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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922281, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden and serious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a novel target for inflammatory disease, and ibudilast (IBU), a PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits inflammatory response. Our study investigated the effect of IBU on the pathogenesis of neonatal ARDS and the underlying mechanism related to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of PDE4, CXCR4, SDF-1, CXCR5, CXCL1, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins related to cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Pulmonary edema score was used to assess the degree of lung water accumulation after pulmonary injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1) in serum. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS Increased expression of PDE4 was observed in an LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model, and IBU ameliorated LPS-induced pathological manifestations and pulmonary edema in lung tissue. In addition, IBU attenuated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by inactivating the chemokine axis in the LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model. Finally, IBU significantly reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis in lung tissue. CONCLUSIONS IBU, a PDE4 inhibitor, protected against ARDS by interfering with pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a novel and promising strategy to regulate pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(11): 1913-1920, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437673

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a dysregulated immune response to infection and potentially leads to life-threatening organ dysfunction, which is often seen in serious Covid-19 patients. Disulfiram (DSF), an old drug that has been used to treat alcohol addiction for decades, has recently been identified as a potent inhibitor of the gasdermin D (GSDMD)-induced pore formation that causes pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release. Therefore, DSF represents a promising therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities that acts by neutralizing circulating endotoxins and activating cellular responses. In addition, LF has been well exploited as a drug nanocarrier and targeting ligands. In this study, we developed a DSF-LF nanoparticulate system (DSF-LF NP) for combining the immunosuppressive activities of both DSF and LF. DSF-LF NPs could effectively block pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages. Treatment with DSF-LF NPs showed remarkable therapeutic effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy was also applied to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), and substantial treatment efficacy was achieved in a murine colitis model. The underlying mode of action of these DSF-LF-NPs may contribute to efficiently suppressing macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and ameliorating the complications caused by sepsis and UC. As macrophage pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in inflammation, this safe and effective biomimetic nanomedicine may offer a versatile therapeutic strategy for treating various inflammatory diseases by repurposing DSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Disulfiram/pharmacokinetics , Lactoferrin , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biomimetic Materials/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/pharmacology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374420

ABSTRACT

For the treatment of severe COVID-19, supplementation with human plasma-purified α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) to patients is currently considered. AAT inhibits host proteases that facilitate viral entry and possesses broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Researchers have demonstrated that an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhances pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Hence, we wanted to understand the potential anti-inflammatory activities of plasma-derived and recombinant AAT (recAAT) in a model of human total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to a combination of CHO expressed trimeric spike protein and LPS, ex vivo. We confirmed that cytokine production was enhanced in PBMCs within six hours when low levels of LPS were combined with purified spike proteins ("spike"). In the presence of 0.5 mg/mL recAAT, however, LPS/spike-induced TNF-α and IL-1ß mRNA expression and protein release were significantly inhibited (by about 46-50%) relative to LPS/spike alone. Although without statistical significance, recAAT also reduced production of IL-6 and IL-8. Notably, under the same experimental conditions, the plasma-derived AAT preparation Respreeza (used in native and oxidized forms) did not show significant effects. Our findings imply that an early pro-inflammatory activation of human PBMCs is better controlled by the recombinant version of AAT than the human plasma-derived AAT used here. Considering the increasing clinical interest in AAT therapy as useful to ameliorate the hyper-inflammation seen during COVID-19 infection, different AAT preparations require careful evaluation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/chemistry , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325683

