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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(4): 678-684, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic's impact on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening and diagnosis among patients with cirrhosis in the Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: Rates and predictors of screening and diagnosis were reviewed September 1, 2019-February 29, 2020 ("pre-COVID-19," N = 94,612) and April 1, 2020-September 30, 2020 ("post-COVID-19," N = 88,073). RESULTS: Screening and diagnosis rates declined by 44% and 13%, respectively, after the COVID-19 pandemic. Screening declined irrespective of liver disease severity, but diagnosis declined only in Model for End Stage Liver Disease-Sodium score <20 or Fibrosis-4 score <3.25. Fibrosis-4 score ≥3.25 and HCC risk ≥1.5%/year strongly predicted HCC diagnosis but only moderately predicted receipt of screening. DISCUSSION: Screening and diagnosis rates declined after the COVID-19 pandemic. Prioritizing screening for patients at greatest risk for HCC may reduce delays in diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , End Stage Liver Disease , Liver Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 439, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Some, but not all, prior studies have suggested that patients with chronic liver disease are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and developing more severe disease. However, nationwide data are lacking from well-phenotyped cohorts with liver histology and comparisons to matched general population controls. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all Swedish adults with chronic liver disease (CLD) confirmed by liver biopsy between 1966 and 2017 (n = 42,320), who were alive on February 1, 2020. CLD cases were matched to ≤ 5 population comparators by age, sex, calendar year and county (n = 182,147). Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for COVID-19 hospitalization and severe COVID-19 (intensive care admission or death due to COVID-19). RESULTS: Between February 1 and July 31, 2020, 161 (0.38%) CLD patients and 435 (0.24%) general population controls were hospitalized with COVID-19 (aHR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.11-1.66), while 65 (0.15%) CLD patients and 191 (0.10%) controls developed severe COVID-19 (aHR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.79-1.48). Results were similar in patients with CLD due to alcohol use, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and other etiologies. Among patients with cirrhosis (n = 2549), the aHRs for COVID-19 hospitalization and for severe COVID-19 were 1.08 (95% CI 0.48-2.40) and 1.23 (95% CI = 0.37-4.04), respectively, compared to controls. Moreover, among all patients diagnosed with COVID-19, the presence of underlying CLD was not associated with increased mortality (aHR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.61-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort, patients with CLD had a higher risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 compared to the general population, but they did not have an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(42): 7362-7375, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis, is associated with worse outcomes in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM: To assess outcomes of COVID-19 infection among patients with pre-existing hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included all cases of confirmed co-infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and chronic hepatitis C with or without liver cirrhosis who were admitted to six hospitals (Al-Sahel Hospital, Al-Matareya Hospital, Al-Ahrar Hospital, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Al-Gomhoreya Hospital, and the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute) affiliated with the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes in Egypt. Patients were recruited from May 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Demographic, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes were collected. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included 125 patients with chronic hepatitis C and COVID-19 co-infection, of which 64 (51.20%) had liver cirrhosis and 40 (32.00%) died. Fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms in patients with liver cirrhosis. Cough, sore throat, fatigue, myalgia, and diarrhea were significantly more common in patients with liver cirrhosis than in non-cirrhotic patients. There was no difference between patients with and without cirrhosis regarding comorbidities. Fifteen patients (23.40%) with liver cirrhosis presented with hepatic encephalopathy. Patients with liver cirrhosis were more likely than non-cirrhotic patients to have combined ground-glass opacities and consolidations in CT chest scans: 28 (43.75%) vs 4 (6.55%), respectively (P value < 0.001). These patients also were more likely to have severe COVID-19 infection, compared to patients without liver cirrhosis: 29 (45.31%) vs 11 (18.04%), respectively (P value < 0.003). Mortality was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis, compared to those with no cirrhosis: 33 (51.56%) vs 9 (14.75%), respectively (P value < 0.001). All patients in Child-Pugh class A recovered and were discharged. Cirrhotic mortality occurred among decompensated patients only. A multivariate regression analysis revealed the following independent factors affecting mortality: Male gender (OR 7.17, 95%CI: 2.19-23.51; P value = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 4.03, 95%CI: 1.49-10.91; P value = 0.006), and liver cirrhosis (OR 1.103, 95%CI: 1.037-1.282; P value < 0.0001). We found no differences in liver function, COVID-19 disease severity, or outcomes between patients who previously received direct-acting antiviral therapy (and achieved sustained virological response) and patients who did not receive this therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible to higher severity and mortality if infected with COVID-19. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis are independent factors associated with increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
6.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1170-e1179, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and restrictions had significant disruption to patient care. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on hospitalizations of patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis as well as alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in Alberta, Canada. METHODS: We used validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) coding algorithms to identify liver-related hospitalizations for nonalcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and AH in the province of Alberta between March 2018 and September 2020. We used the provincial inpatient discharge and laboratory databases to identify our cohorts. We used elevated alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase, elevated international normalized ratio, or bilirubin to identify AH patients. We compared COVID-19 restrictions (April-September 2020) with prior study periods. Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate the temporal trends among the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: We identified 2916 hospitalizations for nonalcoholic cirrhosis, 2318 hospitalizations for alcoholic cirrhosis, and 1408 AH hospitalizations during our study time. The in-hospital mortality rate was stable in relation to the pandemic for alcoholic cirrhosis and AH. However, nonalcoholic cirrhosis patients had lower in-hospital mortality rate after March 2020 (8.5% vs 11.5%; P = .033). There was a significant increase in average monthly admissions in the AH cohort (22.1/10,000 admissions during the pandemic vs 11.6/10,000 admissions before March 2020; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Before and during COVID-19 monthly admission rates were stable for nonalcoholic and alcoholic cirrhosis; however, there was a significant increase in AH admissions. Because alcohol sales surged during the pandemic, future impact on alcoholic liver disease could be detrimental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257369, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416897

