study, an HFLTS integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is utilized. Subsequently, possible treatment alternatives are evaluated by using the Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method. According to the results obtained by considering expert evaluations, the most preferred treatment is the administration of paracetamol, followed by interventional treatments, opioids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), respectively. With this study, it is ensured that a more accurate method is followed by eliminating possible mistakes due to the subjective evaluations of experts in the process of determining pain treatment. This method can also be used in different patient and disease groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decision Making , Fuzzy Logic , Linguistics , Pain Management , Pain Measurement , Humans , Pain Management/methods , Pain Measurement/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Med Anthropol ; 39(7): 563-572, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613413

ABSTRACT

Differing analytics and ethnographic practices impede conversations between linguistic and medical anthropologists. Here I juxtapose articles in this special issue that use diverse ethnographic sites to rethink anthropological concepts of health, disease, care, the body, language, and communication in the light of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. I track how anthropologists and their interlocutors envision relations between ideologies, embedded modeling (or metacommunication), and ordinary pragmatics, particularly by projecting their actual or ideal consonance versus exploring how sounds, bodies, technologies, and practices emerge from disjunctures. Comparing H1N1 in 2009 and COVID-19 prompts reflection on why anthropologists must transcend this foundational divide to tackle pandemic complexities.


Subject(s)
Anthropology, Medical/methods , Anthropology, Medical/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Linguistics/methods , Linguistics/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18700, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-68162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which began in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is rapidly spreading worldwide with over 1.9 million cases as of mid-April 2020. Infoveillance approaches using social media can help characterize disease distribution and public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors critical to the early stages of an outbreak. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to conduct a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Chinese social media posts originating in Wuhan City on the Chinese microblogging platform Weibo during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Chinese-language messages from Wuhan were collected for 39 days between December 23, 2019, and January 30, 2020, on Weibo. For quantitative analysis, the total daily cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan were obtained from the Chinese National Health Commission, and a linear regression model was used to determine if Weibo COVID-19 posts were predictive of the number of cases reported. Qualitative content analysis and an inductive manual coding approach were used to identify parent classifications of news and user-generated COVID-19 topics. RESULTS: A total of 115,299 Weibo posts were collected during the study time frame consisting of an average of 2956 posts per day (minimum 0, maximum 13,587). Quantitative analysis found a positive correlation between the number of Weibo posts and the number of reported cases from Wuhan, with approximately 10 more COVID-19 cases per 40 social media posts (P<.001). This effect size was also larger than what was observed for the rest of China excluding Hubei Province (where Wuhan is the capital city) and held when comparing the number of Weibo posts to the incidence proportion of cases in Hubei Province. Qualitative analysis of 11,893 posts during the first 21 days of the study period with COVID-19-related posts uncovered four parent classifications including Weibo discussions about the causative agent of the disease, changing epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak, public reaction to outbreak control and response measures, and other topics. Generally, these themes also exhibited public uncertainty and changing knowledge and attitudes about COVID-19, including posts exhibiting both protective and higher-risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide initial insight into the origins of the COVID-19 outbreak based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese social media data at the initial epicenter in Wuhan City. Future studies should continue to explore the utility of social media data to predict COVID-19 disease severity, measure public reaction and behavior, and evaluate effectiveness of outbreak communication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Data Mining/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Linguistics , Pandemics , Public Opinion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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