ABSTRACT

For the treatment of severe COVID-19, supplementation with human plasma-purified α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) to patients is currently considered. AAT inhibits host proteases that facilitate viral entry and possesses broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Researchers have demonstrated that an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhances pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Hence, we wanted to understand the potential anti-inflammatory activities of plasma-derived and recombinant AAT (recAAT) in a model of human total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to a combination of CHO expressed trimeric spike protein and LPS, ex vivo. We confirmed that cytokine production was enhanced in PBMCs within six hours when low levels of LPS were combined with purified spike proteins ("spike"). In the presence of 0.5 mg/mL recAAT, however, LPS/spike-induced TNF-α and IL-1ß mRNA expression and protein release were significantly inhibited (by about 46-50%) relative to LPS/spike alone. Although without statistical significance, recAAT also reduced production of IL-6 and IL-8. Notably, under the same experimental conditions, the plasma-derived AAT preparation Respreeza (used in native and oxidized forms) did not show significant effects. Our findings imply that an early pro-inflammatory activation of human PBMCs is better controlled by the recombinant version of AAT than the human plasma-derived AAT used here. Considering the increasing clinical interest in AAT therapy as useful to ameliorate the hyper-inflammation seen during COVID-19 infection, different AAT preparations require careful evaluation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/chemistry , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305645

ABSTRACT

The major cause of death in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients is due to de-regulation of the innate immune system and development of cytokine storm. SARS-CoV-2 infects multiple cell types in the lung, including macrophages, by engagement of its spike (S) protein on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. ACE2 receptor initiates signals in macrophages that modulate their activation, including production of cytokines and chemokines. IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a central regulator of inflammatory responses regulating the magnitude of TLR responsiveness. Aim of the work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated signals modulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. For this purpose, we treated PMA-differentiated THP-1 human macrophages with SARS-CoV-2 S protein and measured the induction of inflammatory mediators including IL6, TNFα, IL8, CXCL5, and MIP1a. The results showed that SARS-CoV-2 S protein induced IL6, MIP1a and TNFα mRNA expression, while it had no effect on IL8 and CXCL5 mRNA levels. We further examined whether SARS-CoV-2 S protein altered the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR signals. Treatment of LPS-activated macrophages with SARS-CoV-2 S protein augmented IL6 and MIP1a mRNA, an effect that was evident at the protein level only for IL6. Similarly, treatment of PAM3csk4 stimulated macrophages with SARS-CoV-2 S protein resulted in increased mRNA of IL6, while TNFα and MIP1a were unaffected. The results were confirmed in primary human peripheral monocytic cells (PBMCs) and isolated CD14+ monocytes. Macrophage responsiveness to TLR ligands is regulated by IRAK-M, an inactive IRAK kinase isoform. Indeed, we found that SARS-CoV-2 S protein suppressed IRAK-M mRNA and protein expression both in THP1 macrophages and primary human PBMCs and CD14+ monocytes. Engagement of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with ACE2 results in internalization of ACE2 and suppression of its activity. Activation of ACE2 has been previously shown to induce anti-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with the ACE2 activator DIZE suppressed the pro-inflammatory action of SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction rendered macrophages hyper-responsive to TLR signals, suppressed IRAK-M and promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, activation of ACE2 may be a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy to eliminate the development of cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Protein Binding , THP-1 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674079, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305644

ABSTRACT

At homeostasis the vast majority of neutrophils in the circulation expresses CD16 and CD62L within a narrow expression range, but this quickly changes in disease. Little is known regarding the changes in kinetics of neutrophils phenotypes in inflammatory conditions. During acute inflammation more heterogeneity was found, characterized by an increase in CD16dim banded neutrophils. These cells were probably released from the bone marrow (left shift). Acute inflammation induced by human experimental endotoxemia (LPS model) was additionally accompanied by an immediate increase in a CD62Llow neutrophil population, which was not as explicit after injury/trauma induced acute inflammation. The situation in sub-acute inflammation was more complex. CD62Llow neutrophils appeared in the peripheral blood several days (>3 days) after trauma with a peak after 10 days. A similar situation was found in the blood of COVID-19 patients returning from the ICU. Sorted CD16low and CD62Llow subsets from trauma and COVID-19 patients displayed the same nuclear characteristics as found after experimental endotoxemia. In diseases associated with chronic inflammation (stable COPD and treatment naive HIV) no increases in CD16low or CD62Llow neutrophils were found in the peripheral blood. All neutrophil subsets were present in the bone marrow during homeostasis. After LPS rechallenge, these subsets failed to appear in the circulation, but continued to be present in the bone marrow, suggesting the absence of recruitment signals. Because the subsets were reported to have different functionalities, these results on the kinetics of neutrophil subsets in a range of inflammatory conditions contribute to our understanding on the role of neutrophils in health and disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endotoxemia/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wounds and Injuries/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , L-Selectin/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Young Adult
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282518