ABSTRACT

Australia was one of the first countries to introduce government-funded unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, with 88,790 treated since March 2016. However, treatment uptake is declining which could potentially undermine Australia's progress towards the WHO HCV elimination targets. Using mathematical modelling, we updated estimates for those living with chronic HCV in Australia, new cases of decompensated cirrhosis (DC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related mortality among the HCV-cured and viraemic populations from 2015 to 2030. We considered various DAA treatment scenarios incorporating annual treatment numbers to 2020, and subsequent uptake per year of 6,790 (pessimistic), 8,100 (intermediate), and 11,310 (optimistic). We incorporated the effects of excess alcohol consumption and reduction in progression to DC and HCC among cirrhosis-cured versus viraemic individuals. At the end of 2020, we estimated 117,810 Australians were living with chronic HCV. New cases per year of DC, HCC, and liver-related mortality among the HCV viraemic population decreased rapidly from 2015 (almost eliminated by 2030). In contrast, the growing population size of those cured with advanced liver disease meant DC, HCC, and liver-related mortality declined slowly. The estimated reduction in liver-related mortality from 2015 to 2030 in the combined HCV viraemic and cured population is 25% in the intermediate scenario. With declining HCV treatment uptake and ongoing individual-level risk of advanced liver disease complications, including among cirrhosis-cured individuals, Australia is unlikely to achieve all WHO HCV elimination targets by 2030.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Australia/epidemiology , Calibration , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Disease Progression , Epidemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
9.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(9): 954-960, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant impact on the medical care of many diseases and has led to reduced presentations to the emergency department. Reduced presentations may be due to overwhelmed capacities of hospitals or collateral damage from fear of infection, lockdown regulations, or other reasons. The effect on patients with liver cirrhosis is not established. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the impact on the care of patients with liver cirrhosis in a tertiary center in Northern Germany. METHODS: All patients presenting to the emergency department with a diagnosis of cirrhosis between March 1 and May 31 from 2015-2020 were included. Reasons for presentation, duration of symptoms, the severity of liver disease, and 30-day mortality were assessed and compared between patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 235 patients were included. Despite an overall decline in presentations to the emergency department by 11.7%, the frequency of patients presenting with liver cirrhosis has remained stable (non-significant increase by 19.5%). No significant difference could be detected for the MELD score, the CLIF-organ failure subscores, and the 30-day mortality before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Up to 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis had symptoms >24 h before presenting to the emergency department. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall trend of reduced emergency presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency of presentations of patients with liver cirrhosis did not decline. Morbidity and mortality were not affected in a setting of disposable healthcare resources. The late presentation to the emergency department in many cirrhotic patients may open opportunities for interventions (i.e., with early telemedicine intervention).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1092-1101, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The impact of liver cirrhosis (LC) on the clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains elusive. This study evaluated the association between LC and the development of severe complications from COVID-19. METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance claims data of Korea. We included 234,427 patients older than 19 years who tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Patients with LC who were infected with COVID-19 (n = 67, LC+ COVID+) were matched with those with cirrhosis only (n = 332, LC+ COVID-) and those with COVID-19 only (n = 333, LC- COVID+) using a propensity score in a 1:5 ratio. The primary outcome was the development of severe complications. RESULTS: Of the matched patients, the mean age was 60 years and 59.7% were male. Severe complications occurred in 18, 54, and 60 patients in the LC+ COVID+, LC+ COVID-, and LC- COVID+ groups, respectively. After adjusting for comorbidities, there was no significant difference in the risk of developing severe complications from COVID-19 between the LC+ COVID+ and LC- COVID+ groups but significant difference exists between the LC+ COVID+ and LC+ COVID-. Older age, hypertension, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a higher Charlson comorbidity index were associated with a higher risk of severe complications in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that LC was not independently associated with the development of severe complications, including mortality, in patients with COVID-19. Our results need to be evaluated through a large, prospective study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Gastroenterology ; 161(5): 1487-1501.e5, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) with or without cirrhosis, existing studies on the outcomes with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have limited generalizability. We used the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a harmonized electronic health record dataset of 6.4 million, to describe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes in patients with CLD and cirrhosis. METHODS: We identified all patients with CLD with or without cirrhosis who had SARS-CoV-2 testing in the N3C Data Enclave as of July 1, 2021. We used survival analyses to associate SARS-CoV-2 infection, presence of cirrhosis, and clinical factors with the primary outcome of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We isolated 220,727 patients with CLD and SARS-CoV-2 test status: 128,864 (58%) were noncirrhosis/negative, 29,446 (13%) were noncirrhosis/positive, 53,476 (24%) were cirrhosis/negative, and 8941 (4%) were cirrhosis/positive patients. Thirty-day all-cause mortality rates were 3.9% in cirrhosis/negative and 8.9% in cirrhosis/positive patients. Compared to cirrhosis/negative patients, cirrhosis/positive patients had 2.38 times adjusted hazard of death at 30 days. Compared to noncirrhosis/positive patients, cirrhosis/positive patients had 3.31 times adjusted hazard of death at 30 days. In stratified analyses among patients with cirrhosis with increased age, obesity, and comorbid conditions (ie, diabetes, heart failure, and pulmonary disease), SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased adjusted hazard of death. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of approximately 221,000 nationally representative, diverse, and sex-balanced patients with CLD; we found SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with cirrhosis was associated with 2.38 times mortality hazard, and the presence of cirrhosis among patients with CLD infected with SARS-CoV-2 was associated with 3.31 times mortality hazard. These results provide an additional impetus for increasing vaccination uptake and further research regarding immune responses to vaccines in patients with severe liver disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(12): 2664-2666.e2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306898

