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1.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(11): 725-739, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821594

ABSTRACT

Obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease are risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney failure. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a major pathogenic mechanism that underlies the association between CKD and obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes, through interaction between resident and/or circulating immune cells with parenchymal cells. Thus, considerable interest exists in approaches that target inflammation as a strategy to manage CKD. The initial phase of the inflammatory response to injury or metabolic dysfunction reflects the release of pro-inflammatory mediators including peptides, lipids and cytokines, and the recruitment of leukocytes. In self-limiting inflammation, the evolving inflammatory response is coupled to distinct processes that promote the resolution of inflammation and restore homeostasis. The discovery of endogenously generated lipid mediators - specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids - which promote the resolution of inflammation and attenuate the microvascular and macrovascular complications of obesity and diabetes mellitus highlights novel opportunities for potential therapeutic intervention through the targeting of pro-resolution, rather than anti-inflammatory pathways.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Angiopathies/metabolism , Humans , Obesity/metabolism
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 427, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795805

ABSTRACT

Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in COVID-19 patients were recently reported with unclear mechanism. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a cohort of COVID-19 patients without pre-existing metabolic-related diseases, and found new-onset insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-C in these patients. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which modulated the expression of secreted metabolic factors including myeloperoxidase, apelin, and myostatin at the transcriptional level, resulting in the perturbation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several lipids, including (±)5-HETE, (±)12-HETE, propionic acid, and isobutyric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers of COVID-19-induced metabolic dysregulation, especially in insulin resistance. Taken together, our study revealed insulin resistance as the direct cause of hyperglycemia upon COVID-19, and further illustrated the underlying mechanisms, providing potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19-induced metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
3.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 55, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiplexing of samples in single-cell RNA-seq studies allows a significant reduction of the experimental costs, straightforward identification of doublets, increased cell throughput, and reduction of sample-specific batch effects. Recently published multiplexing techniques using oligo-conjugated antibodies or -lipids allow barcoding sample-specific cells, a process called "hashing." RESULTS: Here, we compare the hashing performance of TotalSeq-A and -C antibodies, custom synthesized lipids and MULTI-seq lipid hashes in four cell lines, both for single-cell RNA-seq and single-nucleus RNA-seq. We also compare TotalSeq-B antibodies with CellPlex reagents (10x Genomics) on human PBMCs and TotalSeq-B with different lipids on primary mouse tissues. Hashing efficiency was evaluated using the intrinsic genetic variation of the cell lines and mouse strains. Antibody hashing was further evaluated on clinical samples using PBMCs from healthy and SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, where we demonstrate a more affordable approach for large single-cell sequencing clinical studies, while simultaneously reducing batch effects. CONCLUSIONS: Benchmarking of different hashing strategies and computational pipelines indicates that correct demultiplexing can be achieved with both lipid- and antibody-hashed human cells and nuclei, with MULTISeqDemux as the preferred demultiplexing function and antibody-based hashing as the most efficient protocol on cells. On nuclei datasets, lipid hashing delivers the best results. Lipid hashing also outperforms antibodies on cells isolated from mouse brain. However, antibodies demonstrate better results on tissues like spleen or lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Antibodies/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology
4.
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786125

ABSTRACT

The development of functional lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) is one of the major challenges in the field of drug delivery systems (DDS). Recently, LNP-based RNA delivery systems, namely, RNA-loaded LNPs have attracted attention for RNA therapy. In particular, mRNA-loaded LNP vaccines were approved to prevent COVID-19, thereby leading to the paradigm shift toward the development of next-generation nanomedicines. For the LNP-based nanomedicines, the LNP size is a significant factor in controlling the LNP biodistribution and LNP performance. Therefore, a precise LNP size control technique is indispensable for the LNP production process. Here, we report a protocol for size controlled LNP production using a microfluidic device, named iLiNP. siRNA loaded LNPs are also produced using the iLiNP device and evaluated by in vitro experiment. Representative results are shown for the LNP size, including siRNA-loaded LNPs, Z-potential, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, cytotoxicity, and target gene silencing activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Lipids , Liposomes , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
5.
Nat Immunol ; 23(4): 532-542, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764192

