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1.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(4): e786, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291029

ABSTRACT

Scavenger receptor type B I (SR-BI), the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates the delivery of cholesterol ester and cholesterol from HDL to the cell membrane. SR-BI is implicated as a receptor for entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SR-BI is colocalized with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) increasing the binding and affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 with subsequent viral internalization. SR-BI regulates lymphocyte proliferation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and lymphocytes. SR-BI is reduced during COVID-19 due to consumption by SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-associated inflammatory changes and high angiotensin II (AngII) might be possible causes of repression of SR-BI in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, the downregulation of SR-BI in COVID-19 could be due to direct invasion by SARS-CoV-2 or through upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory signaling pathways, and high circulating AngII. Reduction of SR-BI in COVID-19 look like ACE2 may provoke COVID-19 severity through exaggeration of the immune response. Further studies are invoked to clarify the potential role of SR-BI in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 that could be protective rather than detrimental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scavenger Receptors, Class B , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/genetics
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023741

ABSTRACT

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) represent physiological carriers of lipids and proteins, the activity of which has been related to cardiovascular health for decades [...].


Subject(s)
Lipoproteins, HDL , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism
3.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934177

ABSTRACT

Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein (apo) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that influences HDL quality and functionality, particularly in the acute phase of inflammation. On the other hand, the structural and functional correlations of HDL containing SAA and apoA-I have not been reported. The current study was designed to compare the change in HDL quality with increasing SAA content in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states in reconstituted HDL (rHDL). The expressed recombinant human SAA1 (13 kDa) was purified to at least 98% and characterized in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states with apoA-I. The dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) binding ability of apoA-I was impaired severely by the addition of SAA, while SAA alone could not bind with DMPC. The recombinant human SAA1 was incorporated into the rHDL (molar ratio 95:5:1, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC): cholesterol: apoA-I) with various apoA-I:SAA molar ratios from 1:0 to 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2. With increasing SAA1 content, the rHDL particle size was reduced from 98 Å to 93 Å, and the α-helicity of apoA-I:SAA was decreased from 73% to 40% for (1:0) and (1:2), respectively. The wavelength maximum fluorescence (WMF) of tryptophan in rHDL was red-shifted from 339 nm to 345 nm for (1:0) and (1:2) of apoA-I:SAA, respectively, indicating that the addition of SAA to rHDL destabilized the secondary structure of apoA-I. Upon denaturation by urea treatment from 0 M to 8 M, SAA showed only a 3 nm red-shift in WMF, while apoA-I showed a 16 nm red-shift in WMF, indicating that SAA is resistant to denaturation and apoA-I had higher conformational flexibility than SAA. The glycation reaction of apoA-I in the presence of fructose was accelerated up to 1.8-fold by adding SAA in a dose-dependent manner than that of apoA-I alone. In conclusion, the incorporation of SAA in rHDL impaired the structural stability of apoA-I and exacerbated glycation of HDL and apoA-I.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I , Lipoproteins, HDL , Apolipoprotein A-I/chemistry , Cholesterol , Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776249

ABSTRACT

The quantity of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is represented as the serum HDL-C concentration (mg/dL), while the HDL quality manifests as the diverse features of protein and lipid content, extent of oxidation, and extent of glycation. The HDL functionality represents several performance metrics of HDL, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol efflux activities. The quantity and quality of HDL can change during one's lifetime, depending on infection, disease, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, exercise, and smoking. The quantity of HDL can change according to age and gender, such as puberty, middle-aged symptoms, climacteric, and the menopause. HDL-C can decrease during disease states, such as acute infection, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune disease, while it can be increased by regular aerobic exercise and healthy food consumption. Generally, high HDL-C at the normal level is associated with good HDL quality and functionality. Nevertheless, high HDL quantity is not always accompanied by good HDL quality or functionality. The HDL quality concerns the morphology of the HDL, such as particle size, shape, and number. The HDL quality also depends on the composition of the HDL, such as apolipoproteins (apoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-III, serum amyloid A, and α-synuclein), cholesterol, and triglyceride. The HDL quality is also associated with the extent of HDL modification, such as glycation and oxidation, resulting in the multimerization of apoA-I, and the aggregation leads to amyloidogenesis. The HDL quality frequently determines the HDL functionality, which depends on the attached antioxidant enzyme activity, such as the paraoxonase and cholesterol efflux activity. Conventional HDL functionality is regression, the removal of cholesterol from atherosclerotic lesions, and the removal of oxidized species in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Recently, HDL functionality was reported to expand the removal of ß-amyloid plaque and inhibit α-synuclein aggregation in the brain to attenuate Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, respectively. More recently, HDL functionality has been associated with the susceptibility and recovery ability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by inhibiting the activity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The appearance of dysfunctional HDL is frequently associated with many acute infectious diseases and chronic aging-related diseases. An HDL can be a suitable biomarker to diagnose many diseases and their progression by monitoring the changes in its quantity and quality in terms of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities. An HDL can be a protein drug used for the removal of plaque and as a delivery vehicle for non-soluble drugs and genes. A dysfunctional HDL has poor HDL quality, such as a lower apoA-I content, lower antioxidant ability, smaller size, and ambiguous shape. The current review analyzes the recent advances in HDL quantity, quality, and functionality, depending on the health and disease state during one's lifetime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoproteins, HDL , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apolipoprotein A-I/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL , Female , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein
5.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(24): 2781-2791, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599254