ABSTRACT

Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis accounts for approximately 2 million deaths annually worldwide. CLD and cirrhosis-related mortality has increased steadily in the United States.1,2 With the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), patients with CLD and cirrhosis represent a vulnerable population at higher risk for complications and mortality.3,4 Although high mortality from COVID-19 among patients with CLD and cirrhosis have been reported,5 national trends in mortality related to CLD and cirrhosis before and during the COVID-19 pandemic have not been assessed. This study estimated the temporal quarterly trends in CLD and cirrhosis-related mortality in the United States from 2017 Q1 to 2020 Q3 using provisional data releases from the National Vital Statistics System.6,7.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 1088-1100, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274693

ABSTRACT

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that emerged in late 2019, is posing an unprecedented challenge to global health. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the clinical disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has a variable presentation ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. Liver involvement is common during COVID-19 and exhibits a spectrum of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests to hepatic decompensation. The presence of abnormal liver tests has been associated with a more severe presentation of COVID-19 disease and overall mortality. Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in the liver of patients with COVID-19, it remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 productively infects and replicates in liver cells and has a direct liver-pathogenic effect. The cause of liver injury in COVID-19 can be attributed to multiple factors, including virus-induced systemic inflammation, hypoxia, hepatic congestion, and drug-induced liver disease. Among patients with cirrhosis, COVID-19 has been associated with hepatic decompensation and liver-related mortality. Additionally, COVID-19's impact on health care resources can adversely affect delivery of care and outcomes of patients with chronic liver disease. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver injury during COVID-19 will be important in the management of patients with COVID-19, especially those with advanced liver disease. This review summarizes our current knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 virus-host interactions in the liver as well the clinical impact of liver disease in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Global Health , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25497, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262269