ABSTRACT

The use of lipid-formulated RNA vaccines for cancer or COVID-19 is associated with dose-limiting systemic inflammatory responses in humans that were not predicted from preclinical studies. Here, we show that the 'interleukin 1 (IL-1)-interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)' axis regulates vaccine-mediated systemic inflammation in a host-specific manner. In human immune cells, RNA vaccines induce production of IL-1 cytokines, predominantly IL-1ß, which is dependent on both the RNA and lipid formulation. IL-1 in turn triggers the induction of the broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6). Unlike humans, murine leukocytes respond to RNA vaccines by upregulating anti-inflammatory IL-1ra relative to IL-1 (predominantly IL-1α), protecting mice from cytokine-mediated toxicities at >1,000-fold higher vaccine doses. Thus, the IL-1 pathway plays a key role in triggering RNA vaccine-associated innate signaling, an effect that was unexpectedly amplified by certain lipids used in vaccine formulations incorporating N1-methyl-pseudouridine-modified RNA to reduce activation of Toll-like receptor signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Animals , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/genetics , Lipids , Mice , RNA , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763046

ABSTRACT

Lipid-based nanoparticles (LBNPs) are biocompatible and biodegradable vesicles that are considered to be one of the most efficient drug delivery platforms. Due to the prominent advantages, such as long circulation time, slow drug release, reduced toxicity, high transfection efficiency, and endosomal escape capacity, such synthetic nanoparticles have been widely used for carrying genetic therapeutics, particularly nucleic acids that can be applied in the treatment for various diseases, including congenital diseases, cancers, virus infections, and chronic inflammations. Despite great merits and multiple successful applications, many extracellular and intracellular barriers remain and greatly impair delivery efficacy and therapeutic outcomes. As such, the current state of knowledge and pitfalls regarding the gene delivery and construction of LBNPs will be initially summarized. In order to develop a new generation of LBNPs for improved delivery profiles and therapeutic effects, the modification strategies of LBNPs will be reviewed. On the basis of these developed modifications, the performance of LBNPs as therapeutic nanoplatforms have been greatly improved and extensively applied in immunotherapies, including infectious diseases and cancers. However, the therapeutic applications of LBNPs systems are still limited due to the undesirable endosomal escape, potential aggregation, and the inefficient encapsulation of therapeutics. Herein, we will review and discuss recent advances and remaining challenges in the development of LBNPs for nucleic acid-based immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Immunotherapy , Lipids , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0127121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752773

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global outbreak and prompted an enormous research effort. Still, the subcellular localization of the coronavirus in lungs of COVID-19 patients is not well understood. Here, the localization of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins is studied in postmortem lung material of COVID-19 patients and in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells, processed identically. Correlative light and electron microscopy on semithick cryo-sections demonstrated induction of electron-lucent, lipid-filled compartments after SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung and cell cultures. In lung tissue, the nonstructural protein 4 and the stable nucleocapsid N-protein were detected on these novel lipid-filled compartments. The induction of such lipid-filled compartments and the localization of the viral proteins in lung of patients with fatal COVID-19 may explain the extensive inflammatory response and provide a new hallmark for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the final, fatal stage of infection. IMPORTANCE Visualization of the subcellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in lung patient material of COVID-19 patients is important for the understanding of this new virus. We detected viral proteins in the context of the ultrastructure of infected cells and tissues and discovered that some viral proteins accumulate in novel, lipid-filled compartments. These structures are induced in Vero cells but, more importantly, also in lung of patients with COVID-19. We have characterized these lipid-filled compartments and determined that this is a novel, virus-induced structure. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that cellular markers, such as CD63 and lipid droplet marker PLIN-2, are absent. Colocalization of lipid-filled compartments with the stable N-protein and nonstructural protein 4 in lung of the last stages of COVID-19 indicates that these compartments play a key role in the devastating immune response that SARS-CoV-2 infections provoke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipids/analysis , Lung/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/ultrastructure , Male , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells/virology
8.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742570

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, 27 cases of pneumonia were reported in Wuhan. In 2020, the causative agent was identified as a virus called SARS-CoV-2. The disease was called "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) and was determined as a Public Health Emergency. The main measures taken to cope with this included a state of lockdown. The aim of this study was to assess how the unhealthy lifestyles that ensued influenced different parameters. A prospective study was carried out on 6236 workers in a Spanish population between March 2019 and March 2021. Anthropometric, clinical, and analytical measurements were performed, revealing differences in the mean values of anthropometric and clinical parameters before and after lockdown due to the pandemic, namely increased body weight (41.1 ± 9.9-43.1 ± 9.9), BMI (25.1 ± 4.7-25.9 ± 4.7), and percentage of body fat (24.5 ± 9.1-26.9 ± 8.8); higher total cholesterol levels, with a statistically significant increase in LDL levels and a reduction in HDL; and worse glucose levels (90.5 ± 16.4-95.4 ± 15.8). Lockdown can be concluded to have had a negative effect on health parameters in both sexes in all age ranges, causing a worsening of cardiovascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucose , Adult , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Lipids , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732072

