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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(45): 7855-7858, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580320

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe liver disease who have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (coronavirus disease 2019) frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure, with a high mortality rate, as a result of the hyper-proinflammatory state known as the cytokine storm. Clinicians must recognize cytokine storms earlier to avoid intensive care admission and multi-organ damage, a critical life-threatening condition with prognostic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(11): 1617-1634, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551286

ABSTRACT

The CYP3A subfamily, which includes isoforms CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 in humans, plays important roles in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous substances. Gene and protein expression of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 show large inter-individual differences, which are caused by many endogenous and exogenous factors. Inter-individual differences can cause negative outcomes, such as adverse drug events and disease development. Therefore, it is important to understand the variations in CYP3A expression caused by endo- and exogenous factors, as well as the variation in the metabolism and kinetics of endo- and exogenous substrates. In this review, we summarize the factors regulating CYP3A expression, such as bile acids, hormones, microRNA, inflammatory cytokines, drugs, environmental chemicals, and dietary factors. In addition, variations in CYP3A expression under pathological conditions, such as coronavirus disease 2019 and liver diseases, are described as examples of the physiological effects of endogenous factors. We also summarize endogenous and exogenous substrates metabolized by CYP3A isoforms, such as cholesterol, bile acids, hormones, arachidonic acid, vitamin D, and drugs. The relationship between the changes in the kinetics of these substrates and the toxicological effects in our bodies are discussed. The usefulness of these substrates and metabolites as endogenous biomarkers for CYP3A activity is also discussed. Notably, we focused on discrimination between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 to understand inter-individual differences in CYP3A expression and function.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Humans , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 40(4): 33-41, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528756

ABSTRACT

Over the years, a novel RNA coronavirus has emerged with mutational episodes. This virus was confirmed to cause severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19). This particular emphasis has raised the risk signal at the global level. Hepatic injury has been known to be a major impairment with varying factors. In recent years, the mechanistic event of hepatic injury is now more controversial and has a lack of justifiable set. Nevertheless, it has been investigated for the prominence of inflammatory signals, viral load in hepatocytes, followed by an intensive care therapeutic defense, and/or drug toxicity. Limited reports are available on infection-mediated hepatic injury, and its associated mechanism is still poorly understood. In the context of COVID-19 infections, the initial episode is pulmonary disorder with a systemic infection in multiple organs, including the liver. The majority of the reported cases reveal hepatic damage or dysfunction among COVID-19-infected patients. Prevalence of altered biochemistry of liver enzymes was also observed in the COVID-19 infected population. Our review focuses on the probable mechanisms and therapeutic options of COVID-19 and its associated hepatic dysfunction. We also discuss the available prescribed medications against COVID-19 infections, such as remdesiver, oseltamivir, lopina-vir/ritonavir, ribavirin, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-based therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/virology
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5904-5912, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver injury has been reported in patients with COVID-19. This condition is characterized by severe outcome and could be related with the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to activate cytotoxic T cells. The purpose of this study is to show the histological and scanning electron microscopy features of liver involvement in COVID-19 to characterize the liver changes caused by the activation of multiple molecular pathways following this infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liver biopsies from 4 patients (3 post-mortems and 1 in vivo) with COVID-19 were analyzed with histology and by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The liver changes showed significant heterogeneity. The first case showed ground glass hepatocytes and scattered fibrin aggregates in the sinusoidal lumen. The second evidenced intra-sinusoidal thrombi. The third was characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, atrophy of hepatocytes, Disse's spaces dilatation and intra-sinusoidal aggregates of fibrin and red blood cells. The fourth case exhibited diffuse fibrin aggregates in the dilated Disse spaces and microthrombi in the sinusoidal lumen. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19-related liver injury, a large spectrum of pathological changes was observed. The most peculiar features were very mild inflammation, intra-sinusoidal changes, including sinusoidal dilatation, thrombotic sinusoiditis and diffuse intra-sinusoidal fibrin deposition. These findings suggested that a thrombotic sinusoiditis followed by a local diffuse intra-vascular (intra-sinusoidal) coagulation could be the typical features of the SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Aged , Autopsy , Biopsy , Erythrocytes/pathology , Fibrin , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Young Adult
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(35): 5919-5931, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438770