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients frequently develop liver biochemical abnormality. However, liver biochemical abnormality in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis is under-recognized.Patients hospitalized during COVID-19 pandemic in China (ie, from February to April 2020) were screened. All of 17 COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital were identified. Meanwhile, 17 age-, sex-, and severity-matched COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis admitted to this hospital were selected as a control group; all of 14 cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 consecutively admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were selected as another control group. Incidence of liver biochemical abnormality and decompensated events were primarily compared.Among the COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 76.50% and 84.60%, respectively; 7 (41.20%) had decompensated events at admission; 1 was transferred to intensive care unit due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Among the COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 58.80% (P = .271) and 60.00% (P = .150), respectively. Among the cirrhotic patients without COVID-19, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 69.20% (P = .657) and 81.80% (P = .855), respectively; 11 (78.60%) had decompensated events at admission (P = .036). None died during hospitalization among the three groups.Liver biochemical abnormality is common in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis. Management of decompensated events in cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 should not be neglected during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , China , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(7): 797-808, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic it is important to identify risk factors for COVID-19. Registry studies are providing growing evidence on the elevated risk of mortality from COVID-19 in patients with chronic liver disease, especially in advanced stages. Results may, however, have a selection bias towards severe cases. Limited data is available on COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD). AIM: To perform an online survey to capture the prevalence of COVID-19 and the state of medical care of patients with AILD in Europe during the pandemic. METHODS: Data was collected via an anonymous patient-oriented, online survey, which was available on the EUSurvey platform in nine European languages between 24th June 2020 and 14th October 2020. Of 1834 contributions, 51 were excluded because participants did not name an underlying AILD, and four were excluded because of duplicate data entry. RESULTS: Of 1,779 participants, 1,752 resided in 20 different countries of the European Union and the United Kingdom (UK). The five countries with the highest numbers of contributions were France (n = 450), Germany (n = 318), the Netherlands (n = 267), Spain (n = 225), and the UK (n = 183). 2.2% of participants (39/1779) had been diagnosed with COVID-19. There were no differences regarding age, sex, AILD, the status of liver cirrhosis, or status post liver transplantation between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. Of the 39 COVID-19 cases, five patients were admitted to a regular ward, one patient was admitted to ICU and required ventilation. CONCLUSION: In our Europe-wide, patient-oriented survey on COVID-19 in patients with AILD, we detected a low rate of COVID-19, comparable to the period prevalence of the general population. These results suggest that patients with AILD are not at elevated risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , End Stage Liver Disease/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/surgery , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
J Hepatol ; 75(4): 848-855, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impact of chronic liver disease on outcomes in patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Hence, we aimed to explore this association. METHODS: We explored the outcomes of all adult inpatients with COVID-19 in France, in 2020. We computed adjusted odds ratios to measure the associations between chronic liver disease, alcohol use disorders, mechanical ventilation and day-30 in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The sample comprised 259,110 patients (median [IQR] age 70 (54-83) years; 52% men), including 15,476 (6.0%) and 10,006 (3.9%) patients with chronic liver disease and alcohol use disorders, respectively. Death occurred in 38,203 (15%) patients, including 7,475 (28%) after mechanical ventilation, and 2,941 (19%) with chronic liver disease. The adjusted odds ratios for mechanical ventilation and day-30 mortality were 1.54 (95% CI 1.44-1.64, p <0.001) and 1.79 (1.71-1.87, p <0.001) for chronic liver disease; 0.55 (0.47-0.64, p <0.001) and 0.54 (0.48-0.61, p <0.001) for mild liver disease; 0.64 (0.53-0.76; p <0.001) and 0.71 (0.63-0.80, p <0.001) for compensated cirrhosis; 0.65 (0.52-0.81, p <0.001) and 2.21 (1.94-2.51, p <0.001) for decompensated cirrhosis; 0.34 (0.24-0.50; p <0.001) and 1.38 (1.17-1.62, p <0.001) for primary liver cancer; and 0.82 (0.76-0.89; p <0.001) and 1.11 (1.05-1.17; p <0.001) for alcohol use disorders. Chronic viral hepatitis; non-viral, non-alcoholic chronic hepatitis; organ, including liver, transplantation, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were not associated with COVID-19-related death. CONCLUSION: Chronic liver disease increased the risk of COVID-19-related death in France in 2020. Therapeutic effort limitation may have contributed to COVID-19-related death in French residents with a liver-related complication or an alcohol use disorder. LAY SUMMARY: We studied the outcomes, including mechanical ventilation and day-30 mortality, of all adults with COVID-19 who were discharged from acute and post-acute care in France in 2020 (N = 259,110). Patients with mild liver disease; compensated cirrhosis; organ, including liver, transplantation; or acquired immunodepression syndrome were not at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality. Patients with alcohol use disorders, decompensated cirrhosis, or primary liver cancer were at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality but were less likely to receive mechanical ventilation. Our results suggest that therapeutic effort limitation may have contributed to the excess mortality in French residents with a liver-related complication or an alcohol use disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , France/epidemiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2446-2452, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227755

