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1.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(12): 3433-3442, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127708

ABSTRACT

Naltrexone is an approved drug for management of alcohol use disorder (AUD), but data in patients with liver disease (LD) are limited. We aimed to evaluate the safety of naltrexone in those with LD. This is a retrospective cohort of adults with and without LD who were prescribed naltrexone for AUD from 2015 to 2019 in a safety-net setting. Naltrexone hepatic safety was determined by liver enzyme changes during and after compared to before naltrexone prescription as well as rates of subsequent hospitalization and death by Kaplan-Meier methods. Factors associated with hospitalization were examined by Cox regression. Of 160 patients prescribed naltrexone for AUD, 100 (63%) had LD and 47 (47%) of those with LD had cirrhosis (47% decompensated). The total cohort, LD, and cirrhosis groups had lower adjusted mean aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after versus before naltrexone prescription (p < 0.001). Two-year survival was 97.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.6-99.7), 95.4% (95% CI, 82.8-98.8), 90.8% (95% CI, 73.5-97.0), and 81.3% (95% CI, 41.2-93.8) in those without LD, LD without cirrhosis, cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis groups (p = 0.46), respectively. Alcohol-related 2-year hospitalization rates were 8.2% (95% CI, 2.7-24), 27.7% (95% CI, 16.6-44.0), 40.5% (95% CI, 24.8-61.6), and 41.7% (95% CI, 23.3-66.6) for the groups without LD, LD without cirrhosis, cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis (p = 0.007), respectively. Independent predictors of subsequent hospitalization were LD, (hazard ratio [HR], 3.70; 95% CI, 1.19-11.51; p = 0.02), cirrhosis (HR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.69-15.75), and shorter duration (≤30 days) of naltrexone prescription (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.l2-5.20; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Naltrexone is safe to use in patients with underlying LD, including those with compensated cirrhosis. Although encouraging, more safety data are needed for those with decompensated cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Liver Diseases , Adult , Humans , Naltrexone/adverse effects , Alcoholism/complications , Retrospective Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Diseases/complications
2.
Liver Int ; 42(11): 2453-2465, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obeticholic acid (OCA) has recently been restricted in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) with "advanced cirrhosis" because of its narrow therapeutic index. We aimed to better define the predicting factors of hepatic serious adverse events (SAEs) and non-response in cirrhotic patients undergoing OCA therapy. METHODS: Safety and efficacy of treatment were evaluated in a cohort of consecutive PBC cirrhotic patients started with OCA. OCA response was evaluated according to the Poise criteria. Risk factors for hepatic SAEs and non-response were reported as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: One hundred PBC cirrhotics were included, 97 Child-Pugh class A and 3 class B. Thirty-one had oesophageal varices and 5 had a history of ascites. Thirty-three per cent and 32% of patients achieved a biochemical response at 6 and 12 months respectively. Male sex (adjusted-RR 1.75, 95%CI 1.42-2.12), INR (1.37, 1.00-1.87), Child-Pugh score (1.79, 1.28-2.50), MELD (1.17, 1.04-1.30) and bilirubin (1.83, 1.11-3.01) were independently associated with non-response to OCA. Twenty-two patients discontinued OCA within 12 months: 10 for pruritus, 9 for hepatic SAEs (5 for jaundice and/or ascitic decompensation; 4 for upper digestive bleeding). INR (adjusted-RR 1.91, 95%CI 1.10-3.36), lower albumin levels (0.18, 0.06-0.51), Child-Pugh score (2.43, 1.50-4.04), history of ascites (3.5, 1.85-6.5) and bilirubin (1.30, 1.05-1.56), were associated with hepatic SAEs. A total bilirubin≥1.4 mg/dl at baseline was the most accurate biochemical predictor of hepatic SAEs under OCA. CONCLUSIONS: An accurate baseline assessment is crucial to select cirrhotic patients who can benefit from OCA. Although OCA is effective in one third of cirrhotics, bilirubin level ≥1.4 mg/dl should discourage from its use.


