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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0266814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a)-Lp(a) has proinflammatory, prothrombotic and proatherogenic properties and may theoretically influence the course of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 with Lp(a) ≥30mg/dl may develop a worse course of the disease, increased incidence of thromboembolic complications, intubation and ICU hospitalization or death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 124 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in the Department of Internal Diseases and Clinical Pharmacology between 29 November 2020 and 15 April 2021. The only exclusion criterion was age≥80 years. Patients were divided into two groups: 1. COVID-19 patients with Lp(a) <30mg/dl regarded as not elevated n = 80; 2. COVID-19 patients with Lp(a) ≥30 regarded as elevated n = 44. RESULTS: A total of 124 COVID-19 patients were included in the study (66 men and 58 women) with a mean age of 62.8±11 years. COVID-19 patients with elevated Lp(a) level had significantly longer hospitalization time (11 vs. 9.5 days; p = 0.0362), more extensive radiological changes in CT scan (35 vs. 30%; p = 0.0301) and higher oxygen demand on admission (8 vs. 5L/min; p = 0.0428). Elevated Lp(a) was also associated with significantly higher OR for High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy (HFNOT) OR = 3.5 95%CI(1.2;8.9), p = 0.0140, Intubation and ICU OR = 4.1 95%CI(1.1;15.2) p = 0.0423, Death OR = 2.8 95%CI(0.9;8.5), p = 0.0409. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated Lp(a) might be one of the factors which contribute to a more severe course of COVID-19; however, further studies including larger groups of patients are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoprotein(a) , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Atherosclerosis ; 357: 33-40, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High levels of lipoprotein(a) could worsen the outcome of COVID-19 due to prothrombotic and proinflammatory properties of lipoprotein(a). We tested the hypotheses that during COVID-19 hospitalization i) increased thrombotic activity and inflammation are associated with lipoprotein(a) levels, and ii) lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with rate of hospital death and discharge. METHODS: We studied 211 patients admitted to Copenhagen University Hospital in 2020 with COVID-19, that is, prior to any vaccination. Thrombotic activity was marked by elevated D-dimer while inflammation was marked by elevated interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin. Patients were followed until death (N = 36) or discharge (N = 175). RESULTS: A 2-fold higher D-dimer was associated with 14% (95%CI: 8.1-20%) higher lipoprotein(a). Conversely, 2-fold higher interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with respectively 4.3% (0.62-7.8%), 5.7% (0.15-5.2%), and 8.7% (5.2-12%) lower lipoprotein(a). For hospital death, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio per 2-fold higher lipoprotein(a) was 1.26 (95%CI:0.91-1.73). Corresponding hazard ratios per 2-fold higher biomarker were 0.93 (0.75-1.16) for D-dimer, 1.42 (1.17-1.73) for interleukin-6, 1.44 (0.95-2.17) for C-reactive protein, and 1.44 (1.20-1.73) for procalcitonin. For hospital discharge, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio per 2-fold higher lipoprotein(a) was 0.91 (95%CI:0.79-1.06). Corresponding hazard ratios per 2-fold higher biomarker were 0.86 (0.75-0.98) for D-dimer, 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for interleukin-6, 0.80 (0.71-0.90) for C-reactive protein, and 0.76 (0.67-0.88) for procalcitonin. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients, thrombotic activity marked by elevated D-dimer was associated with higher lipoprotein(a) while elevated inflammatory biomarkers of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with lower lipoprotein(a); however, elevated lipoprotein(a) was not associated with rate of hospital death or discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lipoprotein(a) , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA ; 327(17): 1679-1687, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843805

