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J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 15(1): 37-42, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772266


Background: The primo vascular system can be viewed as a circulatory system that plays a therapeutic function in regenerating the body tissue. The anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody was used as an immunotherapeutic agent to treat the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Objectives: In this study, we observed the effect of injecting lymph nodes with Foralumab, an anti- human CD3 epsilon therapeutic monoclonal antibody, on primo vessels. Methods: The structure and atomic stoichiometry of the antibody were determined by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Alcian blue dying solution was injected into the lymph nodes of the abdominal vena cava of rabbits, and the solution further flowed into the lymph vessels. Results: A primo vessel with primo nodes stained with Alcian blue was clearly visible in the lymph vessel. By injecting Foralumab into lymph nodes of rabbits with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the floating primo vessel in the lymph vessel appeared thicker and was distinctly visible. Conclusion: The observation of the primo vessel post-treated with Foralumab in the inflamed lymphatic system suggests the possibility of a functional role of the primo vascular circulatory system in pathophysiological conditions.

COVID-19 , Lymphatic Vessels , Meridians , Alcian Blue/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Lymphatic Vessels/chemistry , Rabbits , Staining and Labeling
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00348, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259760


INTRODUCTION: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia display enhanced levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) compared with controls, suggesting that low-grade endotoxemia may be implicated in vascular disturbances. It is unknown whether this occurs in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on thrombotic complications. METHODS: We measured serum levels of zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, LPS, and D-dimer in 81 patients with COVID-19 and 81 healthy subjects; the occurrence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 during the intrahospital stay was registered. RESULTS: Serum LPS and zonulin were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in control subjects and, in COVID-19, significantly correlated (R = 0.513; P < 0.001). Among the 81 patients with COVID-19, 11 (14%) experienced thrombotic events in the arterial (n = 5) and venous circulation (n = 6) during a median follow-up of 18 days (interquartile range 11-27 days). A logistic regression analysis showed that LPS (P = 0.024) and D-dimer (P = 0.041) independently predicted thrombotic events. DISCUSSION: The study reports that low-grade endotoxemia is detectable in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombotic events. The coexistence of low-grade endotoxemia with enhanced levels of zonulin may suggest enhanced gut permeability as an underlying mechanism.

COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Haptoglobins/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Protein Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Endotoxemia/diagnosis , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Endotoxemia/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology