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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 302, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) are liberally prescribed in patients with liver cirrhosis. Observational studies link PPI therapy in cirrhotic patients with an increased risk for infectious complications, hepatic encephalopathy and an increased risk for hospitalization and mortality. However, patients with liver cirrhosis are also considered to be at risk for peptic ulcer bleeding. The STOPPIT trial evaluates if discontinuation of a pre-existing PPI treatment delays a composite endpoint of re-hospitalization and/or death in patients (recently) hospitalized with liver cirrhosis compared to patients on continued PPI medication. METHODS: The STOPPIT-trial is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. In total, 476 patients with complicated liver cirrhosis who already receive long-term PPI therapy without evidence-based indication are 1:1 randomized to receive either esomeprazole 20 mg (control group) or placebo (intervention group) for 360 days. Patients with an indication for PPI therapy (such as a recent diagnosis of peptic ulcers, severe reflux esophagitis, severe hemorrhagic gastritis, recent endoscopic therapy for oesophageal varices) are excluded. The primary composite endpoint is the time-to re-hospitalization and/or death. Secondary endpoints include rates of re-hospitalization, mortality, occurrence of infections, hepatic decompensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure. The safety endpoint is defined as manifestation of an evidence-based indication for PPI re-therapy. The impact of PPI continuation or discontinuation on the intestinal microbiota will be studied. The recruitment will take place at 18 study sites throughout Germany. Recruitment has started in April 2021. DISCUSSION: The STOPPIT trial is the first clinical trial to study the effects of PPI withdrawal on relevant outcome variables in patients with complicated liver cirrhosis. If the hypothesis that PPI withdrawal improves clinical outcomes of cirrhosis patients is confirmed, this would argue for a strong restriction of the currently liberal prescription practice of PPIs in this population. If, on the other hand, the trial demonstrates an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding events in patients after PPI withdrawal, this could create a rationale for a more liberal, prophylactic PPI treatment in patients with liver cirrhosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU clinical trials register EudraCT 2019-005008-16 (registered December 27, 2019). CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT04448028 (registered June 25, 2020). German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00021290 (registered March 10, 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Gene ; 820: 146235, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778131

ABSTRACT

The relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409, transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926, and membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) rs641738 with outcomes in patients with hepatitis C infection (HCV) is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association of PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 with the baseline fibrosis stage and progression of liver fibrosis after HCV eradication with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). A total of 171 patients who received the DAAs at the Peking University First Hospital between June 2015 and June 2020 were included in the retrospective cohort. Transient elastography was used to determine liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) at the baseline, the end of treatment (EOT), 24 weeks after treatment (W24), and the last follow-up (LFU) visit. We used the QIAamp Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen) for whole blood genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction for PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 amplification of the target gene. The PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP was associated with the baseline fibrosis stage in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for other factors, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for advanced fibrosis (≥F3) at baseline was 2.52 (95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.096-5.794, p = 0.03). The G and GG alleles were predictive of advanced fibrosis (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.021-4.196, p = 0.015; OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.572-6.536, p = 0.005). Similarly, the OR of TM6SF2 rs58542926 at baseline was 2.608 (95% CI = 1.081-6.29, p = 0.033). T and TT alleles were predictive of advanced fibrosis (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.005-5.98, p = 0.007; OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.32-6.87, p = 0.001). After adjustment, the MBOAT7 rs641738 T plus TT alleles were not independently associated with the baseline fibrosis stage (95% CI = 0.707-2.959, p = 0.312). At the EOT, there were 35 patients and 136 patients in the fibrosis improvement and fibrosis non-improvement group, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the G allele in PNPLA3 rs738409 was associated with fibrosis progression (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.125-5.89, p = 0.003). The GG alleles were predictive of fibrosis progression (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.35-6.35, p = 0.005). Similarly, the ORs of the T and TT alleles in TM6SF2 rs58542926 for fibrosis progression were 1.82 and 2.21, respectively (95% CI = 1.006-5.373, p = 0.045; 95% CI = 1.18-5.75, p = 0.01). At the W24 visit, we found that there was an association between the G allele in PNPLA3 rs738409 and fibrosis progression (OR = 2.218, 95% CI = 1.095-5.631, p = 0.015). Moreover, GG alleles were also predictive for fibrosis progression (OR = 2.558, 95% CI = 1.252-5.15, p = 0.008). Similarly, the OR of T allele and TT alleles in TM6SF2 rs58542926 for fibrosis progression was 2.056 and 2.652 (95% CI = 1.013-5.592, p = 0.038; 95% CI = 1.25-5.956, p = 0.015). For additional affirmation, we surveyed fibrosis progression utilizing the Cox proportional hazards model. G and GG alleles in PNPLA3 rs738409 were associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced fibrosis in multivariate model (hazard ratio [HR]1.566, 95% CI = 1.02-2.575, p = 0.017; and HR2.109, 95% CI = 1.36-3.271, p = 0.001, respectively). Besides, T and TT alleles in TM6SF2 rs58542926 were associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced fibrosis in multivariate model (HR = 1.322, 95% CI = 1.003-1.857, p = 0.045; and HR = 1.855, 95% CI = 1.35-2.765, p = 0.006, respectively). In contrast, rs641738 in MBOAT7 did not show a significant trend in the univariate and multivariate models. The PNPLA3 CG/GG SNP at rs738409 and TM6SF2 CT/TT SNP at rs58542926 were associated with the baseline fibrosis stage and fibrosis progression after HCV eradication with DAAs.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/economics , Acyltransferases/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Membrane Proteins/economics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Adult , Aged , Alleles , Disease Progression , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 780704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775986

ABSTRACT

Background: Liver cirrhosis is a major global health and economic challenge, placing a heavy economic burden on patients, families, and society. This study aimed to investigate medical expenditure trends in patients with liver cirrhosis and assess the drivers for such medical expenditure among patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: Medical expenditure data concerning patients with liver cirrhosis was collected in six tertiary hospitals in Chongqing, China, from 2012 to 2020. Trends in medical expenses over time and trends according to subgroups were described, and medical expenditure compositions were analyzed. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to evaluate the factors influencing medical expenditure. All expenditure data were reported in Chinese Yuan (CNY), based on the 2020 value, and adjusted using the year-specific health care consumer price index for Chongqing. Results: Medical expenditure for 7,095 patients was assessed. The average medical expenditure per patient was 16,177 CNY. An upward trend in medical expenditure was observed in almost all patient subgroups. Drug expenses were the largest contributor to medical expenditure in 2020. A multiple linear regression model showed that insurance type, sex, age at diagnosis, marital status, length of stay, smoking status, drinking status, number of complications, autoimmune liver disease, and the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score were significantly related to medical expenditure. Conclusion: Conservative estimates suggest that the medical expenditure of patients with liver cirrhosis increased significantly from 2012 to 2020. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate targeted measures to reduce the personal burden on patients with liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Health Expenditures , Liver Cirrhosis , China , Hospitals , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/economics , Retrospective Studies
4.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 7235860, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770044

ABSTRACT

Methods: We identified relevant cohort studies that assessed the relationship between liver fibrosis scores (e.g., FIB-4, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI)) and associated prognosis outcomes by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and medRxiv databases. The potential dose-response effect was performed using a stage robust error meta-regression. Results: Sixteen studies with 8,736 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. One-point score in FIB-4 increase was significantly associated with increased mechanical ventilation (RR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.37-3.65, P=0.001), severe COVID-19 (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.53-2.16, P < 0.001), and death (RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.31-1.65, P < 0.001), rather than hospitalization (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.72-2.56, P=0.35). Furthermore, there is a significant positive linear relationship between FIB-4 and severe COVID-19 (P nonlinearity=0.12) and mortality (P nonlinearity=0.18). Regarding other liver scores, one unit elevation in APRI increased the risk of death by 178% (RR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.10-6.99, P=0.03). Higher NFS (≥-1.5) and Forns index were associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-associated death. Conclusion: Our dose-response meta-analysis suggests high liver fibrosis scores are associated with worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19. For patients with COVID-19 at admission, especially for those with coexisting chronic liver diseases, assessment of liver fibrosis scores might be useful for identifying high risk of developing severe COVID-19 cases and worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
5.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765943

ABSTRACT

: Background:There are limited data available on the influence of direct-acting antivirals used to treat chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on growth in children. In this study, we aimed to analyze the growth parameters in children treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF). METHODS: We included38 patients (16 girls and 22 boys) aged 10-17 years treated with LDV/SOF for CHC (33 infected with genotype 1 and 5 with genotype 4; 36 were treated for 12 weeks, and 2 for 24 weeks according to the current guidelines). Patient weight and height were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of treatment, at the end of the treatment (EOT), and 12 weeks and one year after the EOT. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z and height-for-age (HA) z scores were calculated according to the WHO Child Growth Standards and Growth reference data using the WHO anthropometric calculator AnthroPlus v. 1.0.4. In addition, correlations between BMI z scores and liver fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement, LSM), the aspartate transaminase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) and liver steatosis (controlled attenuation parameter, CAP) were analyzed. RESULTS: At baseline, 5/38 (13%) patients were obese (BMI z score >2 SD), 4/38 (11%) were overweight, and 29 (76%) were normal. A significant increase was observed in mean weight, height and BMI both 12 weeks and one year after the treatment compared to the baseline, whereas no differences were observed for BMI z scores and HA z scores. Baseline BMI z scores correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels (r = 0.33, 95% CI 0.01-0.58, p =0.04), LSM (r = 0.40, 95% CI 0.09-0.65, p =0.01), the APRI (r = 0.33, 95% CI 0.02-0.59, p =0.03), and the CAP (r = 0.40, 95% CI 0.08-0.64, p =0.01). No similar correlations were reported at 12 weeks posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with LDV/SOF in children with CHC (genotypes 1 and 4) did not negatively influence the patients' growth. However, higher baseline BMI z scores correlated with more advanced liver fibrosis and steatosis in children with CHC.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Sofosbuvir , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fluorenes , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Male , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 5900468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759506

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated that thromboembolic events increased in patients with coronavirus infection, usually occurring in elderly patients with severe illness, associated with comorbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare venous thromboembolic disease occurring typically in patients with an underlying disease such as decompensated cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim: To evaluate incidence of occurrence of acute PVT in cirrhotic patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study involved 70 patients of the liver cirrhosis: (group A) 28 patients with liver cirrhosis infected with COVID-19, and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis as the control group matched for age and sex (group B). All patients were subjected to thorough medical history, routine investigations (complete blood count, liver, and renal function tests), imaging in the form of abdominal and Doppler ultrasonography to assess the presence of acute PVT, serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and PCR of COVID-19 for group A only. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding Doppler ultrasound findings as 3 of the patients in group A had PVT (10.7%), 2 of them had HCC diagnosed by triphasic CT abdomen, and only 1 patient in group B had PVT (2.3%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cirrhotic patients infected with COVID-19, portal vein thrombosis may be a potential complication even in the absence of hepatocellular carcinoma; further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Portal Vein , Prospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685521

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of cutaneous mucormycosis in a middle-aged man with ethanol-related chronic liver disease. He presented with symptoms of fever, breathlessness for 10 days and altered mental status for 2 days. On admission, he was in septic shock and had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). He was noted to have ruptured blisters in his left axilla. Although he repeatedly had negative COVID-19 Reverse Transcription-PCR results, he had positive IgG antibodies for COVID-19. He was managed with broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, vasopressors and ventilation for ARDS. Over the course of his hospitalisation, the axillary lesion progressed to a necrotising ulcer with deep tissue invasion. Debridement and culture of the axillary ulcer revealed mucor species, and he was started on amphotericin and posaconazole for mucormycosis. Unfortunately, he continued to deteriorate despite aggressive management and died after a prolonged hospital stay of 40 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Ethanol , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673376

ABSTRACT

Wilson's disease in childhood could present with features ranging from asymptomatic liver disease to acute liver failure and cirrhosis. Neurological manifestations and psychiatric illness occur more commonly in adults and older children. Skin manifestation with Wilson's disease is not frequently reported in literature but could be an early diagnostic clincher. We present a child with hepatic Wilson's disease and skin hyperpigmentation. We aim to highlight the possible importance of skin lesions as an early marker of Wilson's disease.