ABSTRACT

Importance: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is an important risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis, for which there are no treatments approved by regulatory authorities. Objectives: To assess adverse events and tolerability of a short interfering RNA (siRNA) designed to reduce hepatic production of apolipoprotein(a) and to assess associated changes in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) at different doses. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single ascending dose study of SLN360, an siRNA targeting apolipoprotein(a) synthesis conducted at 5 clinical research unit sites located in the US, United Kingdom, and Australia. The study enrolled adults with Lp(a) plasma concentrations of 150 nmol/L or greater at screening and no known clinically overt cardiovascular disease. Participants were enrolled between November 18, 2020, and July 21, 2021, with last follow-up on December 29, 2021. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive placebo (n = 8) or single doses of SLN360 at 30 mg (n = 6), 100 mg (n = 6), 300 mg (n = 6), or 600 mg (n = 6), administered subcutaneously. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was evaluation of safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included change in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) to a maximum follow-up of 150 days. Results: Among 32 participants who were randomized and received the study intervention (mean age, 50 [SD, 13.5] years; 17 women [53%]), 32 (100%) completed the trial. One participant experienced 2 serious adverse event episodes: admission to the hospital for headache following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and later for complications of cholecystitis, both of which were judged to be unrelated to study drug. Median baseline Lp(a) concentrations were as follows: placebo, 238 (IQR, 203-308) nmol/L; 30-mg SLN360, 171 (IQR, 142-219) nmol/L; 100-mg SLN360, 217 (IQR, 202-274) nmol/L; 300-mg SLN360, 285 (IQR, 195-338) nmol/L; and 600-mg SLN360, 231 (IQR, 179-276) nmol/L. Maximal median changes in Lp(a) were -20 (IQR, -61 to 3) nmol/L, -89 (IQR, -119 to -61) nmol/L, -185 (IQR, -226 to -163) nmol/L, -268 (IQR, -292 to -189) nmol/L, and -227 (IQR, -270 to -174) nmol/L, with maximal median percentage changes of -10% (IQR, -16% to 1%), -46% (IQR, -64% to -40%), -86% (IQR, -92% to -82%), -96% (IQR, -98% to -89%), and -98% (IQR, -98% to -97%), for the placebo group and the 30-mg, 100-mg, 300-mg, and 600-mg SLN360 groups, respectively. The duration of Lp(a) lowering was dose dependent, persisting for at least 150 days after administration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this phase 1 study of 32 participants with elevated Lp(a) levels and no known cardiovascular disease, the siRNA SLN360 was well tolerated, and a dose-dependent lowering of plasma Lp(a) concentrations was observed. The findings support further study to determine the safety and efficacy of this siRNA. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04606602; EudraCT Identifier: 2020-002471-35.


Subject(s)
Apoprotein(a) , Hyperlipoproteinemias , RNA, Small Interfering , Adult , Apoprotein(a)/adverse effects , Apoprotein(a)/biosynthesis , Apoprotein(a)/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hyperlipoproteinemias/blood , Hyperlipoproteinemias/genetics , Hyperlipoproteinemias/metabolism , Hyperlipoproteinemias/therapy , Injections, Subcutaneous , Lipoprotein(a)/adverse effects , Lipoprotein(a)/biosynthesis , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/adverse effects , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
Atherosclerosis ; 347: 77-78, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734202
5.
Atherosclerosis ; 341: 43-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombosis is a major driver of adverse outcome and mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypercoagulability may be related to the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, which is mainly driven by interleukin (IL)-6. Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase following IL-6 upregulation and Lp(a) has anti-fibrinolytic properties. This study investigated whether Lp(a) elevation may contribute to the pro-thrombotic state hallmarking COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Lp(a), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in 219 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and analyzed with linear mixed effects model. The baseline biomarkers and increases during admission were related to venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence and clinical outcomes in a Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Lp(a) levels increased significantly by a mean of 16.9 mg/dl in patients with COVID-19 during the first 21 days after admission. Serial Lp(a) measurements were available in 146 patients. In the top tertile of Lp(a) increase, 56.2% of COVID-19 patients experienced a VTE event compared to 18.4% in the lowest tertile (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.61-5.81; p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, IL-6 and CRP increase and number of measurements. Increases in IL-6 and CRP were not associated with VTE. Increase in Lp(a) was strongly correlated with increase in IL-6 (r = 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in Lp(a) levels during the acute phase of COVID-19 were strongly associated with VTE incidence. The acute increase in anti-fibrinolytic Lp(a) may tilt the balance to VTE in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 169: 105689, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525917

ABSTRACT

Genome wide association, epidemiological, and clinical studies have established high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Lp(a) is an apoB100 containing lipoprotein covalently bound to apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a glycoprotein. Plasma Lp(a) levels are to a large extent determined by genetics. Its link to cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be driven by its pro-inflammatory effects, of which its association with oxidized phospholipids (oxPL) bound to Lp(a) is the most studied. Various inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and chronic renal failure are associated with high Lp(a) levels. In cases of RA, high Lp(a) levels are reversed by interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blockade by tocilizumab, suggesting a potential role for IL-6 in regulating Lp(a) plasma levels. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-6R polymorphisms are associated with CVD. Therapies aimed at lowering apo(a) and thereby reducing plasma Lp(a) levels are in clinical trials. Their results will determine if reductions in apo(a) and Lp(a) decrease cardiovascular outcomes. As we enter this new arena of available treatments, there is a need to improve our understanding of mechanisms. This review will focus on the role of Lp(a) in inflammation and CVD.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Lipoprotein(a)/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/physiology
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 581-585, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491308