ABSTRACT

Low plasma levels of the signaling lipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are associated with disrupted endothelial cell (EC) barriers, lymphopenia and reduced responsivity to hypoxia. Total S1P levels were also reduced in 23 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the two main S1P carriers, serum albumin (SA) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were dramatically low. Surprisingly, we observed a carrier-changing shift from SA to HDL, which probably prevented an even further drop in S1P levels. Furthermore, intracellular S1P levels in red blood cells (RBCs) were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls due to up-regulation of S1P producing sphingosine kinase 1 and down-regulation of S1P degrading lyase expression. Cell culture experiments supported increased sphingosine kinase activity and unchanged S1P release from RBC stores of COVID-19 patients. These observations suggest adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of the vasculature and immunity as well as prevention of tissue hypoxia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Sphingosine/blood
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438626

ABSTRACT

The transmissible respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide since its first reported outbreak in December of 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, multiple studies have shown an inverse correlation between the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and the severity of COVID-19, with low HDL levels being associated with an increased risk of severe outcomes. Some studies revealed that HDL binds to SARS-CoV-2 particles via the virus's spike protein and, under certain conditions, such as low HDL particle concentrations, it facilitates SARS-CoV-2 binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and infection of host cells. Other studies, however, reported that HDL suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In both cases, the ability of HDL to enhance or suppress virus infection appears to be dependent on the expression of the HDL receptor, namely, the Scavenger Receptor Class B type 1 (SR-B1), in the target cells. SR-B1 and HDL represent crucial mediators of cholesterol metabolism. Herein, we review the complex role of HDL and SR-B1 in SARS-CoV-2-induced disease. We also review recent advances in our understanding of HDL structure, properties, and function during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cholesterol/blood , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Receptors, Lipoprotein/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
J Control Release ; 337: 448-457, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336623

ABSTRACT

Targeting cell-surface receptors with nanoparticles (NPs) is a crucial aspect of nanomedicine. Here, we show that soft, flexible, elongated NPs with poly-ethylene-oxide (PEO) exteriors and poly-butadiene (PBD) interiors - PEO-PBD filomicelles - interact directly with the major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor and SARS-CoV-2 uptake factor, SR-BI. Filomicelles have a ~ 6-fold stronger interaction with reconstituted SR-BI than PEO-PBD spheres. HDL, and the lipid transport inhibitor, BLT-1, both block the uptake of filomicelles by macrophages and Idla7 cells, the latter are constitutively expressing SR-BI (Idla7-SR-BI). Co-injections of HDL and filomicelles into wild-type mice reduced filomicelle signal in the liver and increased filomicelle plasma levels. The same was true with SCARB1-/- mice. SR-BI binding is followed by phagocytosis for filomicelle macrophage entry, but only SR-BI is needed for entry into Idla7-SR-BI cells. PEO-PBD spheres did not interact strongly with SR-BI in the above experiments. The results show elongated PEO-based NPs can bind cells via cooperativity among SR-BI receptors on cell surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , CD36 Antigens , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2 , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/genetics
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256567

ABSTRACT

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a class of blood particles, principally involved in mediating reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissue to liver. Omics approaches have identified crucial mediators in the HDL proteomic and lipidomic profile, which are involved in distinct pleiotropic functions. Besides their role as cholesterol transporter, HDLs display anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-infection properties. Experimental and clinical studies have unveiled significant changes in both HDL serum amount and composition that lead to dysregulated host immune response and endothelial dysfunction in the course of sepsis. Most SARS-Coronavirus-2-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit showed common features of sepsis disease, such as the overwhelmed systemic inflammatory response and the alterations in serum lipid profile. Despite relevant advances, episodes of mild to moderate acute kidney injury (AKI), occurring during systemic inflammatory diseases, are associated with long-term complications, and high risk of mortality. The multi-faceted relationship of kidney dysfunction with dyslipidemia and inflammation encourages to deepen the clarification of the mechanisms connecting these elements. This review analyzes the multifaced roles of HDL in inflammatory diseases, the renal involvement in lipid metabolism, and the novel potential HDL-based therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Lipoproteins, HDL/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/metabolism , Virus Internalization
9.
Nat Metab ; 2(12): 1391-1400, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947555

ABSTRACT

Responsible for the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells through binding of the viral spike protein (SARS-2-S) to the cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here we show that the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) facilitates ACE2-dependent entry of SARS-CoV-2. We find that the S1 subunit of SARS-2-S binds to cholesterol and possibly to HDL components to enhance viral uptake in vitro. SR-B1 expression facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry into ACE2-expressing cells by augmenting virus attachment. Blockade of the cholesterol-binding site on SARS-2-S1 with a monoclonal antibody, or treatment of cultured cells with pharmacological SR-B1 antagonists, inhibits HDL-enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further show that SR-B1 is coexpressed with ACE2 in human pulmonary tissue and in several extrapulmonary tissues. Our findings reveal that SR-B1 acts as a host factor that promotes SARS-CoV-2 entry and may help explain viral tropism, identify a possible molecular connection between COVID-19 and lipoprotein metabolism, and highlight SR-B1 as a potential therapeutic target to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Cell Line , Cholesterol/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Virus Attachment
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