Subject(s)
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Albumins/therapeutic use , Ascites/drug therapy , Ascites/etiology , Bilirubin , Chenodeoxycholic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/drug therapy , Male
3.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(11): 1165-1171, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several liver- and inflammation-based scores to predict the clinical course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been evaluated, no direct comparison regarding their predictive ability has been performed. METHODS: 1038 patients (608 males, age 63.5 ± 17 years) hospitalized with documented COVID-19 infection to the non-ICU ward, were included retrospectively. Clinical and laboratory characteristics on admission including evaluation of Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients (11.9%) died during hospitalization after 8 (3-72) days. In multivariate analysis, FIB-4 (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.034-1.19; P = 0.004), was independently associated with mortality, with very good discriminative ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve curve, 0.76). The patients with FIB-4 &gt;2.67 (n = 377), compared to those with ≤2.67 (n = 661), had worse survival (log-rank 32.6; P &lt; 0.001). Twenty-four (6.8%) of 352 patients with possible nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (defined as Hepatic Steatosis Index &gt;36) died during hospitalization. In multivariate analysis, CAR was an independent risk factor (1) for mortality (hazard ratio, 1.014; 95% CI, 1.002-1.025; P = 0.021), (2) the need for high-flow nasal cannula with or without intubation (hazard ratio, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.004-1.027; P = 0.007) and (3) development of acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 1.017; 95% CI, 1.006-1.028; P = 0.002). In addition, the patients with possible NAFLD and CAR &gt;12 (n = 154), compared to those with CAR ≤12 (n = 198), had worse survival (log-rank 5.1; P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: FIB-4 was an independent factor for mortality with better performance compared to other liver function test- and inflammation-based scores in patients with COVID-19, while CAR was the only score independently associated with the clinical course in COVID-19 patients with possible NAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albumins , C-Reactive Protein , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Hepatol ; 77(5): 1349-1358, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis is associated with immune dysregulation and hyporesponsiveness to several vaccines including those against COVID-19. Our aim was to compare outcomes between patients with cirrhosis who received 3 doses of either the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA or Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccines to a propensity-matched control group of patients at similar risk of infection who received 2 doses. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis who received 2 or 3 doses of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine at the Veterans Health Administration. Participants who received 3 doses of the vaccine (n = 13,041) were propensity score matched with 13,041 controls who received 2 doses, and studied between July 18, 2021 and February 11, 2022, when B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.1.529 (omicron) were the predominant variants. Outcomes were aggregated as all cases with COVID-19, symptomatic COVD-19, with at least moderate COVID-19, or severe or critical COVID-19. RESULTS: Receipt of the third dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was associated with an 80.7% reduction in COVID-19 (95% CI 39.2-89.1, p <0.001), an 80.4% reduction in symptomatic COVID-19, an 80% reduction in moderate, severe or critical COVID-19, (95% CI 34.5-87.6%, p = 0.005), a 100% reduction in severe or critical COVID-19 (95% CI 99.2-100.0, p = 0.01), and a 100% reduction in COVID-19-related death (95% CI 99.8-100.0, p = 0.007). The magnitude of reduction in COVID-19 was greater with the third dose of BNT 162b2 than mRNA-1273 and among participants with compensated rather than decompensated cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a third dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was associated with a more significant reduction in COVID-19 in patients with cirrhosis than in the general population, suggesting that the third dose can overcome vaccine hyporesponsiveness in this population. LAY SUMMARY: Cirrhosis is associated with decreased responsiveness to several vaccines, including those against COVID-19. In this study of 26,082 participants with cirrhosis during the delta and omicron surge, receipt of the third dose of the vaccine was associated with an 80% reduction in COVID-19, a 100% reduction in severe/critical COVID-19, and a 100% reduction in COVID-19-related death. These findings support the importance of a third dose of mRNA vaccine among patients with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , mRNA Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Mycoses ; 65(9): 844-858, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the magnitude and factors contributing to poor outcomes among cirrhosis patients with fungal infections (FIs). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Ovid and WOS and included articles reporting mortality in cirrhosis with FIs. We pooled the point and relative-risk (RR) estimates of mortality on random-effects meta-analysis and explored their heterogeneity (I 2 ) on subgroups, meta-regression and machine learning (ML). We assessed the study quality through New-Castle-Ottawa Scale and estimate-asymmetry through Eggers regression. (CRD42019142782). RESULTS: Of 4345, 34 studies (2134 patients) were included (good/fair/poor quality: 12/21/1). Pooled mortality of FIs was 64.1% (95% CI: 55.4-72.0, I 2 : 87%, p < .01), which was 2.1 times higher than controls (95% CI: 1.8-2.5, I 2 :89%, p < .01). Higher CTP (MD: +0.52, 95% CI: 0.27-0.77), MELD (MD: +2.75, 95% CI: 1.21-4.28), organ failures and increased hospital stay (30 vs. 19 days) were reported among cases with FIs. Patients with ACLF (76.6%, RR: 2.3) and ICU-admission (70.4%, RR: 1.6) had the highest mortality. The risk was maximum for pulmonary FIs (79.4%, RR: 1.8), followed by peritoneal FIs (68.3%, RR: 1.7) and fungemia (55%, RR: 1.7). The mortality was higher in FIs than in bacterial (RR: 1.7) or no infections (RR: 2.9). Estimate asymmetry was evident (p < 0.05). Up to 8 clusters and 5 outlier studies were identified on ML, and the estimate-heterogeneity was eliminated by excluding such studies. CONCLUSIONS: A substantially worse prognosis, poorer than bacterial infections in cirrhosis patients with FIs, indicates an unmet need for improving fungal diagnostics and therapeutics in this population. ACLF and ICU admission should be included in the host criteria for defining IFIs.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Mycoses , Humans , Length of Stay , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Machine Learning
6.