ABSTRACT

Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a prothrombotic and anti-fibrinolytic lipoprotein, whose role has not been clearly defined in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this prospective observational study, serum Lp(a) as well as outcomes were measured in 50 COVID-19 patients and 30 matched sick controls. Lp(a) was also assessed for correlation with a wide panel of biomarkers. Serum Lp(a) did not significantly differ between COVID-19 patients and sick controls, though its concentration was found to be significantly associated with severity of COVID-19 illness, including acute kidney failure stage (r = 0.380, p = 0.007), admission disease severity (r = 0.355, p = 0.013), and peak severity (r = 0.314; p = 0.03). Lp(a) was also positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-8 (r = 0.308; p = 0.037), fibrinogen (r = 0.344; p = 0.032) and creatinine (r = 0.327; p = 0.027), and negatively correlated with ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag (r = - 0.335; p = 0.021); but not with IL-6 (r = 0.241; p = 0.106). These results would hence suggest that adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 may be aggravated by a genetically determined hyper-Lp(a) state rather than any inflammation induced elevations.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , SARS-CoV-2
8.
9.
J Intern Med ; 291(1): 101-107, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities including ischemic heart disease (IHD) worsen outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infections. High lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations are a strong risk factor for IHD and possibly for thromboembolic events. We therefore evaluated whether SARS-CoV-2 infections modify the risk of high Lp(a) concentrations for IHD or thromboembolic events during the first 8.5 months follow-up of the pandemic. METHOD: Cohort study using data from the UK Biobank during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Baseline Lp(a) was compared between SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and the population controls. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had Lp(a) concentrations similar to the population controls. The risk for IHD increased with higher Lp(a) concentrations in both, the population controls (n = 435,104) and SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (n = 6937). The causality of the findings was supported by a genetic risk score for Lp(a). A SARS-CoV-2 infection modified the association with a steeper increase in risk for infected patients (interaction p-value = 0.03). Although SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had a five-times higher frequency of thromboembolic events compared to the population controls (1.53% vs. 0.31%), the risk was not influenced by Lp(a). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infections enforce the association between high Lp(a) and IHD but the risk for thromboembolic events is not influenced by Lp(a).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thromboembolism/etiology
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 105865, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225318
11.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(9): 48, 2020 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has infected over > 11 million as of today people worldwide and is associated with significant cardiovascular manifestations, particularly in subjects with preexisting comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Recently, a predisposition for arterial and venous thromboses has been reported in COVID-19 infection. We hypothesize that besides conventional risk factors, subjects with elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) may have a particularly high risk of developing cardiovascular complications. RECENT FINDINGS: The Lp(a) molecule has the propensity for inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis through its apolipoprotein(a) component and for enhancing proinflammatory effects such as through its content of oxidized phospholipids. The LPA gene contains an interleukin-6 (IL-6) response element that may induce an acute phase-type increase in Lp(a) levels following a cytokine storm from COVID-19. Thus, subjects with either baseline elevated Lp(a) or those who have an increase following COVID-19 infection, or both, may be at very high risk of developing thromboses. Elevated Lp(a) may also lead to acute destabilization of preexisting but quiescent atherosclerotic plaques, which might induce acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Ongoing studies with IL-6 antagonists may be informative in understanding this relationship, and registries are being initiated to measure Lp(a) in subjects infected with COVID-19. If indeed an association is suggestive of being causal, consideration can be given to systematic testing of Lp(a) and prophylactic systemic anticoagulation in infected inpatients. Therapeutic lipid apheresis and pharmacotherapy for the reduction of Lp(a) levels may minimize thrombogenic potential and proinflammatory effects. We propose studies to test the hypothesis that Lp(a) may contribute to cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , Acute-Phase Proteins/genetics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , Biomedical Research , Blood Component Removal , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genotype , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Lipoprotein(a)/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Race Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/prevention & control
12.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 28(2): 159-173, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize recent recommendations on clinical management of adults and youth with elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] who are at-risk of or affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD). RECENT FINDINGS: There is ample evidence to support elevated Lp(a) levels, present in approximately 20% of the general population, as a causal, independent risk factor for CVD and its role as a significant risk enhancer. Several guidelines and position statements have been published to assist in the identification, treatment and follow-up of adults with elevated levels of Lp(a). There is growing interest in Lp(a) screening and strategies to improve health behaviors starting in youth, although published recommendations for this population are limited. In addition to the well established increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and valvular aortic stenosis, data from the coronavirus pandemic suggest adults with elevated Lp(a) may have a particularly high-risk of cardiovascular complications. Lp(a)-specific-lowering therapies are currently in development. Despite their inability to lower Lp(a), use of statins have been shown to improve outcomes in primary and secondary prevention. SUMMARY: Considerable differences exist amongst published guidelines for adults on the use of Lp(a) in clinical practice, and recommendations for youth are limited. With increasing knowledge of Lp(a)'s role in CVD, including recent observations of COVID-19-related risk of cardiovascular complications, more harmonized and comprehensive guidelines for Lp(a) in clinical practice are required. This will facilitate clinical decision-making and help define best practices for identification and management of elevated Lp(a) in adults and youth.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hyperlipoproteinemias/therapy , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aortic Valve Stenosis/complications , Aortic Valve Stenosis/epidemiology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipoproteinemias/blood , Hyperlipoproteinemias/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemias/epidemiology , Lipoprotein(a)/physiology , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
14.
Eur Heart J ; 41(24): 2227-2230, 2020 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883102
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