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1.
Ann Hepatol ; 26: 100553, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In many studies, varying degrees of liver damage have been reported in more than half of the COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of liver biochemical parameters abnormality on mortality in critical COVID-19 patients who have been followed in the ICU since the beginning of the pandemic process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 533 critical patients who admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 were included. The patients were divided into three groups according to their ALT, AST, and total bilirubin levels at their admission to the ICU. Group 1 was formed of patients with normal liver biochemical parameters values; Group 2 was formed of patients with liver biochemical parameters abnormality; Group 3 was formed of patients with liver injury. RESULTS: 353 (66.2%) of all patients died. Neutrophil, aPTT, CRP, LDH, CK, ALT, AST, bilirubin, procalcitonin and ferritin values in Group 2 and Group 3 were found to be statistically significantly higher than Group 1. It was detected that the days of stay in ICU of the patients in Group 1 was statistically significantly longer than others group. It was found that the patients in Groups 2 and 3 had higher total, 7-day, and 28-day mortality rates than expected. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that liver disfunction was associated with higher mortality and shorter ICU occupation time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Function Tests , Liver/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Turkey
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26719, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has been described. However, it is not clear if the presence of abnormal liver function tests at presentation was related to underlying undiagnosed liver disease, or a result of the viral infection.We retrospectively examined the first 554 consecutive polymerase chain reaction positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 to our academic medical centre. We reviewed their clinical data, chest radiography and laboratory studies obtained within 24 hour of admission.Despite similar hemodynamic parameters, we found significant aspartate transaminase elevation (64 ±â€Š141 vs 35 ±â€Š23 U/L, P < .001) in those with pneumonia compared to those without. Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 102 patients (18.4%). They presented with higher temperatures (38.5 ±â€Š0.9 vs 37.5 ±â€Š0.8 degC, P = .011), higher total white cell counts (6.95 ±â€Š2.29 vs 6.39 ±â€Š2.19 x109/L, P = .021), serum ferritin (240 ±â€Š274 vs 165 ±â€Š198 ng/ml, P = .002) and lactate dehydrogenase (632 ±â€Š912 vs 389 ±â€Š107 U/L, P < .001). These patients were more likely to require intensive care (6.9% vs 2.7% P = .036) and mechanical ventilation (5.9% vs 2.2%, P = .046). Migrant workers from dormitories had a higher rate of baseline liver function test abnormalities (88/425 vs 14/129, P = .01), which were more likely to persist at the time of discharge.Despite relatively mild COVID-19 disease, there was a significant prevalence of liver dysfunction, particularly amongst migrant workers. Elevated liver enzymes were associated with more severe disease, despite similar haemodynamic characteristics. Future studies should explore whether pre-existing liver disease may predispose to more severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore
4.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 393-398, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of increased serum pancreatic enzymes (PEs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not yet been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the frequency and the impact on clinical outcome of PE elevation and acute pancreatitis in such patients. METHODS: Clinical data, laboratory tests, and cross-sectional images were analyzed from COVID-19 patients admitted to the Tor Vergata Hospital in Rome. Variables associated with PE abnormalities, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death were investigated through univariate and multivariate analyses and Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pancreatic enzymes were available in 254 of 282 COVID-19 patients. Among these, 66 patients (26%) showed mild elevation of PE, and 11 patients (4.3%) had severe elevation (>3 times of the upper limit of normal). Overall, 2 patients met the diagnostic criteria for acute pancreatitis. Hepatic and renal involvements were associated with PE elevation. Multivariate analysis showed that mild and severe PE elevations were significantly associated with ICU admission (odds ratios, 5.51 [95% confidence interval, 2.36-12.89; P < 0.0001] and 26.2 [95% confidence interval, 4.82-142.39; P < 0.0001]). CONCLUSIONS: Increase in serum PE, but not acute pancreatitis, is frequent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and associates with ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pancreas/enzymology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/enzymology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107701, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, has rapidly spread over the world. The exact mechanism how this virus will affect the liver remained elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the liver function in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and potential causes of hepatic enzymes disease in these patients. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were collected from patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the corona center in Erbil city/Kurdistan region of Iraq, from March 10 to July 10, 2020. Serum was collected from patients with COVID-19 and liver enzyme tests were measured. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were analyzed in these patients. Of the 74 patients, 25 (34.7%) had abnormal ALT activity, 28 (40%) had abnormal AST activity, 12 (20.3%) had abnormal ALP activity, and 39 (52.7%) had abnormal total bilirubin P-value < 0.05. The inflammatory biomarkers CRP and IL-6 in COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver function test (4.9 ± 1.0 mg/dl) and (231.2 ± 35.7 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of both biomarkers were statistically significantly higher than COVID-19 patients with normal liver function test (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) and (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) respectively, P-value < 0.05. However, CRP and IL-6 were not statistically significant different between male and female COVID-19 patients P-value < 0.05. In conclusion, we found that most of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 have abnormal hepatic enzyme activities and that is might related to virus replication in the liver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Liver/enzymology , Liver/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Carrier State/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Young Adult
6.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 393-398, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of increased serum pancreatic enzymes (PEs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not yet been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the frequency and the impact on clinical outcome of PE elevation and acute pancreatitis in such patients. METHODS: Clinical data, laboratory tests, and cross-sectional images were analyzed from COVID-19 patients admitted to the Tor Vergata Hospital in Rome. Variables associated with PE abnormalities, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death were investigated through univariate and multivariate analyses and Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pancreatic enzymes were available in 254 of 282 COVID-19 patients. Among these, 66 patients (26%) showed mild elevation of PE, and 11 patients (4.3%) had severe elevation (>3 times of the upper limit of normal). Overall, 2 patients met the diagnostic criteria for acute pancreatitis. Hepatic and renal involvements were associated with PE elevation. Multivariate analysis showed that mild and severe PE elevations were significantly associated with ICU admission (odds ratios, 5.51 [95% confidence interval, 2.36-12.89; P < 0.0001] and 26.2 [95% confidence interval, 4.82-142.39; P < 0.0001]). CONCLUSIONS: Increase in serum PE, but not acute pancreatitis, is frequent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and associates with ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pancreas/enzymology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/enzymology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
7.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(5): 101556, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064960

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the impact of liver function test (LFT) abnormalities on the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a French cohort of hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: From March 13 to April 22, 2020, we collected on a computerized and anonymized database, medical records, laboratory data and clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (RT-PCR and/or CT-scan). Patients were followed up until April 22, 2020 or until death or discharge. We have considered for statistical analysis, LFT abnormalities with levels greater than two times the upper limit of normal. Composite endpoint included admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, severe radiologic injury and death to define disease severity. RESULTS: Among 281 patients (median age 60 years) with COVID-19, 102 (36.3%) had abnormal LFT. Hypertension (45.6%) and diabetes (29.5%) were the main comorbidities. 20.2% were taken liver-toxic drugs at the admission and 27.4% were given drugs known to induce hepatic cytolysis during hospitalization. Patients with elevated levels of ALT or AST were significantly more severe with a higher rate of admission to ICU (40.0% vs 6.0%, p< 0.0001), and global mortality (26.7% vs 12.1%, p= 0.03). In multivariate analysis, obesity and cytolytic profil were associated with the composite endpoint (respectively 2.37 [1.21; 4.64], p= 0.01 and OR 6.20, 95% confidence interval [1.84, 20.95], p-value 0.003) CONCLUSION: Most of liver injuries are mild and transient during COVID-19. LFT abnormalities are associated with a poorer prognosis and could be a relevant biomarker for early detection of severe infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Diseases , Liver Function Tests/methods , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Hepatol Int ; 15(2): 493-501, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The relationship between liver injury and mortality remains unclear in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of aminotransferases levels at hospital admission to predict mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study included 406 patients [57% male, aged 56 years] with COVID-19 hospitalized in 26 