Ann Surg ; 276(3): 545-553, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to enhance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening to achieve earlier diagnosis of patients with hepatitis C (HCV) cirrhosis in our Safety-Net population. BACKGROUND: Adherence to HCC screening guidelines at Safety-Net hospitals is poor. Only 23% of patients with HCC at our health system had a screening exam within 1-year of diagnosis and 46% presented with stage IV disease. HCV-induced cirrhosis remains the most common etiology of HCC (75%) in our patients. METHODS: In the setting of an established HCV treatment clinic, an HCC screening quality improvement initiative was initiated for patients with stage 3 fibrosis or cirrhosis by transient elastography. The program consisted of semiannual imaging. Navigators scheduled imaging appointments and tracked compliance. RESULTS: From April 2018 to April 2021, 318 patients were enrolled (mean age 61 years, 81% Black race, 38% uninsured). Adherence to screening was higher than previously reported: 94%, 75%, and 74% of patients completed their first, second, and third imaging tests. Twenty-two patients (7%) were diagnosed with HCC; 55% stage I and 14% stage IV. All patients were referred and 13 (59%) received treatment. Median time to receipt of treatment was 77 days (range, 32-282). Median overall survival for treated patients was 32 months. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an HCC screening program at a safety-net hospital is feasible and facilitated earlier diagnosis in this study. Patient navigation and tracking completion of imaging tests were key components of the program's success. Next steps include expanding the program to additional at-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Hepatitis C/complications , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Safety-net Providers
7.
J Hepatol ; 77(3): 695-701, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Detection of patients with early cirrhosis is of importance to prevent the occurrence of complications and improve prognosis. The SEAL program aimed at evaluating the usefulness of a structured screening procedure to detect cirrhosis as early as possible. METHODS: SEAL was a prospective cohort study with a control cohort from routine care data. Individuals participating in the general German health check-up after the age of 35 ("Check-up 35") at their primary care physicians were offered a questionnaire, liver function tests (aspartate and alanine aminotransferase [AST and ALT]), and follow-up. If AST/ALT levels were elevated, the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score was calculated, and patients with a score >0.5 were referred to a liver expert in secondary and/or tertiary care. RESULTS: A total of 11,859 participants were enrolled and available for final analysis. The control group comprised 349,570 participants of the regular Check-up 35. SEAL detected 488 individuals with elevated APRI scores (4.12%) and 45 incident cases of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. The standardized incidence of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis in the screening program was slightly higher than in controls (3.83‰ vs. 3.36‰). The comparison of the chance of fibrosis/cirrhosis diagnosis in SEAL vs. in standard care was inconclusive (marginal odds ratio 1.141, one-sided 95% CI 0.801, +Inf). Of note, when patients with decompensated cirrhosis at initial diagnosis were excluded from both cohorts in a post hoc analysis, SEAL was associated with a 59% higher chance of early cirrhosis detection on average than routine care (marginal odds ratio 1.590, one-sided 95% CI 1.080, +Inf; SEAL 3.51‰, controls: 2.21‰). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a structured screening program may increase the early detection rate of cirrhosis in the general population. In this context, the SEAL pathway represents a feasible and potentially cost-effective screening program. REGISTRATION: DRKS00013460 LAY SUMMARY: Detection of patients with early liver cirrhosis is of importance to prevent the occurrence of complications and improve prognosis. This study demonstrates that the implementation of a structured screening program using easily obtainable measures of liver function may increase the early detection rate of cirrhosis in the general population. In this context, the 'SEAL' pathway represents a feasible and potentially cost-effective screening program.