ABSTRACT

BPA is one of the most common endocrine disruptors that is widely being manufactured daily nationwide. Although scientific evidence supports claims of negative effects of BPA on humans, there is also evidence suggesting that a low level of BPA is safe. However, numerous in vivo trials contraindicate with this claim and there is a high possibility of BPA exposure could lead to obesity. It has been speculated that this does not stop with the exposed subjects only, but may also cause transgenerational effects. Direct disruption of endocrine regulation, neuroimmune and signaling pathways, as well as gut microbiata, has been identified to be interrupted by BPA exposure, leading to overweight or obesity. In these instances, cardiovascular complications are one of the primary notable clinical signs. In regard to this claim, this review paper discusses the role of BPA on obesity in the perspective of endocrine disruptions and possible cardiovascular complications that may arise due to BPA. Thus, the aim of this review is to outline the changes in gut microbiota and neuroimmune or signaling mechanisms involved in obesity in relation to BPA. To identify potentially relevant articles, a depth search was done on the databases Nature, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and Medline & Ovid from the past 5 years. According to Boolean operator guideline, selected keywords such as (1) BPA OR environmental chemical AND fat OR LDL OR obese AND transgenerational effects or phenocopy (2) Endocrine disruptors OR chemical AND lipodystrophy AND phenocopy (3) Lipid profile OR weight changes AND cardiovascular effect (4) BPA AND neuroimmune OR gene signaling, were used as search terms. Upon screening, 11 articles were finalized to be further reviewed and data extraction tables containing information on (1) the type of animal model (2) duration and dosage of BPA exposure (3) changes in the lipid profile or weight (4) genes, signaling mechanism, or any neuroimmune signal involved, and (5) transgenerational effects were created. In toto, the study indicates there are high chances of BPA exposure affecting lipid profile and gene associated with lipolysis, leading to obesity. Therefore, this scoping review recapitulates the possible effects of BPA that may lead to obesity with the evidence of current in vivo trials. The biomarkers, safety concerns, recommended dosage, and the impact of COVID-19 on BPA are also briefly described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrine Disruptors , Animals , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Humans , Lipids , Obesity/complications , Phenols
10.
J Int Med Res ; 50(2): 3000605221078699, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood lipid profiles in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to explore the association with disease severity. METHODS: This case-control study included patients with COVID-19, referred to two medical centers in Kermanshah, Iran (between July 2020 and December 2020), and healthy controls. Lipid profiles were evaluated in patients who were grouped according to severe (intensive care unit [ICU]), or less severe (outpatient), forms of COVID-19, and in healthy controls, and were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: A total of 132 participants were included, comprising ICU (n = 49), outpatient (n = 48) and control (n = 35) groups. Mean cholesterol levels were lower in the patient groups than in controls; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were higher in the ICU group versus outpatients, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were lower in the ICU group versus outpatients. The frequency of diabetes and hypertension was higher in the ICU group than in the outpatient group. Furthermore, LDL-C level was associated with disease severity (odds ratio 0.966, 95% confidence interval 0.944, 0.989). CONCLUSION: Lipid profiles differ between severe and less severe forms of COVID-19. LDL-C level may be a useful indicator of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol, HDL , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
11.
J Control Release ; 344: 80-96, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693301

ABSTRACT

In 2021, mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 were approved by the Food and Drug Administration. mRNA vaccines are important for preventing severe COVID-19 and returning to normal life. The development of RNA-delivery technology, including mRNA vaccines, has been investigated worldwide for ~30 years. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are a breakthrough technology that stably delivers RNA to target organs, and RNA-loaded LNP-based nanomedicines have been studied for the development of vaccines and nanomedicines for RNA-, gene-, and cell-based therapies. Recently, microfluidic devices and technologies have attracted attention for the production of LNPs, particularly RNA-loaded LNPs. Microfluidics provides many advantages for RNA-loaded LNP production, including precise LNP size controllability, high reproducibility, high-throughput optimization of LNP formulation, and continuous LNP-production processes. In this review, we summarize microfluidic-based RNA-loaded LNP production and its applications in RNA-based therapy and genome editing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lipids , Liposomes , Microfluidics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686819