ABSTRACT

We have evaluated flu vaccine coverage and variables associated with the lack of vaccination in cirrhotic subjects with particular attention to the cirrhosis etiology. Cirrhotic subjects consecutively referring to eight Italian centers were prospectively enrolled for a 6-month period in 2019. Subjects were asked if they had received a flu vaccine in the last 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of lack of vaccination. A total of 818 cases were recruited. The overall vaccine coverage was 39.6% (26.9% in those younger than 65 years and 51.9% in those older than 64 years; p < 0.001). Age < 65 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-3.36), alcoholic etiology (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 1.49-3.85), birth abroad (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.10-6.61), and residence in South/Sardinia island (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.14-2.42) all resulted independent predictors of the likelihood of lack of vaccination. The lack of information regarding the vaccine as the reason for no vaccination was reported by 71.4% of foreigners and by 34.7% of natives (p < 0.001). In conclusion, much work still should be done to improve coverage among groups at higher risk of lack of vaccination identified in this survey. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may represent one more alert for improving seasonal flu vaccine coverage to avoid further stress to the National Health System.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e594-e601, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited prior data suggest that preexisting liver disease is associated with adverse outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) is a noninvasive index of readily available laboratory measurements that represents hepatic fibrosis. We evaluated the association between FIB-4 at the early stage of infection and COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: FIB-4 was evaluated at admission in a cohort of 267 patients admitted with early-stage COVID-19 confirmed through reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Hazard of ventilator use and of high-flow oxygen was estimated using Cox regression models controlled for covariates. Risks of progression to severe disease and of death/prolonged hospitalization were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Forty-one (15%) patients progressed to severe disease, 36 (14%) required high-flow oxygen support, 10 (4%) required mechanical ventilator support, and 1 died. FIB-4 between 1.45 and 3.25 was associated with a greater than 5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-28) increased hazard of high-flow oxygen use, a greater than 4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-14.6) increased odds of progression to severe disease, and an over 3-fold (95% CI, 1.4-7.7) increased odds of death or prolonged hospitalization. FIB-4 >3.25 was associated with a greater than 12-fold (95% CI, 2.3-68. 7) increased hazard of high-flow oxygen use and an over 11-fold (95% CI, 3.1-45) increased risk of progression to severe disease. All associations were independent of sex, number of comorbidities, and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, C-reactive protein). CONCLUSIONS: FIB-4 at the early-stage of COVID-19 had an independent and dose-dependent association with adverse outcomes during hospitalization. FIB-4 provided significant prognostic value for estimating adverse outcomes among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 766-779, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] infection in patients with chronic liver disease [CLD] may precipitate acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]. In a large multi-center cohort of COVID-19-infected patients, we aim to analyze (1) the outcomes of patients with underlying CLD [with and without cirrhosis] and (2) the development and impact of ACLF on in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: We identified 192 adults with CLD from among 10,859 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (admitted to any of 12 hospitals in a New York health care system between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020). ACLF was defined using the EASL-CLIF Consortium definition. Patient follow-up was through April 30, 2020, or until the date of discharge, transfer, or death. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients with cirrhosis, 32 [38%] developed ACLF, with respiratory failure [39%] and renal failure [26%] being the most common. Hispanic/Latino ethnicity was particularly at higher risk of in-hospital mortality [adjusted HR 4.92, 95% 1.27-19.09, p < 0.02] in cirrhosis despite having lower risk of development of ACLF [HR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.89, p = 0.03]. Hypertension on admission predicted development of ACLF [HR 3.46, 95% CI 1.12-10.75, p = 0.03]. In-hospital mortality was not different between CLD patients with or without cirrhosis [p = 0.24] but was higher in those with cirrhosis who developed ACLF [adjusted HR 9.06, 95% CI 2.63-31.12, p < 0.001] with a trend for increased mortality by grade of ACLF [p = 0.002]. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality between the CLD cohort compared to matched control without CLD (log rank, p = 0.98) and between the cirrhosis cohort compared to matched control without cirrhosis (log rank, p = 0.51). CONCLUSION: Development of ACLF is the main driver of increased in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection and cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Risk Factors
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