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2.
Liver Transpl ; 27(10): 1479-1489, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487507

ABSTRACT

Cirrhosis has a significant and growing impact on public health and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The increasing burden of cirrhosis has led to an emphasis on the quality of care with the goal of improving overall outcomes in this high-risk population. Existing evidence has shown the significant gaps in quality across process measures (eg, hepatocellular carcinoma screening), highlighting the need for consistent measurement and interventions to address the gaps in quality care. This multistep process forms the quality continuum, and it depends on clearly defined process measures, real-time quality measurement, and generalizable evaluative methods. Herein we review the current state of quality care in cirrhosis across the continuum with a focus on process measurement methodologies, developments in PRO evaluation on quality assessment, practical examples of quality improvement initiatives, and the recent emphasis placed on the value of primary prevention.


Subject(s)
Liver Transplantation , Quality Improvement , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Quality of Health Care
3.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(9): 954-960, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant impact on the medical care of many diseases and has led to reduced presentations to the emergency department. Reduced presentations may be due to overwhelmed capacities of hospitals or collateral damage from fear of infection, lockdown regulations, or other reasons. The effect on patients with liver cirrhosis is not established. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the impact on the care of patients with liver cirrhosis in a tertiary center in Northern Germany. METHODS: All patients presenting to the emergency department with a diagnosis of cirrhosis between March 1 and May 31 from 2015-2020 were included. Reasons for presentation, duration of symptoms, the severity of liver disease, and 30-day mortality were assessed and compared between patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 235 patients were included. Despite an overall decline in presentations to the emergency department by 11.7%, the frequency of patients presenting with liver cirrhosis has remained stable (non-significant increase by 19.5%). No significant difference could be detected for the MELD score, the CLIF-organ failure subscores, and the 30-day mortality before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Up to 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis had symptoms >24 h before presenting to the emergency department. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall trend of reduced emergency presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency of presentations of patients with liver cirrhosis did not decline. Morbidity and mortality were not affected in a setting of disposable healthcare resources. The late presentation to the emergency department in many cirrhotic patients may open opportunities for interventions (i.e., with early telemedicine intervention).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 800-809, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. METHODS: This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. CONCLUSION: Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1092-1101, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The impact of liver cirrhosis (LC) on the clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains elusive. This study evaluated the association between LC and the development of severe complications from COVID-19. METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance claims data of Korea. We included 234,427 patients older than 19 years who tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Patients with LC who were infected with COVID-19 (n = 67, LC+ COVID+) were matched with those with cirrhosis only (n = 332, LC+ COVID-) and those with COVID-19 only (n = 333, LC- COVID+) using a propensity score in a 1:5 ratio. The primary outcome was the development of severe complications. RESULTS: Of the matched patients, the mean age was 60 years and 59.7% were male. Severe complications occurred in 18, 54, and 60 patients in the LC+ COVID+, LC+ COVID-, and LC- COVID+ groups, respectively. After adjusting for comorbidities, there was no significant difference in the risk of developing severe complications from COVID-19 between the LC+ COVID+ and LC- COVID+ groups but significant difference exists between the LC+ COVID+ and LC+ COVID-. Older age, hypertension, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a higher Charlson comorbidity index were associated with a higher risk of severe complications in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that LC was not independently associated with the development of severe complications, including mortality, in patients with COVID-19. Our results need to be evaluated through a large, prospective study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4054-4069, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348035

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019, there exist quite a few studies on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, while little is known about ACE2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The detailed mechanism among ACE2 and HCC still remains unclear, which needs to be further investigated. In the current study with a total of 6,926 samples, ACE2 expression was downregulated in HCC compared with non-HCC samples (standardized mean difference = -0.41). With the area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristic = 0.82, ACE2 expression showed a better ability to differentiate HCC from non-HCC. The mRNA expression of ACE2 was related to the age, alpha-fetoprotein levels and cirrhosis of HCC patients, and it was identified as a protected factor for HCC patients via Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox regression analyses. The potential molecular mechanism of ACE2 may be relevant to catabolic and cell division. In all, decreasing ACE2 expression can be seen in HCC, and its protective role for HCC patients and underlying mechanisms were explored in the study.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , alpha-Fetoproteins/genetics , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/classification , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protective Factors , Protein Interaction Mapping , ROC Curve , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism
7.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 1088-1100, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274693

ABSTRACT

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that emerged in late 2019, is posing an unprecedented challenge to global health. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the clinical disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has a variable presentation ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. Liver involvement is common during COVID-19 and exhibits a spectrum of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests to hepatic decompensation. The presence of abnormal liver tests has been associated with a more severe presentation of COVID-19 disease and overall mortality. Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in the liver of patients with COVID-19, it remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 productively infects and replicates in liver cells and has a direct liver-pathogenic effect. The cause of liver injury in COVID-19 can be attributed to multiple factors, including virus-induced systemic inflammation, hypoxia, hepatic congestion, and drug-induced liver disease. Among patients with cirrhosis, COVID-19 has been associated with hepatic decompensation and liver-related mortality. Additionally, COVID-19's impact on health care resources can adversely affect delivery of care and outcomes of patients with chronic liver disease. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver injury during COVID-19 will be important in the management of patients with COVID-19, especially those with advanced liver disease. This review summarizes our current knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 virus-host interactions in the liver as well the clinical impact of liver disease in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Global Health , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(5): 525-533, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic diseases are risk factors for severe Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which have a close relationship with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). AIMS: To evaluate the presence of MAFLD and fibrosis in patients with COVID-19 and its association with prognosis. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the presence of liver steatosis was determined by computed tomography scan (CT). Liver fibrosis was assessed using the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS score), and when altered, the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score. Mann-Whitney U, Student´s t-test, logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were used. RESULTS: 432 patients were analyzed, finding steatosis in 40.6%. No differences in pulmonary involvement on CT scan, treatment, or number of days between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission were found between patients with and without MAFLD. The presence of liver fibrosis was associated with higher severity scores, higher levels of inflammatory markers, requirement of mechanical ventilation, incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and higher mortality than patients without fibrosis. CONCLUSION: The presence of fibrosis rather than the presence of MAFLD is associated with increased risk for mechanical ventilation, development of AKI, and higher mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Fatty Liver/diagnosis , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
Ann Hepatol ; 20: 100271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFT) abnormalities are reported in up to 50% of COVID-19 patients, and metabolic comorbidities are associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with COVID-19 and their association with clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted. The risk for liver steatosis was estimated by HSI > 36, and risk for advanced liver fibrosis with APRI > 1.0, NAFLD FS > 0.675 and/or FIB-4 > 3.25. Clinical outcomes were admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and mortality. RESULTS: Of 155 patients, 71.6% were male (n = 111), and 28.4% (n = 44) were obese. Abnormal LFT were present in 96.8% (n = 150), prevalence of steatosis was 42.6% (n = 66) and of significative liver fibrosis was 44.5% (n = 69). Liver fibrosis by FIB-4 was associated with risk of ICU admission (OR 1.74 [95%CI 1.74-2.68; p = 0.023]) and mortality (OR 6.45 [95%CI 2.01-20.83, p = 0.002]); no independent associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of steatosis and significant liver fibrosis was high in COVID-19 patients but was not associated with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Hepatol ; 74(3): 567-577, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are associated with immune dysregulation, leading to concerns that affected patients may be at risk of adverse outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on patients with pre-existing liver disease, which currently remains ill-defined. METHODS: Between 25th March and 8th July 2020, data on 745 patients with CLD and SARS-CoV-2 (including 386 with and 359 without cirrhosis) were collected by 2 international registries and compared to data on non-CLD patients with SARS-CoV-2 from a UK hospital network. RESULTS: Mortality was 32% in patients with cirrhosis compared to 8% in those without (p <0.001). Mortality in patients with cirrhosis increased according to Child-Pugh class (A [19%], B [35%], C [51%]) and the main cause of death was from respiratory failure (71%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, factors associated with death in the total CLD cohort were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 1.01-1.04), Child-Pugh A (OR 1.90; 1.03-3.52), B (OR 4.14; 2.4-7.65), or C (OR 9.32; 4.80-18.08) cirrhosis and alcohol-related liver disease (OR 1.79; 1.03-3.13). Compared to patients without CLD (n = 620), propensity-score-matched analysis revealed significant increases in mortality in those with Child-Pugh B (+20.0% [8.8%-31.3%]) and C (+38.1% [27.1%-49.2%]) cirrhosis. Acute hepatic decompensation occurred in 46% of patients with cirrhosis, of whom 21% had no respiratory symptoms. Half of those with hepatic decompensation had acute-on-chronic liver failure. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest such cohort to date, we demonstrate that baseline liver disease stage and alcohol-related liver disease are independent risk factors for death from COVID-19. These data have important implications for the risk stratification of patients with CLD across the globe during the COVID-19 pandemic. LAY SUMMARY: This international registry study demonstrates that patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of death from COVID-19. Mortality from COVID-19 was particularly high among patients with more advanced cirrhosis and those with alcohol-related liver disease.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , COVID-19 , Liver Cirrhosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 39(3): 285-291, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19-positive patients and compare with historical controls. METHODS: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID-19 (n = 28) between 22 April 2020 and 22 June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 were included as historical controls for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 28 COVID-19 patients (two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation [AD], and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol (n = 9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 2), viral (n = 5), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12 (46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3 (11.5%), and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11 (42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8 (7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3% (11/26), as compared with 23.1% (18/78) in the historical controls (p = 0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF (9/9) died compared with 53.3% (16/30) in ACLF of historical controls (p = 0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID-19 patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared with historical controls 2/17 (11.8%) vs. 2/48 (4.2%), though not statistically significant (p = 0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Liver Cirrhosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/mortality , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/virology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 701-710, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytokine storm has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examine the incidence of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing compensated chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS: From 20 Jan 2020 to 7 Feb 2020, we studied 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to either Fuyang Second People's Hospital (FYSPH), Anhui or the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (PLAGH) in Beijing, China. Pre-existing CLD includes those with liver cirrhosis assessed by APRI/FIB-4 score and /or ultrasound; NAFLD as identified by either ultrasound or hepatic steatosis index with significant liver fibrosis and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or hepatitis C (CHC) infection. The diagnosis, grading of severity and clinical management of COVID-19 patients complied to the guideline and clinical protocol issued by the China National Health Commission. All patients had liver function test at least twice weekly till discharge with full recovery or death. RESULTS: In total, 3 had liver cirrhosis, 6 patients had CHB, 13 had NAFLD with significant liver fibrosis (one also had CHB). On admission, none had liver decompensation. COVID-19 disease progression was significantly less frequent in non-CLD patients (10/118 8.5%) than CLD patients (13/22 59.1%, p < 0.001). One patient with CLD had acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). CONCLUSION: Disease progression is significantly higher in those COVID-19 patients with CLD as compared to those with no CLD. ACLF can also occur in patient with pre-existing compensated CLD who had severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Coronavirus Infections , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods
17.
Liver Int ; 40(10): 2515-2521, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645258

ABSTRACT

Liver injury has been described with COVID-19, and early reports suggested 2%-11% of patients had chronic liver disease (CLD). In this multicentre retrospective study, we evaluated hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and the impact of CLD on relevant clinical outcomes. Of 363 patients included, 19% had CLD, including 15.2% with NAFLD. Patients with CLD had longer length of stay. After controlling for age, gender, obesity, cardiac diseases, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and pulmonary disorders, CLD and NAFLD were independently associated with ICU admission ([aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.03-3.04] and [aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.27-4.17]) and mechanical ventilation ([aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20-3.60] and [aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.18-3.91]). Presence of cirrhosis was an independent predictor of mortality (aOR 12.5, 95% CI 2.16-72.5). Overall, nearly one-fifth of hospitalized COVID-19 patients had CLD, which was associated with more critical illness. Future studies are needed to identify interventions to improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Liver Cirrhosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
18.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 690-700, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is a dominant pulmonary disease, with multisystem involvement, depending upon comorbidities. Its profile in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) is largely unknown. We studied the liver injury patterns of SARS-Cov-2 in CLD patients, with or without cirrhosis. METHODS: Data was collected from 13 Asian countries on patients with CLD, known or newly diagnosed, with confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Altogether, 228 patients [185 CLD without cirrhosis and 43 with cirrhosis] were enrolled, with comorbidities in nearly 80%. Metabolism associated fatty liver disease (113, 61%) and viral etiology (26, 60%) were common. In CLD without cirrhosis, diabetes [57.7% vs 39.7%, OR = 2.1 (1.1-3.7), p = 0.01] and in cirrhotics, obesity, [64.3% vs. 17.2%, OR = 8.1 (1.9-38.8), p = 0.002] predisposed more to liver injury than those without these. Forty three percent of CLD without cirrhosis presented as acute liver injury and 20% cirrhotics presented with either acute-on-chronic liver failure [5 (11.6%)] or acute decompensation [4 (9%)]. Liver related complications increased (p < 0.05) with stage of liver disease; a Child-Turcotte Pugh score of 9 or more at presentation predicted high mortality [AUROC 0.94, HR = 19.2 (95 CI 2.3-163.3), p < 0.001, sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 94.4%). In decompensated cirrhotics, the liver injury was progressive in 57% patients, with 43% mortality. Rising bilirubin and AST/ALT ratio predicted mortality among cirrhosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 infection causes significant liver injury in CLD patients, decompensating one fifth of cirrhosis, and worsening the clinical status of the already decompensated. The CLD patients with diabetes and obesity are more vulnerable and should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Coronavirus Infections , Liver Cirrhosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/virology , Asia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 711-722, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver function derangements have been reported in coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but reported rates are variable. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase with terms COVID and SARS-COV-2 from December 1, 2019 till April 5, 2020. We estimated overall prevalence, stratified prevalence based on severity, estimated risk ratio (RR), and estimated standardized mean difference (SMD) of liver function parameters in severe as compared to non-severe COVID. Random effect method utilizing inverse variance approach was used for pooling the data. RESULTS: In all, 128 studies were included. The most frequent abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia [61.27% (48.24-72.87)], elevations of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) [27.94% (18.22-40.27)], alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [23.28% (19.92-27.01)], and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [23.41% (18.84-28.70)]. Furthermore, the relative risk of these abnormalities was higher in the patients with severe COVID-19 when compared to non-severe disease [Hypoalbuminemia-2.65 (1.38-5.07); GGT-2.31 (1.6-3.33); ALT-1.76 (1.44-2.15); AST-2.30 (1.82-2.90)]. The SMD of hypoalbuminemia, GGT, ALT, and AST elevation in severe as compared to non-severe were - 1.05 (- 1.27 to - 0.83), 0.76 (0.40-1.12), 0.42 (0.27-0.56), and 0.69 (0.52-0.86), respectively. The pooled prevalence and RR of chronic liver disease as a comorbidity was 2.64% (1.73-4) and 1.69 (1.05-2.73) respectively. CONCLUSION: The most frequent abnormality in liver functions was hypoalbuminemia followed by derangements in gamma-glutamyl transferase and aminotransferases, and these abnormalities were more frequent in severe disease. The systematic review was, however, limited by heterogeneity in definitions of severity and liver function derangements. Graphical depiction of the summary of meta-analytic findings a) pooled prevalence of abnormalities b) Risk ratio of abnormality in severe versus non-severe COVID-19 c) standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe group and d) pooled prevalence for parameters based on severity stratification for bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), albumin, globulin and acute hepatic injury (AHI) . Also estimates for overall/total liver disease (TLD) and chronic liver disease (CLD) amongst COVID-19 patients are depicted in a, b, d. For d) In addition to severity stratification, Overall (all studies for a particular estimate) and combined (only those studies which reported severity) estimates are provided.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Function Tests , Liver , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
J Infect Dis ; 222(5): 726-733, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a potentially severe disease caused by the recently described SARS-CoV-2. Whether liver fibrosis might be a relevant player in the natural history of COVID-19 is currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between FIB-4 and the risk of progression to critical illness in middle-aged patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study with prospective follow-up of 160 patients aged 35-65 years with COVID-19, FIB-4, clinical, and biochemical variables were collected at baseline. FIB-4 ≥2.67 defined patients with risk for advanced liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Risk for advanced fibrosis was estimated in 28.1% of patients. Patients with FIB-4 ≥2.67 more frequently required mechanical ventilation (37.8% vs 18.3%; P = .009). In multivariate analysis, FIB-4 ≥2.67 (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-8.92), cardiovascular risk factors (OR, 5.05; 95% CI, 1.90-13.39), previous respiratory diseases (OR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.36-15.10), and C-reactive protein (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02) increased significantly the risk of ICU admission. Bootstrap confirmed FIB-4 as an independent risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged patients with COVID-19, FIB-4 may have a prognostic role. The link between liver fibrosis and the natural history of COVID-19 should be evaluated in future studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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