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1.
Clin Liver Dis ; 27(3): 617-630, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292276

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a potentially reversible syndrome that develops in patients with cirrhosis or with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD) and is characterized by acute decompensation, organ failure, and high short-term mortality. Hepatitis A and hepatitis E are major causes of ACLF. Hepatitis B may also cause ACLF through a flare of hepatitis B, acute infection, or reactivation. Besides supportive care, nucleoside/nucleotide analog therapy should also be initiated in this setting. Nonhepatotropic viruses may rarely also cause ACLF with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus recently being identified with poorer outcomes in those with underlying CLD.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis E , Humans , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/therapy , Hepatitis E/complications , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
2.
Wiad Lek ; 76(3): 634-639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303896

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To investigate the features of coagulation homeostasis in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) in COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: At the clinical base of the Department of Propaedeutics of Internal Medicine, 32 patients with LC infected with COVID-19 were examined - 1 Group of patients. The study also included 30 patients with LC who were not infected with COVID-19 (2 Group of patients). RESULTS: Results: The analysis of the obtained data indicates disorders of the hemostasis system in patients with LC without the COVID-19 infection (Group 2), as well as in patients with LC at the time of being infected with COVID-19. The violation of the protein synthesis function of the liver is manifested through a decrease in the level of fibrinogen in blood serum (up to 2.0±0.5 gr/l in patients of Group 1 at the time of admission for inpatient care) and up to 21.9±0.5 gr/l in patients of group ІІ - р<0.05. This was accompanied by an acceleration of prothrombin time, thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastic time in patients with LC, as well as an increase in the level of antithrombin III. The level of D-dimer was reduced both in patients of group II and in patients of group I at the time of being infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Changes in coagulation homeostasis characteristic of hypocoagulation syndrome have been established in patients with LC. COVID-19 infection in patients with LC leads to hypercoagulation, especially in patients with complicated stage of LC (ascites, encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome).


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Blood Coagulation , Hemostasis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
3.
Dig Dis Sci ; 68(5): 1791-1796, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required an immediate and large-scale transition to telemedicine. Telemedicine includes phone visits and video visits. Studies suggest that hepatocellular cancer (HCC) screening rates fell at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. If left unaddressed, HCC morbidity/mortality may increase following the pandemic due to inadequate screening. AIMS: To assess the impact of phone-only visits on HCC screening rates in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Utilizing ICD-10 codes, 2 cohorts of patients with cirrhosis were identified. The pre-pandemic cohort had index visit between 1/1/2019 and 6/30/2019 (n = 290). The pandemic cohort (n = 112) was evaluated between 4/7/2020 and 6/7/2020. Each cohort was followed for 6 months from their index visit to determine HCC screening rate. Demographics and socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey database were compiled and compared between the cohorts. RESULTS: HCC screening rates in the pre-pandemic and pandemic cohorts were 72.4% and 69.6%, respectively, p = 0.67. No differences in HCC screening rates were observed between the two cohorts when stratified by demographic and socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Use of phone-only visits was associated with adherence to HCC screening similar to that seen with in-person visits. The lack of influence on screening rates by racial/socioeconomic factors suggest telephone-only visits do not exacerbate healthcare disparities. In times of public health of crisis, telephone-only visits may provide the necessary access to hepatology care to ensure HCC screening regimens remain in-place for at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Telephone
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(12): e33365, 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276407