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has evidenced the urgent need for the discovery of broad-spectrum antiviral therapies that could be deployed in the case of future emergence of novel viral threats, as well as to back up current therapeutic options in the case of drug resistance development. Most current antivirals are directed to inhibit specific viruses since these therapeutic molecules are designed to act on a specific viral target with the objective of interfering with a precise step in the replication cycle. Therefore, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as promising antiviral agents that could help to overcome this limitation and provide compounds able to act on more than a single viral family. We evaluated the antiviral activity of an amphibian peptide known for its strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, namely Temporin L (TL). Previous studies have revealed that TL is endowed with widespread antimicrobial activity and possesses marked haemolytic activity. Therefore, we analyzed TL and a previously identified TL derivative (Pro3, DLeu9 TL, where glutamine at position 3 is replaced with proline, and the D-Leucine enantiomer is present at position 9) as well as its analogs, for their activity against a wide panel of viruses comprising enveloped, naked, DNA and RNA viruses. We report significant inhibition activity against herpesviruses, paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we further modified our best candidate by lipidation and demonstrated a highly reduced cytotoxicity with improved antiviral effect. Our results show a potent and selective antiviral activity of TL peptides, indicating that the novel lipidated temporin-based antiviral agents could prove to be useful additions to current drugs in combatting rising drug resistance and epidemic/pandemic emergencies.


Subject(s)
Amphibian Proteins/pharmacology , Amphibians/metabolism , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , DNA Viruses/drug effects , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Amphibian Proteins/chemistry , Amphibian Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells
13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(1): 85-93, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669767

ABSTRACT

The analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a challenging task due to their high structural heterogeneity, which results in diverse GAG chains with similar chemical properties. Simultaneously, it is of high importance to understand their role and behavior in biological systems. It has been known for decades now that GAGs can interact with lipid molecules and thus contribute to the onset of atherosclerosis, but their interactions at and with biological interfaces, such as the cell membrane, are yet to be revealed. Here, analytical approaches that could yield important knowledge on the GAG-cell membrane interactions as well as the synthetic and analytical advances that make their study possible are discussed. Due to recent developments in laser technology, we particularly focus on nonlinear spectroscopic methods, especially vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, which has the potential to unravel the structural complexity of heterogeneous biological interfaces in contact with GAGs, in situ and in real time.


Subject(s)
Glycosaminoglycans/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
14.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(4): 555-568, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653411

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is overwhelming the healthcare systems. Identification of systemic reactions underlying COVID-19 will lead to new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for monitoring and early intervention in this viral infection. We performed targeted metabolomics covering up to 630 metabolites within several key metabolic pathways in plasma samples of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 37 matched controls. Plasma metabolic signatures specifically differentiated severe COVID-19 from control patients. The identified metabolic signatures indicated distinct alterations in both lipid and amino acid metabolisms in COVID-19 compared to control patient plasma. Systems biology-based analyses identified sphingolipid, tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine, arginine, and arachidonic acid metabolism as mostly impacted pathways in COVID-19 patients. Notably, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients and GABA plasma levels allowed for stratification of COVID-19 patients with high sensitivity and specificity. The data reveal large metabolic disturbances in COVID-19 patients and suggest use of GABA as potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Lipids , Metabolomics , Pandemics , Tryptophan
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1558860, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622112

ABSTRACT

Increasing outbreaks of new pathogenic viruses have promoted the exploration of novel alternatives to time-consuming vaccines. Thus, it is necessary to develop a universal approach to halt the spread of new and unknown viruses as they are discovered. One such promising approach is to target lipid membranes, which are common to all viruses and bacteria. The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has reaffirmed the importance of interactions between the virus envelope and the host cell plasma membrane as a critical mechanism of infection. Metadichol®, a nanolipid emulsion of long-chain alcohols, has been demonstrated as a strong candidate that inhibits the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. Naturally derived substances, such as long-chain saturated lipid alcohols, reduce viral infectivity, including that of coronaviruses (such as SARS-CoV-2) by modifying their lipid-dependent attachment mechanism to human host cells. The receptor ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells, whereas the serine protease TMPRSS2 primes the viral S protein. In this study, Metadichol® was found to be 270 times more potent an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 (EC50 = 96 ng/mL) than camostat mesylate (EC50 = 26000 ng/mL). Additionally, it inhibits ACE with an EC50 of 71 ng/mL, but it is a very weak inhibitor of ACE2 at an EC50 of 31 µg/mL. Furthermore, the live viral assay performed in Caco-2 cells revealed that Metadichol® inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication at an EC90 of 0.16 µg/mL. Moreover, Metadichol® had an EC90 of 0.00037 µM, making it 2081 and 3371 times more potent than remdesivir (EC50 = 0.77 µM) and chloroquine (EC50 = 1.14 µM), respectively.


Subject(s)
Fatty Alcohols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Esters/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 31(1): 36-46, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe COVID-19 disease is often complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which may transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Better understanding of underlying mechanisms is important in advancing therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial injury initiates platelet activation, platelet-neutrophil partnership and release of neutrophil extracellular traps. The resulting thromboinflammation causes ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to end organs. Severe COVID-19 induces a lipid-mediator storm with massive increases in thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and PGD2, which promote thromboinflammation and apoptosis of renal tubular cells, respectively, and thereby enhance renal fibrosis. COVID-19-associated AKI improves rapidly in the majority. However, 15-30% have protracted renal injury, raising the specter of transition from AKI to CKD. SUMMARY: In COVID-19, the lipid-mediator storm promotes thromboinflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytotoxicity. The thromboxane A2 and PGD2 signaling presents a therapeutic target with potential to mitigate AKI and transition to CKD. Ramatroban, the only dual antagonist of the thromboxane A2/TPr and PGD2/DPr2 signaling could potentially mitigate renal injury in acute and long-haul COVID. Urgent studies targeting the lipid-mediator storm are needed to potentially reduce the heavy burden of kidney disease emerging in the wake of the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Thrombosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation , Kidney/pathology , Lipids , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
17.
Comput Biol Chem ; 96: 107621, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611674

ABSTRACT

Quantitative physicochemical perspective on life processes has been a great asset, in bioengineering and biotechnology. The quantitative physicochemical approach can be applied to practically all organisms, including viruses, if their chemical composition and thermodynamic properties are known. In this paper, a new method is suggested for determining elemental composition of viruses, based on atom counting. The atom counting method requires knowledge of genetic sequence, protein sequences and protein copy numbers. An algorithm was suggested for a program that finds elemental composition of various viruses (DNA or RNA, enveloped or non-enveloped). Except for the nucleic acid, capsid proteins, lipid bilayer and carbohydrates, this method includes membrane proteins, as well as spike proteins. The atom counting method has been compared with the existing molecular composition and geometric methods on 5 viruses of different morphology, as well as experimentally determined composition of the poliovirus. The atom counting method was found to be more accurate in most cases. The three methods were found to be complementary, since they require different kind of input information. Moreover, since the 3 methods rest on different assumptions, results of one model can be compared to those of the other two.


Subject(s)
Viruses/chemistry , Algorithms , Animals , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Computational Biology , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/genetics , Elements , Environmental Science , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thermodynamics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viruses/genetics
18.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2766-2770, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603998

ABSTRACT

Understanding the structure of messenger RNA (mRNA) lipid nanoparticles, and specifically the microenvironment of the mRNA molecules within these entities, is fundamental to advancing their biomedical potential. Here, we show that a permeating cationic dye, thionine, can serve as a cryogenic electron microscopy contrasting agent by binding selectively to encapsulated mRNA without disturbing lipid nanoparticle morphology. Cryo-electron microscopy images identify the mRNA location, revealing that mRNA may exist within solvent-filled cavities or may be substantially lipid associated.


Subject(s)
Lipids , Nanoparticles , Cryoelectron Microscopy , RNA, Messenger/genetics
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573688

ABSTRACT

Viruses have evolved to manipulate host lipid metabolism to benefit their replication cycle. Enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses, use host lipids in various stages of the viral life cycle, particularly in the formation of replication compartments and envelopes. Host lipids are utilised by the virus in receptor binding, viral fusion and entry, as well as viral replication. Association of dyslipidaemia with the pathological development of Covid-19 raises the possibility that exploitation of host lipid metabolism might have therapeutic benefit against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, promising host lipid targets are discussed along with potential inhibitors. In addition, specific host lipids are involved in the inflammatory responses due to viral infection, so lipid supplementation represents another potential strategy to counteract the severity of viral infection. Furthermore, switching the lipid metabolism through a ketogenic diet is another potential way of limiting the effects of viral infection. Taken together, restricting the access of host lipids to the virus, either by using lipid inhibitors or supplementation with exogenous lipids, might significantly limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Lipids/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
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