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly through the respiratory route. Besides interstitial pneumonia, a number of other clinical manifestations were noticed in COVID-19 patients. In particular, liver and spleen dysfunctions have been described both as complications of COVID-19 and as potential predisposing factors for severe COVID-19. Liver damage is rather common in COVID-19 patients, and it is most likely multifactorial, caused by the direct insult of SARS-CoV-2 to the liver by the cytokine storm triggered by the virus, by the use of hepatotoxic drugs, and as a consequence of hypoxia. Although generally mild, liver impairment has been found to be associated with a higher rate of intensive care unit admission. A higher mortality rate was reported among chronic liver disease patients. Instead, spleen impairment in patients with COVID-19 has been poorly described. The main anatomical changes are the architectural derangement of the B cell compartment, white pulp atrophy, and reduction or absence of lymphoid follicles, while, from a functional point of view, the IgM memory B cell pool is markedly depleted. The outcome of COVID-19 in asplenic or hyposplenic patients is yet to be defined. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge regarding the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver and spleen function, as well as the outcome of patients with a pre-existent liver disease or defective spleen function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen
7.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been inducing an ongoing global health and economic emergency. Although viral pneumonia is the most striking presentation for COVID-19 patients, it has been noticed that some patients may also be accompanied with an abnormal liver function. METHODS: CT was performed in both lungs, and routine bloodwork and the blood metabolic panel were measured. RESULTS: Here, we report on a young male patient without any history of live diseases who suffered simultaneously both SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and hepatitis as evidenced by increased serum bilirubin together with increased serum transaminases. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on mechanisms whereby SARS-CoV-2 causing liver damages might provide more information about the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and help management of this global health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(34): 5682-5699, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411116

ABSTRACT

Varying degrees of liver injuries have been reported in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In general, oxidative stress is actively involved in initiation and progression of liver damage. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals. Maintaining the oxidative/antioxidative balance is important in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Antioxidant vitamins, essential trace elements and food compounds, such as polyphenols, appear to be promising agents, with effects in oxidative burst. Deficiency of these nutrients suppresses immune function and increases susceptibility to COVID-19. Daily micronutrient intake is necessary to support anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects but for immune function may be higher than current recommended dietary intake. Antioxidant supplements (ß-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) could have a potential role in patients with liver damage. Available evidence suggests that supplementing the diet with a combination of micronutrients may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. Clinical trials based on the associations of diet and SARS-CoV-2 infection are lacking. Unfortunately, it is not possible to definitively determine the dose, route of administration and best timing to intervene with antioxidants in COVID-19 patients because clinical trials are still ongoing. Until then, hopefully, this review will enable clinicians to understand the impact of micronutrient dietary intake and liver status assessment in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(4): 237-255, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395708

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health challenge. Assessing the effect of COVID-19 on liver injury is of great importance. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to establish the characteristics of liver function tests in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A systematic search of publications from December 2019 up to April 2020 in Web of Science, Scopus, and Medline (via PubMed) databases was performed. Both cross-sectional and case series studies reporting an association between liver injury and COVID-19 infection were included. The data were analyzed using the STATA software (version 11.0) and the random-effects model for I2>50% was used to pool the results. Results: In this meta-analysis, 42 articles comprising a total of 6,557 COVID-19 patients were studied. The prevalence of increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was 30% and 21% in non-severe patients and 38% and 48% in severe patients, respectively. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection were 4.22, 4.96, and 4.13 times more likely to have elevated AST, ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, respectively. Conclusion: Elevation in liver function tests was higher in patients with severe than non-severe COVID-19 infection. Given the widespread use of drugs that increases the risk of hepatotoxicity, healthcare providers should be aware of changes in liver enzymes in COVID-19 patients. The inclusion of other studies from outside China could confirm the pattern of elevation in liver function tests in COVID-19 patients across the globe. Preprint of this article is available on medRxiv, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.20.20108357v1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Liver/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390161