Subject(s)
Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Hyperpigmentation , Liver Transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/complications , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/diagnosis , Humans , Hyperpigmentation/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis
10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(4): 678-684, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic's impact on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening and diagnosis among patients with cirrhosis in the Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: Rates and predictors of screening and diagnosis were reviewed September 1, 2019-February 29, 2020 ("pre-COVID-19," N = 94,612) and April 1, 2020-September 30, 2020 ("post-COVID-19," N = 88,073). RESULTS: Screening and diagnosis rates declined by 44% and 13%, respectively, after the COVID-19 pandemic. Screening declined irrespective of liver disease severity, but diagnosis declined only in Model for End Stage Liver Disease-Sodium score <20 or Fibrosis-4 score <3.25. Fibrosis-4 score ≥3.25 and HCC risk ≥1.5%/year strongly predicted HCC diagnosis but only moderately predicted receipt of screening. DISCUSSION: Screening and diagnosis rates declined after the COVID-19 pandemic. Prioritizing screening for patients at greatest risk for HCC may reduce delays in diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , End Stage Liver Disease , Liver Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0258450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are considered to be at increased risk for mortality when acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequently developing Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals are regarded as sites with increased risk of infection. Therefore, patient contacts are often limited to urgent indications, which could negatively affect disease monitoring. However, data regarding actual infection rates in cirrhotic patients is limited. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the incidence of COVID-19 in patients with LC with/without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with physical presentation at our University Medical Center. METHODS: Patients were enrolled between 1st April and 30th June 2020 at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. Symptoms of upper airway infection at baseline and presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG/IgM/IgA) were assessed at baseline and follow-up (FU) using an Electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Elecsys). FU visits, including liver function test, clinical assessment and symptom questionnaire, were conducted after 6-8 weeks (FU-1) and 6 months (FU-2). Prior to inclusion of the first patient, obligatory face masks and personal distance were implemented as protective measures. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, 23% (n = 35) also had diagnosis of HCC (median age: 64 years, range: 19-86), 69% were male. Liver function according to Child-Pugh score (CPS) was: CPS A: 46% (n = 62); CPS B: 37% (n = 50); CPS C: 17% (n = 23). Clinical symptoms indicating upper airway infection were present in 53% (n = 77): shortness of breath (n = 40) and coughing (n = 28) were the most frequent. For the 150 patients enrolled, 284 outpatient visits were registered and 33 patients were admitted to the University Medical Center during the follow-up period. After a median of 52 days, n = 110 patients completed FU-1 and n = 72 completed FU-2 after a median of 6.1 months. Only in one patient, an 80-year-old man with stable liver function (CPS A) and advanced HCC, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected at baseline and FU-1, while antibody testing was negative in the remaining patients at baseline, FU-1 and FU-2. CONCLUSION: The incidence of COVID-19 at our tertiary medical center during the pandemic was low in LC and HCC patients, when simple protective measures were implemented. Therefore, a routine care for patients with chronic liver diseases does not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be maintained with protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tertiary Care Centers/trends
14.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1262-1271, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550325

ABSTRACT

Preclinical and clinical data suggest that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is anti-fibrotic, improves metabolic status and has potential to treat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We assessed the safety and efficacy of efruxifermin, a long-acting Fc-FGF21 fusion protein, for the treatment of NASH. BALANCED was a randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with NASH conducted at 27 centers in the United States (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03976401 ). Eighty patients, stratified by hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and fibrosis stage, were randomized using a centrally administered minimization algorithm 1:1:1:1 to receive placebo (n = 21) or efruxifermin 28 mg (n = 19), efruxifermin 50 mg (n = 20) or efruxifermin 70 mg (n = 20) via weekly subcutaneous injection for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint-absolute change from baseline in HFF measured as magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction at week 12-was met. For the full analysis set, the least squares mean absolute changes (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval) from baseline in HFF were -12.3% (-infinity (-inf), -10.3), -13.4% (-inf, -11.4) and -14.1% (-inf, -12.1) in the 28-, 50- and 70-mg groups, respectively, versus 0.3% (-inf, 1.6) in the placebo group, with statistically significant differences between efruxifermin groups and placebo (P < 0.0001 each). Overall, 70 of 79 patients who received the study drug (89%) experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), with the majority grade 1-2 (64 (81%)), five (6%) grade 3 and one grade 4. The most commonly reported drug-related TEAEs were grade 1-2 gastrointestinal (36 (46%)). Treatment with efruxifermin significantly reduced HFF in patients with F1-F3 stage NASH, with an acceptable safety profile.