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, Ayurvedic herbal supplements and homeopathic immune boosters (IBs) were promoted as disease-preventive agents. The present study examined the clinical outcomes among patients with chronic liver disease who presented with complications of portal hypertension or liver dysfunction temporally associated with the use of IBs in the absence of other competing causes. This single-center retrospective observational cohort study included patients with chronic liver disease admitted for the evaluation and management of jaundice, ascites, or hepatic encephalopathy temporally associated with the consumption of IBs and followed up for 180 days. Chemical analysis was performed on the retrieved IBs. From April 2020 to May 2021, 1022 patients with cirrhosis were screened, and 178 (19.8%) were found to have consumed complementary and alternative medicines. Nineteen patients with cirrhosis (10.7%), jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, or their combination related to IBs use were included. The patients were predominantly male (89.5%). At admission, 14 (73.75%) patients had jaundice, 9 (47.4%) had ascites, 2 (10.5%) presented with acute kidney injury, and 1 (5.3%) had overt encephalopathy. Eight patients (42.1%) died at the end of the follow up period. Hepatic necrosis and portal-based neutrophilic inflammation were the predominant features of liver biopsies. IB analysis revealed detectable levels of (heavy metals) As (40%), Pb (60%), Hg (60%), and various hepatotoxic phytochemicals. Ayurvedic and Homeopathic supplements sold as IBs potentially cause the worsening of preexisting liver disease. Responsible dissemination of scientifically validated, evidence-based medical health information from regulatory bodies and media may help ameliorate this modifiable liver health burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complementary Therapies , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Jaundice , Humans , Male , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy/etiology , Pandemics , Ascites/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Jaundice/complications , Complementary Therapies/adverse effects
5.
AIDS Rev ; 25(1): 1-13, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282191

ABSTRACT

Coinfection with hepatitis viruses A to E is frequent in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Oro-fecal transmissible hepatitis A and E mostly produce acute self-limited episodes in poor income regions and in non-vaccinated travelers. In high-income countries, outbreaks of hepatitis A occur in men having sex with men (MSM) and chronic hepatitis E is occasionally reported among PLWH with severe immunodeficiency. Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D are frequent in PLWH in highly endemic regions and globally in persons who inject drugs (PWID) and MSM. Progression to liver cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major clinical complications in coinfected patients. Current estimates for PLWH are of 38 million worldwide. Roughly 12% have chronic viral hepatitis (5 million). Coinfection figures are of 5-10% for HBV (2-4 million), 4% for HCV (1.5 million), and 15% of HBsAg+ for HDV (0.5 million). Oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) cure almost all treated patients with hepatitis C. However, given that there is no protective HCV immunity, PLWH with high-risk behaviors may experience HCV reinfection episodes. Tenofovir is the drug of choice in PLWH with chronic hepatitis B, given its dual effect on HIV and HBV. Lifelong oral tenofovir suppresses HBV replication and ameliorate liver damage. However, the risk of HCC persists even in the absence of cirrhosis. Finally, HDV causes the worst of viral hepatitis with faster progression to cirrhosis and HCC. An entry inhibitor, bulevirtide, has recently been approved and another drug, lonafarnib, is completing Phase 3 trials. Combination antiviral therapy for hepatitis D could improve dramatically the poor prognosis of HIV-HDV coinfected patients. The resumption of good medical practices in PLWH after the big disruption caused by COVID-19 will reduce the burden of viral hepatitis coinfections. Renewed efforts on HAV and HBV vaccination of susceptible individuals and earlier and wider prescription of antiviral therapy for HBV, HCV, and/or HDV coinfection should be prioritized in PLWH. The benefits of innovative strategies for viral hepatitis, including pre-exposure prophylaxis or use of long-acting antivirals, warrant further consideration in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Coinfection , Drug Users , HIV Infections , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Liver Neoplasms , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Male , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Homosexuality, Male , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
6.
Hepatology ; 77(3): 834-850, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Outcomes of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections have not been well characterized in non-veteran vaccinated patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). We used the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) to describe these outcomes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We identified all CLD patients with or without cirrhosis who had SARS-CoV-2 testing in the N3C Data Enclave as of January 15, 2022. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rates of breakthrough infections and Cox survival analyses to associate vaccination status with all-cause mortality at 30 days among infected CLD patients. We isolated 278,457 total CLD patients: 43,079 (15%) vaccinated and 235,378 (85%) unvaccinated. Of 43,079 vaccinated patients, 32,838 (76%) were without cirrhosis and 10,441 (24%) with cirrhosis. Breakthrough infection incidences were 5.4 and 4.9 per 1000 person-months for fully vaccinated CLD patients without cirrhosis and with cirrhosis, respectively. Of the 68,048 unvaccinated and 10,441 vaccinated CLD patients with cirrhosis, 15% and 3.7%, respectively, developed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The 30-day outcome of mechanical ventilation or death after SARS-CoV-2 infection for unvaccinated and vaccinated CLD patients with cirrhosis were 15.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared to unvaccinated patients with cirrhosis, full vaccination was associated with a 0.34-times adjusted hazard of death at 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: In this N3C study, breakthrough infection rates were similar among CLD patients with and without cirrhosis. Full vaccination was associated with a 66% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality for breakthrough infection among CLD patients with cirrhosis. These results provide an additional impetus for increasing vaccination uptake in CLD populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Breakthrough Infections , Vaccination
8.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 80(13): 806-817, 2023 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267376