Subject(s)
Liver Cirrhosis , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Fibrosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies
9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(11): 1874-1876, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955056

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial infections (NIs) in critically ill patients with cirrhosis result in higher death and transplant delisting. NIs are promoted by staff, visitors, and the environment, all of which were altered to reduce pathogen transmission after COVID-19. Two cohorts of intensive care unit patients with cirrhosis from March 2019 to February 2020 (pre-COVID, n = 234) and March 2020 to March 2021 (COVID era, n = 296) were included. We found that despite a higher admission MELD-Na, qSOFA, and WBC count and requiring a longer intensive care unit stay, COVID-era patients developed lower NIs (3% vs 10%, P < 0.001) and had higher liver transplant rates vs pre-COVID patients. COVID-era restrictions could reduce NIs in critically ill patients with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Intensive Care Units
12.
In Vivo ; 36(4): 1986-1993, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from chronic HCV-infected patients could improve liver function and prevent hepatocarcinogenesis in the long term. Eradication of HCV by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) also leads to dynamic immunological changes. We report a case of recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that developed immediately after combination treatment with DAAs for HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old male was started on a 12-week treatment with combination of HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir. HCV RNA became undetectable after six weeks of treatment and was undetectable at the end of the treatment (EOT). Twelve days after the EOT, we diagnosed the patient with COVID-19 pneumonia, admitted him to our hospital and he was discharged two weeks later. One week after his discharge, he visited our hospital again, was diagnosed with recurrent COVID-19 pneumonia readmitted for a second time. Four days after second admission, cardiac arrest occurred, however, he recovered from severe COVID-19 and achieved sustained virological response and his liver function improved. CONCLUSION: In the COVID-19 era, while attention should be paid to the occurrence or exacerbation of infection, including COVID-19, interferon-free DAA combination therapy should be performed for HCV-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
13.
Hepatology ; 75(5): 1194-1203, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data on the use of intravenous L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) in the treatment of overt HE (OHE) is limited. We evaluated the role of intravenous LOLA in patients of cirrhosis with OHE grade III-IV. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, 140 patients were randomized to a combination of LOLA, lactulose, and rifaximin (n = 70) or placebo, lactulose, and rifaximin (n = 70). LOLA was given as continuous intravenous infusion at a dose of 30 g over 24 h for 5 days. Ammonia levels, TNF-α, ILs, and endotoxins were measured on days 0 and 5. The primary outcome was the improvement in the grade of HE at day 5. Higher rates of improvement in grade of HE (92.5% vs. 66%, p < 0.001), lower time to recovery (2.70 ± 0.46 vs. 3.00 ± 0.87 days, p = 0.03), and lower 28-day mortality (16.4% vs. 41.8%, p = 0.001) were seen in the LOLA group as compared with placebo. Levels of inflammatory markers were reduced in both groups. Significantly higher reductions in levels of blood ammonia, IL-6, and TNF-α were seen in the LOLA group. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of LOLA with lactulose and rifaximin was more effective than only lactulose and rifaximin in improving grades of HE, recovery time from encephalopathy, with lower 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
Hepatic Encephalopathy , Ammonia , Aspartic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactulose/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Ornithine , Rifaximin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Semin Liver Dis ; 42(3): 293-312, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878572

ABSTRACT

Strategies to prevent infection and improve outcomes in patients with cirrhosis. HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; COVID-19, novel coronavirus disease 2019; NSBB, nonselective ß-blocker; PPI, proton pump inhibitors.Cirrhosis is a risk factor for infections. Majority of hospital admissions in patients with cirrhosis are due to infections. Sepsis is an immunological response to an infectious process that leads to end-organ dysfunction and death. Preventing infections may avoid the downstream complications, and early diagnosis of infections may improve the outcomes. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and biomarkers of infection; the incremental preventive strategies for infections and sepsi; and the consequent organ failures in cirrhosis. Strategies for primary prevention include reducing gut translocation by selective intestinal decontamination, avoiding unnecessary proton pump inhibitors' use, appropriate use of ß-blockers, and vaccinations for viral diseases including novel coronavirus disease 2019. Secondary prevention includes early diagnosis and a timely and judicious use of antibiotics to prevent organ dysfunction. Organ failure support constitutes tertiary intervention in cirrhosis. In conclusion, infections in cirrhosis are potentially preventable with appropriate care strategies to then enable improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/adverse effects , COVID-19 Testing , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure
15.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 5900468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854483