centers in Brazil. Overall, 36.7% (95% CI 32.1-41.5) presented at admission with severe disease requiring respiratory support. The prevalence of elevated ALT and AST levels at admission [> 2 × ULN] was 14.0% (95% CI 11.0-17.8) and 12.9% (95% CI 10.0-16.6), respectively. Sixty-two patients [15.3% (95% CI 12.1-19.1)] died during hospitalization and the overall mortality rate was 13.4 (10.5-17.2) deaths per 1000 persons-years. The 15-day-overall survival (95% CI) was significantly lower in patients with ALT levels ≥ 2 × ULN compared to those with ALT < 2 × ULN [67.1% (48.4-80.2) vs 83.4% (76.1-88.6), p = 0.001] and in those with AST levels ≥ 2 × ULN compared to those with AST < 2 × ULN [61.5% (44.7-74.6) vs 84.2% (76.5-89.5), p < 0.001]. The presence of elevated aminotransferases levels at hospital admission significantly increased the risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality adjusted for age-and-sex. Those findings were present in the subgroup of critically ill patients already admitted in need of respiratory support (n = 149), but not in patients without that requirement at admission (n = 257). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated aminotransferases at hospital admission predicted in-hospital all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19, especially in those with severe disease. Measurement of transaminases levels at hospital admission should be integrated to the care of patients with COVID-19 as an auxiliary strategy to identify patients at higher death risk.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Liver Diseases/blood , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Admission , Predictive Value of Tests , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1951-1954, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: - COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to myriad range of organ involvement including liver dysfunction. AIM: To analyse the liver function in patients with COVID-19 and their association with respect to age, sex, severity of disease and clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study done at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. 91 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study and divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe groups. Liver function tests were compared among different severity groups. RESULTS: Of 91 patients with COVID-19, 70 (76.9%) had abnormal liver function. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin levels was 1-2 × ULN in 33(36.3%), 34(37.3%), 12(13.2%), 6(6.6%) cases and >2 × ULN in 20(22%), 18(19.8%), 7(7.7%) and 2 (2.2%) cases respectively. Mean AST and ALP levels among different severity groups of COVID-19 was statistically significant (p < 0.05) whereas mean ALT and total bilirubin levels was statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between males and females with regard to abnormal liver function. Liver injury was seen in 64.3% cases of hypertension and 73.3% cases of diabetes. Fever, myalgia, headache and breathlessness were found to be correlated significantly with severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is more prevalent in the severe disease group. Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase are better indicators of covid-19 induced liver injury than alanine transaminase and total bilirubin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , India , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13072-13088, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported in several papers, but without homogeneous findings. We aimed to systematically review the prevalence of liver involvement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at their hospital admission, and its correlation with disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with or without pre-existing chronic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, PMC, clinical trial registries, and other Coronavirus family publications for studies reporting data on SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 and liver function tests (LFTs) alterations, as well as clinical course of patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. Case reports, preprints, editorials, reviews were excluded. We also revised literature to describe the background of liver involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 36 studies, including 20724 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included. The pooled prevalence of LFTs abnormalities at admission was 46.9% (AST 26.5%, ALT 22.8%, GGT 22.5%, ALP 5.7%, tBIL 8.0%). ALT, AST, tBIL were independent predictors of disease severity (ALT OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.17-2.03; AST OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.10-4.77; tBIL OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.18-4.58) and in-hospital mortality (ALT OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96; AST OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.68-7.18; tBIL OR 7.75, 95% CI 2.28-26.40). Heterogeneity among studies was high. The few available data also reported that COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of liver decompensation and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: LFTs alterations were reported in up to 47% of unselected patients with COVID-19 and were associated with severe disease or in-hospital mortality. In cirrhotic patients, COVID-19 was associated with high risk of liver decompensation or mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
11.