ABSTRACT

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxybenzoates/therapeutic use , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
12.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(12): 714, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387372
13.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(10): 1791-1800, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372728

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created a crisis that disproportionately affected populations already disadvantaged with respect to access to health care systems and adequate medical care and treatments. Understanding how and where health care disparities are most widespread is an important starting point for exploring opportunities to mitigate such disparities, especially within our patient population with liver disease. In a webinar in LiverLearning, we discussed the impact of the pandemic on the United States, United Kingdom and Canada, highlighting the disproportionate effects on infection rates and death for certain ethnic minorities, those socioeconomically disadvantaged and living in higher density areas, and those working in health care and other essential jobs. We set forth a "call to action" for members of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the larger community of providers of liver disease care to generate viable solutions to improve access to care and vaccination rates of our patients against COVID-19, and in general help reduce health care disparities and improve the health of disadvantaged populations within their communities. Solutions will likely involve personalized interventions and messaging for communities that honor local leaders and embrace the diverse needs and different cultural sensitivities of our unique patient populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Minority Groups , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Canada/epidemiology , Gastroenterology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Social Determinants of Health , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage
14.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 1049-1064, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372725

ABSTRACT

The aim of this document is to provide a concise scientific review of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines and those in development, including mRNA, adenoviral vectors, and recombinant protein approaches. The anticipated use of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant (LT) recipients is reviewed and practical guidance is provided for health care providers involved in the care of patients with liver disease and LT about vaccine prioritization and administration. The Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are associated with a 94%-95% vaccine efficacy compared to placebo against COVID-19. Local site reactions of pain and tenderness were reported in 70%-90% of clinical trial participants, and systemic reactions of fever and fatigue were reported in 40%-70% of participants, but these reactions were generally mild and self-limited and occurred more frequently in younger persons. Severe hypersensitivity reactions related to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are rare and more commonly observed in women and persons with a history of previous drug reactions for unclear reasons. Because patients with advanced liver disease and immunosuppressed patients were excluded from the vaccine licensing trials, additional data regarding the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines are eagerly awaited in these and other subgroups. Remarkably safe and highly effective mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are now available for widespread use and should be given to all adult patients with CLD and LT recipients. The online companion document located at https://www.aasld.org/about-aasld/covid-19-resources will be updated as additional data become available regarding the safety and efficacy of other COVID-19 vaccines in development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Consensus , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States
15.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(10): 830-835, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients and whether it affects the outcomes of COVID-19 requires investigation. GOALS: The aim was to determine the prevalence of MAFLD among COVID-19 patients and its influence on the outcomes of COVID-19 by meta-analysis. METHODS: Our study protocol has been registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021242243). The studies published on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science before March 11, 2021 were screened. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale were used to assess the quality of the studies. Pooled analysis was conducted using the software RevMan version 5.3 and Stata version 15.0 SE. The stability of the results was assessed by sensitivity analysis. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots, Egger test, and trim-and-fill analysis. RESULTS: Seven studies covering 2141 COVID-19 patients were included. It was confirmed that MAFLD increased the risk of severe COVID-19 (odds ratios: 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-2.13, P<0.00001). No association was found between the presence of MAFLD and the occurrence of COVID-19 death. The pooled prevalence of MAFLD among COVID-19 patients was 36% (95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.49, P<0.00001). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that the initial results were stable. CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD can increase the incidence of severe COVID-19, but the correlation between MAFLD and COVID-19 death has not been confirmed. Further investigation is needed to explore the possible mechanism of this association. Since MAFLD is common among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, more care should be given to COVID-19 patients with underlying MAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 88-95, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is often increased in COVID-19 and, in some studies, AST abnormalities were associated with mortality risk. METHODS: 2054 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were studied. To identify sources of AST release, correlations between AST peak values and other biomarkers of tissue damage, i.e., alanine aminotransferase (ALT) for hepatocellular damage, creatine kinase (CK) for muscle damage, lactate dehydrogenase for multiorgan involvement, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase for cholestatic injury, and C-reactive protein (CRP) for systemic inflammation, were performed and coefficients of determination estimated. The role of AST to predict death and intensive care unit admission during hospitalization was also evaluated. All measurements were performed using standardized assays. RESULTS: AST was increased in 69% of patients. Increases could be fully explained by summing the effects of hepatocellular injury [AST dependence from ALT, 66.