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated that thromboembolic events increased in patients with coronavirus infection, usually occurring in elderly patients with severe illness, associated with comorbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare venous thromboembolic disease occurring typically in patients with an underlying disease such as decompensated cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim: To evaluate incidence of occurrence of acute PVT in cirrhotic patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study involved 70 patients of the liver cirrhosis: (group A) 28 patients with liver cirrhosis infected with COVID-19, and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis as the control group matched for age and sex (group B). All patients were subjected to thorough medical history, routine investigations (complete blood count, liver, and renal function tests), imaging in the form of abdominal and Doppler ultrasonography to assess the presence of acute PVT, serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and PCR of COVID-19 for group A only. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding Doppler ultrasound findings as 3 of the patients in group A had PVT (10.7%), 2 of them had HCC diagnosed by triphasic CT abdomen, and only 1 patient in group B had PVT (2.3%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cirrhotic patients infected with COVID-19, portal vein thrombosis may be a potential complication even in the absence of hepatocellular carcinoma; further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Portal Vein , Prospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 56, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safety data reported from the large-scale clinical trials of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine are extremely limited in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. The vaccination campaign in this specific population could be difficult due to uncertainty about the adverse events following vaccination. We aimed to assessed the COVID-19 vaccination rate, factors associated with unvaccinated status, and the adverse events following vaccination in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study from Ruijin Hospial (Shanghai, China) on an ongoing prospective cohort designed for long-term survival analysis of decompensated cirrhotic patients who recovered from decompensating events or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) between 2016 and 2018. We assessed the COVID-19 vaccination rate, the number of doses, type of vaccine, safety data, patient-reported reasons for remaining unvaccinated, factors associated with unvaccinated status, and the adverse events of COVID-19 vaccine. Binary logistic regression was used for identifying factors associated with unvaccinated status. RESULTS: A total of 229 patients with decompensated cirrhosis without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection participated (mean age, 56 ± 12.2 years, 75% male, 65% viral-related cirrhosis). Mode of decompensation were grade II‒III ascites (82.5%), gastroesophageal varices bleeding (7.9%), hepatic encephalopathy (7.9%). Eighty-five participants (37.1%) received at least one dose of vaccination (1 dose: n = 1, 2 doses: n = 65, 3 doses: n = 19) while 62.9% remained unvaccinated. Patient-reported reasons for remaining unvaccinated were mainly fear of adverse events (37.5%) and lack of positive advice from healthcare providers (52.1%). The experience of hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 5.61, 95% CI: 1.24-25.4) or ACLF (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.12-8.69) and post-liver transplantation status (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.06-5.76) were risk factors of remaining unvaccinated independent of residential areas. The safety analysis demonstrated that 75.3% had no adverse events, 23.6% had non-severe reactions (20% injection-site pain, 1.2% fatigue, 2.4% rash) and 1.2% had a severe event (development of acute decompensation requiring hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis in eastern China are largely remained at unvaccinated status, particularly those with previous episodes of ACLF or hepatic encephalopathy and liver transplantation recipients. Vaccination against COVID-19 in this population is safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy/complications , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(5): 352-365, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807204

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) contribute to significant healthcare burden globally. We aim to provide an updated and comprehensive analysis of global trends in the incidence and mortality of HBV and HCV related acute infections, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Estimates of annual cause-specific disease incidence and mortality for HBV and HCV were analysed using the 2010-2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study database. Three distinct disease states were evaluated: acute infections, cirrhosis and HCC. Age-standardized disease incidence and mortality were presented per 100,000 population and stratified by age, sex, year and 21 world regions. From 2010 to 2019, overall incidence of acute HBV declined by 19.3% (95% CI 4.1-32.0, p < .05) and HBV cirrhosis declined by 15.0% (95% CI 9.8-20.7, p < .05). Incidence of HCV cirrhosis increased by 5.6% (95% CI 0.3-10.2, p < .05) and HCV HCC remained stable. Incidence of acute HCV declined until 2015, after which it began increasing. From 2010 to 2019, overall mortality for HBV cirrhosis and HCV cirrhosis declined, whereas mortality for acute infections and HCC remained stable. Major differences in HBV and HCV incidence and mortality trends were observed when stratified by world regions. In conclusion, while our analyses of global trends in HBV and HCV incidence and mortality demonstrate encouraging trends, disparities in disease epidemiology were observed across world regions. These observations will identify regions and populations where greater focus and resources are needed to continue progressing towards viral hepatitis elimination.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Risk Factors
19.