Hepatology ; 73(4): 1509-1520, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. Although it has been reported that some patients with COVID-19 showed elevated liver biochemistries, there are few studies regarding the clinical features and prognosis of these patients. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we collected data on laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, who died or were discharged between February 1, 2020, and February 20, 2020. Data on demographics, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations on admission, complications, treatment, and outcome were collected. A total of 482 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 142 (29.5%) patients showed abnormal liver biochemistries on admission, and patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TBIL) accounted for 67.6%, 69.0%, and 16.2%, respectively. Those with abnormal liver biochemistries showed higher percentages of severe cases and comorbidities and were more likely to have dyspnea, chest distress or pain, and increased hemoglobin (Hb) on admission. Higher rates of complications and mortality and worse recovery when discharged were observed in patients with abnormal AST or TBIL. Multivariable regression analysis showed that chest distress or pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.765; P = 0.018), dyspnea (OR, 2.495; P = 0.001), elevated C-reactive protein level (OR, 1.007; P = 0.008), elevated white blood count (OR, 1.139; P = 0.013), and elevated Hb concentration (OR, 1.024; P = 0.001) were independent factors associated with elevated liver biochemistries in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated liver biochemistries were common in patients with COVID-19. Patients with hypoxia or severe inflammation are more likely to experience increased liver biochemistries on admission. Those with abnormal AST or TBIL on admission are more likely to suffer from severe complications and death.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
12.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1156): 91-97, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characteristics of laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients are of great significance for diagnosis and treatment. Studies that have analysed the variations in hepatic profile in correlation with the inflammatory markers in SARS-CoV-2 are limited. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed liver function tests and inflammatory markers of 170 admitted patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the tertiary care centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), India, using Roche Cobas Autoanalyzer. RESULTS: Number of patients with normal liver enzyme levels were 63 (41.5%), while with raised levels of any of the liver enzymes were 89 (58.5%), out of which 43 (48.31%) had liver injury which manifested as increased severity in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) requirement (p=0.0005). Significantly raised levels of liver enzymes and liver injury were observed with age (p<0.0001) and in males (p=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of albumin and total proteins and increased levels of total bilirubin (p<0.0001) were seen in patients with abnormal liver enzyme levels and liver injury as compared to patients with normal levels. Significant increase in the levels of alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase was seen on the 7th day, CRP and ferritin (p<0.0001) peaks were observed on 2nd and 3rd day respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of these inflammatory markers and liver function parameters. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection had an abnormal liver function which was found to be associated with raised levels of inflammatory markers. Significantly higher proportions of patients with abnormal liver function were elderly and males and were at higher risk of progressing to severe disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albumins/analysis , Bilirubin/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 511, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that pregnant women and their fetuses may be particularly at risk for poor outcomes due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. From the few case series that are available in the literature, women with high risk pregnancies have been associated with higher morbidity. It has been suggested that pregnancy induced immune responses and cardio-vascular changes can exaggerate the course of the COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year old Somalian woman (G2P1) presented with a nine-day history of shortness of breath, dry cough, myalgia, nausea, abdominal pain and fever. A nasopharyngeal swab returned positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Her condition rapidly worsened leading to severe liver and coagulation impairment. An emergency Caesarean section was performed at gestational week 32 + 6 after which the patient made a rapid recovery. Severe COVID-19 promptly improved by the termination of the pregnancy or atypical HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count) exacerbated by concomitant COVID-19 infection could not be ruled out. There was no evidence of vertical transmission. CONCLUSIONS: This case adds to the growing body of evidence which raises concerns about the possible negative maternal outcomes of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and advocates for pregnant women to be recognized as a vulnerable group during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Cesarean Section , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Obesity, Maternal , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Adult , Antithrombin III/metabolism , Apgar Score , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pandemics , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 26(5): 272-278, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706036