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 64.5-69.1)] and muscle damage [AST dependence from CK, 42.6% (CI: 39.3-45.8)]. We were unable to demonstrate an independent association of AST increases with worse outcomes. CONCLUSION: The mechanisms for abnormal AST in COVID-19 are likely multifactorial and a status related to tissue suffering could play a significant role. The clinical significance of AST elevations remains unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(9): 1194-1200, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection is a global health threat. To inform the liver community on the potential relevance of COVID-19, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data on liver injury in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar through 22 March according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Pooled data were analyzed by using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies combining data from 2.871 patients were identified. The prevalence of pre-existing liver disease was reported at 3.1%. The pooled prevalence of elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were 26% [95% confidence interval (CI), 20-32%] and 19% (95% CI, 14-26%), respectively. Only two studies reported the prevalence of elevated liver function tests according to normal ward versus ICU and here the frequency of elevated levels of AST was 50% and 62% versus ALT 40.8% and thus quantitatively higher in ICU-treated patients. Mean levels of absolute AST levels were 33 U/L (95% CI, 30.21-36.09), while mean ALT levels were 31 U/L (95% CI, 27.52-34.57). Cholestatic liver function tests were only incompletely reported in 510 patients. Here, mean levels of alkaline phosphatase were 71 U/L across three studies, and mean levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase were 40.6 U/L across four studies. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging data on LFTs in COVID-19 are heterogeneous indicating mild LFTs involvement in every fourth to fifth patients with numerical more prevalent AST over ALT elevations. Prospective studies are needed to define the clinical relevance of liver injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Humans , Liver , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(3): e13632, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The profiles of liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 patients need to be clarified. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients over 60 years old in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1 to February 6 were included. Data of demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, medications and outcomes were collected and analysed. Sequential alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were monitored. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included and classified into two groups with normal (n = 234) or elevated ALT (n = 96). There were fewer females (40.6% vs 54.7%, P = .020) and more critical cases (30.2% vs 19.2%, P = .026) in patients with elevated ALT compared with the normal group. Higher levels of bacterial infection indices (eg, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) were observed in the elevated group. Spearman correlation showed that both ALT and AST levels were positively correlated with those indices of bacterial infection. No obvious effects of medications on ALT abnormalities were found. In patients with elevated ALT, most ALT elevations were mild and transient. 59.4% of the patients had ALT concentrations of 41-100 U/L, while only a few patients (5.2%) had high serum ALT concentrations above 300 U/L. ALT elevations occurred at 13 (10-17) days and recovered at 28 (18-35) days from disease onset. For most patients, the elevation of serum ALT levels occurred at 6-20 days after disease onset and reached their peak values within a similar time frame. The recovery of serum ALT levels to normal frequently occurred at 16-20 days or 31-35 days after disease onset. CONCLUSIONS: Liver function abnormalities were observed in 29.1% of elderly people COVID-19 patients, which were slightly and transient in most cases. Liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 may be correlated with bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Liver , Liver Function Tests , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(28): 4504-4535, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335269

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has become an international danger to human health. Although respiratory transmission and symptoms are still the essential manifestations of COVID-19, the digestive system could be an unconventional or supplementary route for COVID-19 to be transmitted and manifested, most likely due to the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 can trigger hepatic injury via direct binding to the ACE2 receptor in cholangiocytes, antibody-dependent enhancement of infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, inflammatory cytokine storms, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and adverse events of treatment drugs. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which are unusual in patients with COVID-19, and some digestive signs may occur without other respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can be found in infected patients' stool, demonstrating the likelihood of transmission through the fecal-oral route. In addition, liver function should be monitored during COVID-19, particularly in more severe cases. This review summarizes the evidence for extra-pulmonary manifestations, mechanisms, and management of COVID-19, particularly those related to the gastrointestinal tract and liver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Liver Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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