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Albumin, the most abundant and arguably most important protein in the human body, plays a unique role in decompensated cirrhosis because its structure and function are quantitatively and qualitatively affected. A literature review was performed to provide insights into albumin use. The manuscript was developed using a multidisciplinary approach; 2 hepatologists, a nephrologist, a hospitalist, and a pharmacist, who are all members of or work closely with the Chronic Liver Disease Foundation, collaborated to write this expert perspective review. SUMMARY: Cirrhosis represents the potential end in the spectrum of all chronic liver diseases. Decompensated cirrhosis, defined by the overt manifestation of liver failure (eg, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding), is the inflection point associated with increased mortality. Human serum albumin (HSA) infusion serves an important role in the treatment of advanced liver disease. The benefits of HSA administration in patients with cirrhosis are widely accepted, and its use has been advocated by several professional societies. However, inappropriate HSA use can lead to significant adverse patient events. This paper discusses the rationale for the administration of HSA in the treatment of complications of cirrhosis, analyzes the data on the use of HSA in cirrhosis, and streamlines practical recommendations set forth in published guidance. CONCLUSION: Use of HSA in clinical practice needs to be improved. The objective of this paper is to empower pharmacists to facilitate and improve the use of HSA in patients with cirrhosis at their practice sites.


Subject(s)
Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Humans , Pharmacists , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Hepatorenal Syndrome/etiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Albumins/therapeutic use
9.
J Intern Med ; 293(5): 636-647, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have demonstrated that reducing farnesoid X receptor activity with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) downregulates angiotensin-converting enzyme in human lung, intestinal and cholangiocytes organoids in vitro, in human lungs and livers perfused ex situ, reducing internalization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the host cell. This offers a potential novel target against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of our study was to compare the association between UDCA exposure and SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as varying severities of COVID-19, in a large national cohort of participants with cirrhosis. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study among participants with cirrhosis in the Veterans Outcomes and Costs Associated with Liver cohort, we compared participants with exposure to UDCA, with a propensity score (PS) matched group of participants without UDCA exposure, matched for clinical characteristics, and vaccination status. The outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic, at least moderate, severe, or critical COVID-19, and COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: We compared 1607 participants with cirrhosis who were on UDCA, with 1607 PS-matched controls. On multivariable logistic regression, UDCA exposure was associated with reduced odds of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.71, p < 0.0001). Among patients who developed COVID-19, UDCA use was associated with reduced disease severity, including symptomatic COVID-19 (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.73, p < 0.0001), at least moderate COVID-19 (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.81, p = 0.005), and severe or critical COVID-19 (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.94, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In participants with cirrhosis, UDCA exposure was associated with both a decrease in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and reduction in symptomatic, at least moderate, and severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Humans , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
10.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281813, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Our aim was to assess the incidence of bacterial infections, in particular due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) before and after the introduction of the antimicrobial stewardship program, "Stewardship Antimicrobial in VErona" (SAVE). In addition, we also analysed the liver complications and the crude mortality during the whole follow up. METHODS: We analysed 229 cirrhotic subjects without previous hospitalization for infections enrolled at the University Verona Hospital from 2017 to 2019 and followed up until December 2021 (mean follow-up 42.7 months). RESULTS: 101 infections were recorded and 31.7% were recurrent. The most frequent were sepsis (24.7%), pneumonia (19.8%), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (17.8%). 14.9% of infections were sustained by MDROs. Liver complications occurred more frequently in infected patients, and in case of MDROs infections with a significantly higher MELD and Child-Pugh score. In Cox regression analysis, mortality was associated with age, diabetes and bacterial infections episodes (OR 3.30, CI 95%: (1.63-6.70). Despite an increase in total infections over the past three years, a decrease in the incidence rate in MDROs infections was documented concurrently with the introduction of SAVE (IRD 28.6; 95% CI: 4.6-52.5, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the burden of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients, especially MDROs, and the strong interconnection with liver complications. The introduction of SAVE decreased MDROs infections. Cirrhotic patients require a closer clinical surveillance to identify colonized patients and avoid the horizontal spread of MDROs in this setting.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections , Humans , Cohort Studies , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(4): 607-616, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the role of prophylactic norfloxacin in preventing bacterial infections and its effect on transplant-free survival (TFS) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) identified by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver criteria. METHODS: Patients with ACLF included in the study were randomly assigned to receive oral norfloxacin 400 mg or matched placebo once daily for 30 days. The incidence of bacterial infections at days 30 and 90 was the primary outcome, whereas TFS at days 30 and 90 was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 143 patients were included (72 in the norfloxacin and 71 in the placebo groups). Baseline demographics, biochemical variables, and severity scores were similar between the 2 groups. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the incidence of bacterial infections at day 30 was 18.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-28.9) and 33.8% (95% CI, 23-46) (P = 0.03); and the incidence of bacterial infections at day 90 was 46% (95% CI, 34-58) and 62% (95% CI, 49.67-73.23) in the norfloxacin and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.02). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, TFS at day 30 was 77.8% (95% CI, 66.43-86.73) and 64.8% (95% CI, 52.54-75.75) in the norfloxacin and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.084). Similarly, TFS at day 90 was 58.3% (95% CI, 46.11-69.84) and 43.7% (95% CI, 31.91-55.95), respectively (P = 0.058). Thirty percent of infections were caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. More patients developed concomitant candiduria in the norfloxacin group (25%) than in the placebo group (2.63%). DISCUSSION: Primary norfloxacin prophylaxis effectively prevents bacterial infections in patients with ACLF.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Bacterial Infections , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Norfloxacin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 46(2): 128-137, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243020

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to prepare and validate the content of a guideline for nursing care of adult patients with liver cirrhosis and COVID-19 treated in the emergency department. The study was conducted in two stages: first, the guideline was developed based on an integrative literature review and existing guidelines on the topic. The guideline was prepared with six domains and 64 care items. In the second stage, 15 specialists in urgency and emergency services performed content validation of the guideline. The data were analyzed using the Content Validity Index, with reliability assessed through Cronbach's α. The judges validated the guide regarding language clarity, objectivity, theoretical relevance, and practical pertinence. The value of the guideline's Content Validity Index was 0.96. Cronbach's α reliability reached a value of 0.93. The judges validated all domains and items of the guideline for theoretical relevance and practical pertinence, to be used by researchers and clinical practice professionals in the nursing area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Adult , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Emergency Service, Hospital , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(4): 656-669, 2023 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230635

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hit the entire world as a global pandemic and soon became the most important concern for all patients with chronic diseases. An early trend in higher mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress attracted all researchers to closely monitor patients for the involvement of other systems. It soon became apparent that patients with chronic liver diseases are at increased risk of mortality given their cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction. Additionally, liver function abnormalities were noted in patients with severe COVID-19. Profound cytokine storm, direct viral infection, drugs and reactivation of viral infections were causes of deranged liver functions. Here, we discuss the relation between COVID-19 and chronic liver disease, specifically cirrhosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as the liver manifestations of COVID-19. The metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus and NAFLD were found to worsen outcome in different studies reported worldwide. Decompensated cirrhosis should be considered a risk factor for death and severe COVID-19. Recently, COVID-19 related cholangiopathy has also been reported with changes of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. The long-term persistence of viral antigens in gut epithelia raises concern regarding the future risk of autoimmune liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Risk Factors
14.
Hepatology ; 77(6): 2016-2029, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate quarterly trends in process and health outcomes among Veterans with cirrhosis and assess the factors associated with cirrhosis outcomes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. APPROACH RESULTS: US Veterans with cirrhosis were identified using the Veterans Health Administration Corporate Data Warehouse. Quarterly measures were evaluated from September 30, 2018, through March 31, 2022, including twice yearly screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-6), new HCC, surveillance for or treatment of esophageal varices, variceal bleeding, all-cause hospitalization, and mortality. Joinpoint analyses were used to assess the changes in trends over time. Logistic regression models were used to identify the demographic and medical factors associated with each outcome over time. Among 111,558 Veterans with cirrhosis with a mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease-Sodium of 11±5, rates of HCC-6 sharply declined from a prepandemic peak of 41%, to a nadir of 28%, and rebounded to 36% by March 2022. All-cause mortality did not significantly change over the pandemic, but new HCC diagnosis, EVST, variceal bleeding, and all-cause hospitalization significantly declined over follow-up. Quarterly HCC diagnosis declined from 0.49% to 0.38%, EVST from 50% to 41%, variceal bleeding from 0.15% to 0.11%, and hospitalization from 9% to 5%. Rurality became newly, significantly associated with nonscreening over the pandemic (aOR for HCC-6=0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.86; aOR for EVST=0.95, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.997). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic continues to impact cirrhosis care. Identifying populations at the highest risk of care disruptions may help to address ongoing areas of need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , End Stage Liver Disease , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Liver Neoplasms , Veterans , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Retrospective Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Fibrosis
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e060290, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213946

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute variceal haemorrhage (AVH) in patients with cirrhosis remains a topic of great interest. Although several guidelines recommend endoscopy within 24 hours after AVH, there is no consensus on the most appropriate time to perform this intervention. The purpose of this study is to identify whether urgent endoscopy (within 6 hours after gastroenterological consultation) is superior to non-urgent endoscopy (between 6 hours and 24 hours after gastroenterological consultation) in reducing the rebleeding rate of these patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centred, prospective, randomised clinical trial. Between March 2021 and December 2023, an estimated 400 patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive endoscopic intervention either within 6 hours or between 6 and 24 hours after gastroenterological consultation. Randomisation will be conducted by permuted block randomisation, with stratification by age, systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. The primary efficacy endpoint is rebleeding within 42 days after control of AVH. The secondary efficacy endpoints mainly include all-cause mortality within 42 days after randomisation, persistent bleeding, length of hospitalisation, etc. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committees of Jinling Hospital (authorised ethics no. DZQH-KYLL-21-01). This trial will provide valuable insights into the timing of endoscopic intervention for AVH in patients with cirrhosis. Furthermore, the trial results and conclusions could provide high-quality evidence to guide clinical research and treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04786743.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Endoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 10(1)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193728

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The global pandemic has diverted resources away from management of chronic diseases, including cirrhosis. While there is increasing knowledge on COVID-19 infection in liver cirrhosis, little is described on the impact of the pandemic on decompensated cirrhosis admissions and outcomes, which was the aim of this study. METHODS: A single-centre, retrospective study, evaluated decompensated cirrhosis admissions to a tertiary London hepatology and transplantation centre, from October 2018 to February 2021. Patients were included if they had an admission with cirrhosis decompensation defined as new-onset jaundice or ascites, infection, encephalopathy, portal hypertensive bleeding or renal dysfunction. RESULTS: The average number of admissions stayed constant between the pre-COVID-19 (October 2018-February 2020) and COVID-19 periods (March 2020-February 2021). Patients transferred in from secondary centres had consistently higher severity scores during the COVID-19 period (UK Model for End-Stage Liver Disease 58 vs 54; p=0.007, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium 22 vs 18; p=0.006, EF-CLIF Acute Decompensation (AD) score 55.0 vs 51.0; p=0.055). Of those admitted to the intensive care without acute-on-chronic liver failure, there was a significant increase in AD scores during the COVID-19 period (58 vs 48, p=0.009). In addition, there was a trend towards increased hospital readmission rates during the COVID-19 period (29.5% vs 21.5%, p=0.067). When censored at 30 days, early mortality postdischarge was significantly higher during the COVID-19 period (p<0.001) with a median time to death of 35 days compared with 62 days pre-COVID-19. DISCUSSION: This study provides a unique perspective on the impact that the global pandemic had on decompensated cirrhosis admissions. The findings of increased early mortality and readmissions, and higher AD scores on ICU admission, highlight the need to maintain resourcing for high-level hepatology care and follow-up, in spite of other disease pressures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , End Stage Liver Disease , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Aftercare , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Morbidity , Hospitals
17.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(12): 3433-3442, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127708

ABSTRACT

Naltrexone is an approved drug for management of alcohol use disorder (AUD), but data in patients with liver disease (LD) are limited. We aimed to evaluate the safety of naltrexone in those with LD. This is a retrospective cohort of adults with and without LD who were prescribed naltrexone for AUD from 2015 to 2019 in a safety-net setting. Naltrexone hepatic safety was determined by liver enzyme changes during and after compared to before naltrexone prescription as well as rates of subsequent hospitalization and death by Kaplan-Meier methods. Factors associated with hospitalization were examined by Cox regression. Of 160 patients prescribed naltrexone for AUD, 100 (63%) had LD and 47 (47%) of those with LD had cirrhosis (47% decompensated). The total cohort, LD, and cirrhosis groups had lower adjusted mean aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after versus before naltrexone prescription (p < 0.001). Two-year survival was 97.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.6-99.7), 95.4% (95% CI, 82.8-98.8), 90.8% (95% CI, 73.5-97.0), and 81.3% (95% CI, 41.2-93.8) in those without LD, LD without cirrhosis, cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis groups (p = 0.46), respectively. Alcohol-related 2-year hospitalization rates were 8.2% (95% CI, 2.7-24), 27.7% (95% CI, 16.6-44.0), 40.5% (95% CI, 24.8-61.6), and 41.7% (95% CI, 23.3-66.6) for the groups without LD, LD without cirrhosis, cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis (p = 0.007), respectively. Independent predictors of subsequent hospitalization were LD, (hazard ratio [HR], 3.70; 95% CI, 1.19-11.51; p = 0.02), cirrhosis (HR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.69-15.75), and shorter duration (≤30 days) of naltrexone prescription (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.l2-5.20; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Naltrexone is safe to use in patients with underlying LD, including those with compensated cirrhosis. Although encouraging, more safety data are needed for those with decompensated cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Liver Diseases , Adult , Humans , Naltrexone/adverse effects , Alcoholism/complications , Retrospective Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Diseases/complications
18.
Liver Int ; 42(11): 2453-2465, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obeticholic acid (OCA) has recently been restricted in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) with "advanced cirrhosis" because of its narrow therapeutic index. We aimed to better define the predicting factors of hepatic serious adverse events (SAEs) and non-response in cirrhotic patients undergoing OCA therapy. METHODS: Safety and efficacy of treatment were evaluated in a cohort of consecutive PBC cirrhotic patients started with OCA. OCA response was evaluated according to the Poise criteria. Risk factors for hepatic SAEs and non-response were reported as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: One hundred PBC cirrhotics were included, 97 Child-Pugh class A and 3 class B. Thirty-one had oesophageal varices and 5 had a history of ascites. Thirty-three per cent and 32% of patients achieved a biochemical response at 6 and 12 months respectively. Male sex (adjusted-RR 1.75, 95%CI 1.42-2.12), INR (1.37, 1.00-1.87), Child-Pugh score (1.79, 1.28-2.50), MELD (1.17, 1.04-1.30) and bilirubin (1.83, 1.11-3.01) were independently associated with non-response to OCA. Twenty-two patients discontinued OCA within 12 months: 10 for pruritus, 9 for hepatic SAEs (5 for jaundice and/or ascitic decompensation; 4 for upper digestive bleeding). INR (adjusted-RR 1.91, 95%CI 1.10-3.36), lower albumin levels (0.18, 0.06-0.51), Child-Pugh score (2.43, 1.50-4.04), history of ascites (3.5, 1.85-6.5) and bilirubin (1.30, 1.05-1.56), were associated with hepatic SAEs. A total bilirubin≥1.4 mg/dl at baseline was the most accurate biochemical predictor of hepatic SAEs under OCA. CONCLUSIONS: An accurate baseline assessment is crucial to select cirrhotic patients who can benefit from OCA. Although OCA is effective in one third of cirrhotics, bilirubin level ≥1.4 mg/dl should discourage from its use.


Subject(s)
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Albumins/therapeutic use , Ascites/drug therapy , Ascites/etiology , Bilirubin , Chenodeoxycholic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/drug therapy , Male
19.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(11): 1165-1171, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several liver- and inflammation-based scores to predict the clinical course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been evaluated, no direct comparison regarding their predictive ability has been performed. METHODS: 1038 patients (608 males, age 63.5 ± 17 years) hospitalized with documented COVID-19 infection to the non-ICU ward, were included retrospectively. Clinical and laboratory characteristics on admission including evaluation of Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients (11.9%) died during hospitalization after 8 (3-72) days. In multivariate analysis, FIB-4 (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.034-1.19; P = 0.004), was independently associated with mortality, with very good discriminative ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve curve, 0.76). The patients with FIB-4 &gt;2.67 (n = 377), compared to those with ≤2.67 (n = 661), had worse survival (log-rank 32.6; P &lt; 0.001). Twenty-four (6.8%) of 352 patients with possible nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (defined as Hepatic Steatosis Index &gt;36) died during hospitalization. In multivariate analysis, CAR was an independent risk factor (1) for mortality (hazard ratio, 1.014; 95% CI, 1.002-1.025; P = 0.021), (2) the need for high-flow nasal cannula with or without intubation (hazard ratio, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.004-1.027; P = 0.007) and (3) development of acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 1.017; 95% CI, 1.006-1.028; P = 0.002). In addition, the patients with possible NAFLD and CAR &gt;12 (n = 154), compared to those with CAR ≤12 (n = 198), had worse survival (log-rank 5.1; P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: FIB-4 was an independent factor for mortality with better performance compared to other liver function test- and inflammation-based scores in patients with COVID-19, while CAR was the only score independently associated with the clinical course in COVID-19 patients with possible NAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albumins , C-Reactive Protein , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
J Hepatol ; 77(5): 1349-1358, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis is associated with immune dysregulation and hyporesponsiveness to several vaccines including those against COVID-19. Our aim was to compare outcomes between patients with cirrhosis who received 3 doses of either the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA or Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccines to a propensity-matched control group of patients at similar risk of infection who received 2 doses. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis who received 2 or 3 doses of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine at the Veterans Health Administration. Participants who received 3 doses of the vaccine (n = 13,041) were propensity score matched with 13,041 controls who received 2 doses, and studied between July 18, 2021 and February 11, 2022, when B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.1.529 (omicron) were the predominant variants. Outcomes were aggregated as all cases with COVID-19, symptomatic COVD-19, with at least moderate COVID-19, or severe or critical COVID-19. RESULTS: Receipt of the third dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was associated with an 80.7% reduction in COVID-19 (95% CI 39.2-89.1, p <0.001), an 80.4% reduction in symptomatic COVID-19, an 80% reduction in moderate, severe or critical COVID-19, (95% CI 34.5-87.6%, p = 0.005), a 100% reduction in severe or critical COVID-19 (95% CI 99.2-100.0, p = 0.01), and a 100% reduction in COVID-19-related death (95% CI 99.8-100.0, p = 0.007). The magnitude of reduction in COVID-19 was greater with the third dose of BNT 162b2 than mRNA-1273 and among participants with compensated rather than decompensated cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a third dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was associated with a more significant reduction in COVID-19 in patients with cirrhosis than in the general population, suggesting that the third dose can overcome vaccine hyporesponsiveness in this population. LAY SUMMARY: Cirrhosis is associated with decreased responsiveness to several vaccines, including those against COVID-19. In this study of 26,082 participants with cirrhosis during the delta and omicron surge, receipt of the third dose of the vaccine was associated with an 80% reduction in COVID-19, a 100% reduction in severe/critical COVID-19, and a 100% reduction in COVID-19-related death. These findings support the importance of a third dose of mRNA vaccine among patients with cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , mRNA Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
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