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims: We aimed to evaluate the distribution of abnormal liver-related biomarkers in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and explore the prognostic value of elevated liver enzymes and abnormal liver synthetic capacity with regards to patient mortality. Patients and Methods: This retrospective observational study included 80 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Data were collected from the electronic medical record system by a trained team of physicians. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), albumin, and prealbumin levels at admission and on day 7 after admission were collected. The primary outcome of the current study was patient mortality. Results: Abnormal ALT, AST, TB, albumin, and prealbumin levels were observed in 11 (13.8%), 15 (18.8%), 5 (6.3%), 22 (27.5%), and 31 (38.8%) patients, respectively. Male gender correlated with elevated ALT and AST levels (p = 0.027 and 0.036, respectively). Higher levels of AST and lower levels of albumin and prealbumin were associated with patient mortality (p = 0.009, 0.002, and 0.003, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified patient age (p = 0.013, HR 1.108) and prealbumin levels (p = 0.015, HR 0.986) as independent predictors for patient mortality. However, changes in liver-related biomarkers were not associated with poor outcome in multivariate analysis (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Abnormalities in albumin and prealbumin levels are common among COVID-19 patients and hypoprealbuminemia independently predicts adverse outcome and should be carefully considered in clinical practice. Moreover, changes in liver-related biomarkers is not a salient feature of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prealbumin/metabolism , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
15.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(2): 158-165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A cytokine storm conceivably contributes to manifestations of corona virus disease (COVID-19). Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) cause acute liver injury while serum detectability indicates systemic inflammation. AIMS: We explored a link between systemic IL-6, related acute phase proteins and liver injury in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 655 patients with suspected COVID-19 were screened in the emergency department at the University Hospital of Innsbruck, Austria, between February and April 2020. 96 patients (∼15%) were hospitalized with COVID-19. 15 patients required intensive-care treatment (ICT). Plasma aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard clinical assays. RESULTS: Of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 41 (42%) showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration. COVID-19 patients with elevated AST exhibited significantly higher IL-6 (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001), LDH (p < 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.05) serum concentrations compared to patients with normal AST. Liver injury correlated with systemic IL-6 (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001) and LDH (p < 0.001) concentration. In COVID-19 patients requiring ICT, correlations were more pronounced. CONCLUSION: Systemic inflammation could be a fuel for hepatic injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Liver Diseases , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Correlation of Data , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(6): 1852-1854, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with elevated liver biochemistries in approximately half of hospitalized patients, with many possible etiologies. AIM: To assess agreement on the etiology of abnormal liver biochemistries and diagnostic recommendations in COVID-19. METHODS: Twenty hepatology consultations were reviewed by three senior hepatologists who provided a differential diagnosis and diagnostic recommendations. Kappa agreement on the primary etiology was calculated. RESULTS: Kappa agreement between hepatologists on the primary etiology of elevated liver biochemistries was 0.10 (p = 0.03). Agreement was greater around drug-induced liver injury 0.51 (p < 0.0001) and SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury 0.17 (p = 0.03). Serial liver biochemistries were recommended in all consultations over other evaluations. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, elevated liver biochemistries present a diagnostic challenge and can often be monitored conservatively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Gastroenterologists , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Function Tests , Liver/metabolism , Referral and Consultation , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Consensus , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Factors
17.
Hepatology ; 73(4): 1521-1530, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several recent studies have reported an abnormal liver chemistry profile among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although its clinical significance remains unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This systematic review and meta-analysis identified six studies of 586 patients delineating liver chemistries among patients with severe/critical illness versus mild cases of COVID-19 infection. Patients with severe/critical illness with COVID-19 infection have increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as compared with mild cases. A significant association between severe/critical COVID-19 infections with elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (pooled mean difference [MD], 11.70 U/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.97, 20.43; P = 0.009), elevated total bilirubin (pooled MD, 0.14 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.06, 0.22; P = 0.0005), and decreased albumin (pooled MD, -0.68 g/L; 95% CI, -0.81, -0.55; P < 0.00001) was noted. There was also a trend toward elevated alanine aminotransferase levels among these severe cases (pooled MD, 8.84 U/L; 95% CI, -2.28, 19.97; P = 0.12); however, this did not reach statistical significance. More severe/critically ill cases were associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, elevated creatinine kinase, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and elevated prothrombin time (PT). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities, including coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are more prevalent in hospitalized Chinese patients with severe/critical illness from COVID-19, and these patients are more likely to manifest with abnormal liver chemistries. Further prospective studies are crucial to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the hepatic manifestations of the novel COVID-19 infection and its clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Serum Albumin/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e040517, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has spread rapidly in China and around the world. Published studies have revealed that some patients with COVID-19 had abnormal liver function in laboratory tests. However, the results were inconsistent and the analysis of epidemiological data stratified by the severity of COVID-19 was not available in previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, these meta-analyses were suspected of overestimating the incidence of liver injury in patients with COVID-19 because some studies considered transaminase elevation as liver injury, which might partially result from cardiac and muscle injury. This systematic review aims to enrol published literatures related to COVID-19 without language restriction, analyse the data based on the severity of the COVID-19 and explore the impact of varied definitions of liver injury on the incidence of liver injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We have conducted a preliminary search on PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database on 13 April 2020, for the studies published after December 2019 on the prevalence of acute liver injury and hypertransaminemia in patients with COVID-19. Two reviewers will independently screen studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias. We will estimate the pooled incidence of hypertransaminemia and acute liver injury in patients with COVID-19 by using the random-effects model. The I² test will be used to identify the extent of heterogeneity. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plot and performing the Begg's and Egger's test if adequate studies are available. We will perform a risk of bias assessment using the Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal checklist. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since this study will be based on the published data, it does not require ethical approval. The final results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020179462.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/blood , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(11): 1678-1687, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610883

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic which has caused numerous deaths worldwide. The present study investigated the roles of hypoproteinemia in the clinical outcome and liver dysfunction of COVID-19 patients. In this retrospective study, we extracted data from 2,623 clinically confirmed adult COVID-19 patients (>18 years old) between January 29, 2020 and March 6, 2020 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into three groups-non-critically ill, critically ill, and death groups-in accordance with the Chinese Clinical Guideline for COVID-19. Serum albumin, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured and compared among these three groups. The median age of these 2,623 patients was 64 years old (interquartile range (IQR), 52-71). Among the patients enrolled in the study, 2,008 (76.6%) were diagnosed as non-critically ill and 615 (23.4%) were critically ill patients, including 383 (14.6%) critically ill survivors and 232 (8.8%) critically ill deaths in the hospital. Marked hypoalbuminemia occurred in 38.2%, 71.2%, and 82.4% patients in non-critically ill, critically ill, and death groups, respectively, on admission and 45.9%, 77.7%, and 95.6% of these three groups, respectively, during hospitalization. We also discovered that serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL levels were significantly lower in critically ill and death groups compared to non-critically ill group. Meanwhile, the patients displayed dramatically elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors, while a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in critically ill patients reflected coagulopathy. This study suggests that COVID-19-induced cytokine storm causes hepatotoxicity and subsequently critical hypoalbuminemia, which are associated with exacerbation of disease-associated inflammatory responses and progression of the disease and ultimately leads to death for some critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Time Factors
20.
Liver Int ; 40(10): 2394-2406, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a relevant threat for humans worldwide. Abnormality in liver function tests (LFTs) has been commonly observed in patients with COVID-19, but there is controversy on its clinical significance. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, the characteristics and the clinical impact of abnormal LFTs in hospitalized, non-critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective study, we collected data about 565 inpatients with COVID-19. Data on LFTs were collected at admission and every 7 ± 2 days during the hospitalization. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of death or transfer to intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Upon admission 329 patients (58%) had LFTs abnormality. Patients with abnormal LFTs had more severe inflammation and higher degree of organ dysfunction than those without. During hospitalization, patients with abnormal LFTs had a higher rate of transfer to ICU (20% vs 8%; P < .001), acute kidney injury (22% vs 13%, P = .009), need for mechanical ventilation (14% vs 6%; P = .005) and mortality (21% vs 11%; P = .004) than those without. In multivariate analysis, patients with abnormal LFTs had a higher risk of the composite endpoint of death or transfer to ICU (OR = 3.53; P < .001). During the hospitalization, 86 patients developed de novo LFTs abnormality, which was associated with the use of tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir and acetaminophen and not clearly associated with the composite endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: LFTs abnormality is common at admission in patients with COVID-19, is associated with systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction and is an independent predictor of transfer to ICU or death.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Diseases , Liver Function Tests , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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