Trials ; 23(1): 302, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) are liberally prescribed in patients with liver cirrhosis. Observational studies link PPI therapy in cirrhotic patients with an increased risk for infectious complications, hepatic encephalopathy and an increased risk for hospitalization and mortality. However, patients with liver cirrhosis are also considered to be at risk for peptic ulcer bleeding. The STOPPIT trial evaluates if discontinuation of a pre-existing PPI treatment delays a composite endpoint of re-hospitalization and/or death in patients (recently) hospitalized with liver cirrhosis compared to patients on continued PPI medication. METHODS: The STOPPIT-trial is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. In total, 476 patients with complicated liver cirrhosis who already receive long-term PPI therapy without evidence-based indication are 1:1 randomized to receive either esomeprazole 20 mg (control group) or placebo (intervention group) for 360 days. Patients with an indication for PPI therapy (such as a recent diagnosis of peptic ulcers, severe reflux esophagitis, severe hemorrhagic gastritis, recent endoscopic therapy for oesophageal varices) are excluded. The primary composite endpoint is the time-to re-hospitalization and/or death. Secondary endpoints include rates of re-hospitalization, mortality, occurrence of infections, hepatic decompensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure. The safety endpoint is defined as manifestation of an evidence-based indication for PPI re-therapy. The impact of PPI continuation or discontinuation on the intestinal microbiota will be studied. The recruitment will take place at 18 study sites throughout Germany. Recruitment has started in April 2021. DISCUSSION: The STOPPIT trial is the first clinical trial to study the effects of PPI withdrawal on relevant outcome variables in patients with complicated liver cirrhosis. If the hypothesis that PPI withdrawal improves clinical outcomes of cirrhosis patients is confirmed, this would argue for a strong restriction of the currently liberal prescription practice of PPIs in this population. If, on the other hand, the trial demonstrates an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding events in patients after PPI withdrawal, this could create a rationale for a more liberal, prophylactic PPI treatment in patients with liver cirrhosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU clinical trials register EudraCT 2019-005008-16 (registered December 27, 2019). CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT04448028 (registered June 25, 2020). German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00021290 (registered March 10, 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(5): 553-559, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and effects of anxiety on health-related quality of life and clinical outcomes in cirrhosis are not well understood. This is increasingly relevant during COVID-19. Our aim was to use the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to determine the prevalence of anxiety, its association with clinical outcomes in cirrhosis and to develop a rapid cirrhosis-specific anxiety screening nomogram. METHODS: Adults with a diagnosis of cirrhosis were prospectively recruited as outpatients at three tertiary care hospitals across Alberta and followed for up to 6 months to determine the association with unplanned hospitalization/death. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) was used as a screening tool as it is free of influence from somatic symptoms. Anxiety was diagnosed using the MINI. RESULTS: Of 304 patients, 17% of patients had anxiety by the MINI and 32% by the HADS. Anxious patients had lower health-related quality of life as assessed by the chronic liver disease questionnaire (P < 0.001) and EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (P < 0.001), and also had higher levels of frailty using the Clinical Frailty score (P = 0.004). Multivariable analysis revealed smoking and three HADS subcomponents as independent predictors of anxiety. These were used to develop a rapid screening nomogram. CONCLUSION: A formal diagnosis of anxiety was made in approximately one in five patients with cirrhosis, and it was associated with worse HrQoL and frailty. The use of a 4-question nonsomatic symptom-based nomogram requires validation but is promising as a rapid screen for anxiety in cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Frailty/complications , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Nomograms , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
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