ABSTRACT

The usefulness of anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjunct therapy to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients is intensely discussed in this paper. Willow bark (Salix cortex) has been used for centuries to relieve pain, inflammation, and fever. Its main active ingredient, salicin, is metabolized in the human body into salicylic acid, the precursor of the commonly used pain drug acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Here, we report on the in vitro anti-inflammatory efficacy of two methanolic Salix extracts, standardized to phenolic compounds, in comparison to ASA in the context of a SARS-CoV-2 peptide challenge. Using SARS-CoV-2 peptide/IL-1ß- or LPS-activated human PBMCs and an inflammatory intestinal Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture, Salix extracts, and ASA concentration-dependently suppressed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a principal mediator of inflammation. The inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity, but not protein expression was observed for ASA and one Salix extract. In activated PBMCs, the suppression of relevant cytokines (i.e., IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-10) was seen for both Salix extracts. The anti-inflammatory capacity of Salix extracts was still retained after transepithelial passage and liver cell metabolism in an advanced co-culture model system consisting of intestinal Caco-2/HT29-MTX cells and differentiated hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells. Taken together, our in vitro data suggest that Salix extracts might present an additional anti-inflammatory treatment option in the context of SARS-CoV-2 peptides challenge; however, more confirmatory data are needed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Benzyl Alcohols/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Cyclooxygenase 2/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Glucosides/metabolism , HT29 Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 12(12): 916-932, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968717

ABSTRACT

There is a link between high lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in the blood and the metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome predisposes patients to severe COVID-19. Here, we define an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and LPS, leading to aggravated inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Native gel electrophoresis demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 S protein binds to LPS. Microscale thermophoresis yielded a KD of ∼47 nM for the interaction. Computational modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations further substantiated the experimental results, identifying a main LPS-binding site in SARS-CoV-2 S protein. S protein, when combined with low levels of LPS, boosted nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in monocytic THP-1 cells and cytokine responses in human blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The in vitro inflammatory response was further validated by employing NF-κB reporter mice and in vivo bioimaging. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and LPS-FITC analyses demonstrated that S protein modulated the aggregation state of LPS, providing a molecular explanation for the observed boosting effect. Taken together, our results provide an interesting molecular link between excessive inflammation during infection with SARS-CoV-2 and comorbidities involving increased levels of bacterial endotoxins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/immunology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lipid A/chemistry , Lipid A/immunology , Lipid A/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Immunological , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(12): 1383-1389, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834313

ABSTRACT

The microbiota-gut-liver-lung axis plays a bidirectional role in the pathophysiology of a number of infectious diseases. During the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, this pathway is unbalanced due to intestinal involvement and systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, there is convincing preliminary evidence linking microbiota-gut-liver axis perturbations, proinflammatory status, and endothelial damage in noncommunicable preventable diseases with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) severity. Intestinal damage due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, systemic inflammation-induced dysfunction, and IL-6-mediated diffuse vascular damage may increase intestinal permeability and precipitate bacterial translocation. The systemic release of damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (e.g. lipopolysaccharides) and consequent immune-activation may in turn auto-fuel vicious cycles of systemic inflammation and tissue damage. Thus, intestinal bacterial translocation may play an additive/synergistic role in the cytokine release syndrome in Covid-19. This review provides evidence on gut-liver axis involvement in Covid-19 as well as insights into the hypothesis that intestinal endotheliitis and permeability changes with bacterial translocation are key pathophysiologic events modulating systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, it presents an overview of readily applicable measures for the modulation of the gut-liver axis and microbiota in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Translocation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Permeability , Alarmins/immunology , Alarmins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Liver/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Microbiota/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
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