Subject(s)
Fibroblast Growth Factors/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/therapeutic use , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
15.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 439, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Some, but not all, prior studies have suggested that patients with chronic liver disease are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and developing more severe disease. However, nationwide data are lacking from well-phenotyped cohorts with liver histology and comparisons to matched general population controls. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all Swedish adults with chronic liver disease (CLD) confirmed by liver biopsy between 1966 and 2017 (n = 42,320), who were alive on February 1, 2020. CLD cases were matched to ≤ 5 population comparators by age, sex, calendar year and county (n = 182,147). Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for COVID-19 hospitalization and severe COVID-19 (intensive care admission or death due to COVID-19). RESULTS: Between February 1 and July 31, 2020, 161 (0.38%) CLD patients and 435 (0.24%) general population controls were hospitalized with COVID-19 (aHR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.11-1.66), while 65 (0.15%) CLD patients and 191 (0.10%) controls developed severe COVID-19 (aHR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.79-1.48). Results were similar in patients with CLD due to alcohol use, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and other etiologies. Among patients with cirrhosis (n = 2549), the aHRs for COVID-19 hospitalization and for severe COVID-19 were 1.08 (95% CI 0.48-2.40) and 1.23 (95% CI = 0.37-4.04), respectively, compared to controls. Moreover, among all patients diagnosed with COVID-19, the presence of underlying CLD was not associated with increased mortality (aHR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.61-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort, patients with CLD had a higher risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 compared to the general population, but they did not have an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(42): 7362-7375, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis, is associated with worse outcomes in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM: To assess outcomes of COVID-19 infection among patients with pre-existing hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included all cases of confirmed co-infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and chronic hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis who were admitted to six hospitals (Al-Sahel Hospital, Al-Matareya Hospital, Al-Ahrar Hospital, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Al-Gomhoreya Hospital, and the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute) affiliated with the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes in Egypt. Patients were recruited from May 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Demographic, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes were collected. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included 125 patients with chronic hepatitis C and COVID-19 co-infection, of which 64 (51.20%) had liver cirrhosis and 40 (32.00%) died. Fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms in patients with liver cirrhosis. Cough, sore throat, fatigue, myalgia, and diarrhea were significantly more common in patients with liver cirrhosis than in non-cirrhotic patients. There was no difference between patients with and without cirrhosis regarding comorbidities. Fifteen patients (23.40%) with liver cirrhosis presented with hepatic encephalopathy. Patients with liver cirrhosis were more likely than non-cirrhotic patients to have combined ground-glass opacities and consolidations in CT chest scans: 28 (43.75%) vs 4 (6.55%), respectively (P value < 0.001). These patients also were more likely to have severe COVID-19 infection, compared to patients without liver cirrhosis: 29 (45.31%) vs 11 (18.04%), respectively (P value < 0.003). Mortality was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis, compared to those with no cirrhosis: 33 (51.56%) vs 9 (14.75%), respectively (P value < 0.001). All patients in Child-Pugh class A recovered and were discharged. Cirrhotic mortality occurred among decompensated patients only. A multivariate regression analysis revealed the following independent factors affecting mortality: Male gender (OR 7.17, 95%CI: 2.19-23.51; P value = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 4.03, 95%CI: 1.49-10.91; P value = 0.006), and liver cirrhosis (OR 1.103, 95%CI: 1.037-1.282; P value < 0.0001). We found no differences in liver function, COVID-19 disease severity, or outcomes between patients who previously received direct-acting antiviral therapy (and achieved sustained virological response) and patients who did not receive this therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible to higher severity and mortality if infected with COVID-19. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis are independent factors associated with increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
20.
Liver Transpl ; 27(10): 1479-1489, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487507

ABSTRACT

Cirrhosis has a significant and growing impact on public health and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The increasing burden of cirrhosis has led to an emphasis on the quality of care with the goal of improving overall outcomes in this high-risk population. Existing evidence has shown the significant gaps in quality across process measures (eg, hepatocellular carcinoma screening), highlighting the need for consistent measurement and interventions to address the gaps in quality care. This multistep process forms the quality continuum, and it depends on clearly defined process measures, real-time quality measurement, and generalizable evaluative methods. Herein we review the current state of quality care in cirrhosis across the continuum with a focus on process measurement methodologies, developments in PRO evaluation on quality assessment, practical examples of quality improvement initiatives, and the recent emphasis placed on the value of primary prevention.


Subject(s)
Liver Transplantation , Quality Improvement , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Quality of Health Care
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