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1.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(8): e160921189886, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625780

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV 2) infection emerged in Wuhan, China and spread to all countries making the first pandemic of the 21st century. It seems that this infection will persist which is long enough to obligate modifications in both lifestyle and health care systems. Because chronic liver diseases (CLD) are prevalent all over the world, it is expected to manage patients with CLD and COVID-19. The aim of this review was to shed light on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the management of patients with CLD and how to give medical care to CLD patients during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 23(1): 1-6, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had considerable effects on health care services given the need for re-allocation of resources and interruption of medical care. COVID-19 poses a challenge to patients with liver disease who are at risk of infection and more severe disease course. The current study aimed to assess the incidence of COVID-19 in children with liver diseases and evaluate the extent to which health care delivery was affected during lockdown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Children's Hospital utilized a questionnaire to determine the incidence of COVID-19 in patients with liver diseases and the impact of COVID-19 on the patients' liver condition and health care service delivery. A presumed score was implemented to identify patients with probable COVID-19. RESULTS: Data from 349 children with liver diseases were analyzed. The overall incidence of COVID-19 was 8%. Patients with documented and probable COVID-19 were compared to improbable COVID-19 cases. Notably, COVID-19 cases were younger and had higher incidence rates of cholestatic liver diseases. COVID-19 patients experienced significantly higher rates of hepatic complications (43%) and had significantly greater need for medical services during the lockdown. All COVID-19 patients recovered after a median (IQR) duration of 3 (4) days, except for one patient who succumbed to COVID-19 and hepatic complications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 affected the younger hepatic patients with cholestatic disorders of infancy. Hepatic complications were more common among COVID-19 infected children. Alternative ways of communication require development to prioritize patients who needs a hospital visit and monitoring. Clinical scores may help diagnosis of COVID-19 in low/middle income countries like Egypt to compensate for the deficient laboratory diagnostic facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Hepatol ; 27(1): 100653, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588313

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has increasingly attracted worldwide concern. Liver damage or dysfunction occurred in patients with COVID-19 (mainly characterized by moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels). However, it is not yet clear whether the COVID-19-related liver injury is mainly caused by the virus infection, potentially hepatotoxic drugs, or other coexisting conditions. Progression of pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) may be the underlying mechanism of liver injury. Although COVID-19 patients with CLD, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer, have been deemed at increased risk for serious illness in many studies, little is known about the impact of CLD on the natural history and outcome of COVID-19 patients. Thereby, based on the latest evidence from case reports and case series, this paper discusses the clinical manifestations, treatment, prognosis, and management of the COVID-19 patients with different CLD. This article also reviews the effect of COVID-19 on liver transplantation patients (LT), hoping to work for future prevention, management, and control measures of COVID-19. However, due to the lack of relevant research, most of them are still limited to the theoretical stage, further study of COVID-19 and CLD needs to be improved in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Diseases/surgery , Pandemics , Prognosis
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(45): 7855-7858, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580320

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe liver disease who have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (coronavirus disease 2019) frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure, with a high mortality rate, as a result of the hyper-proinflammatory state known as the cytokine storm. Clinicians must recognize cytokine storms earlier to avoid intensive care admission and multi-organ damage, a critical life-threatening condition with prognostic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(42): 7350-7361, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is known to cause abnormal hepatic enzymes. The long term consequences of such elevations are uncertain. AIM: To assessed the prevalence and prognostic value of initial liver enzymes in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical records of 10614 COVID-19 patients without known chronic liver disease who were admitted to our health system from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. We analyzed baseline demographics and liver chemistries. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality or need for mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Subjects with abnormal liver tests had increased risks of mortality and composite outcome when compared to patients with normal measurements on unadjusted analysis and after adjustment for demographic factors. CONCLUSION: In our diverse patient population, liver enzyme abnormalities are associated with increased mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation in subjects without chronic liver disease. Cholestasis patients are at the greatest risk for poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(4): 237-255, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395708

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health challenge. Assessing the effect of COVID-19 on liver injury is of great importance. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to establish the characteristics of liver function tests in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A systematic search of publications from December 2019 up to April 2020 in Web of Science, Scopus, and Medline (via PubMed) databases was performed. Both cross-sectional and case series studies reporting an association between liver injury and COVID-19 infection were included. The data were analyzed using the STATA software (version 11.0) and the random-effects model for I2>50% was used to pool the results. Results: In this meta-analysis, 42 articles comprising a total of 6,557 COVID-19 patients were studied. The prevalence of increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was 30% and 21% in non-severe patients and 38% and 48% in severe patients, respectively. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection were 4.22, 4.96, and 4.13 times more likely to have elevated AST, ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, respectively. Conclusion: Elevation in liver function tests was higher in patients with severe than non-severe COVID-19 infection. Given the widespread use of drugs that increases the risk of hepatotoxicity, healthcare providers should be aware of changes in liver enzymes in COVID-19 patients. The inclusion of other studies from outside China could confirm the pattern of elevation in liver function tests in COVID-19 patients across the globe. Preprint of this article is available on medRxiv, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.20.20108357v1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Liver/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology
9.
J Hepatol ; 75(6): 1434-1439, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver transplant (LT) recipients or other immunocompromised patients were not included in the registration trials studying the efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Although the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised patients is unknown, many societies have recommended vaccination of this highly vulnerable patient population. METHODS: In this prospective study, we determined antibody responses to spike protein, 4 weeks after the 2nd dose of mRNA vaccines or after the single dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine, in LT recipients and those with chronic liver disease (CLD) with and without cirrhosis. RESULTS: Of the 233 patients enrolled so far, 62 were LT recipients, 79 had cirrhosis (10 decompensated) and 92 had CLD without cirrhosis. Antibody titers were defined as undetectable (<0.40 U/ml), suboptimal (0.40-250 U/ml) and adequate (>250 U/ml). Of the 62 patients who had LT, antibody levels were undetectable in 11 patients and suboptimal (median titer 17.6, range 0.47-212 U/ml) in 27 patients. Among 79 patients with cirrhosis, 3 had undetectable antibody levels and 15 had suboptimal (median titer 41.3, range 0.49-221 U/L) antibody responses. Of the 92 patients without cirrhosis, 4 had undetectable antibody levels and 19 had suboptimal (median titer 95.5, range 4.9-234 U/L) antibody responses. Liver transplantation, use of 2 or more immunosuppression medications and vaccination with a single dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine were associated with poor immune response on multivariable analysis. No patient had any serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Poor antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were seen in 61% of LT recipients and 24% of those with CLD. LAY SUMMARY: The clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised patients is unknown. We performed a prospective study to evaluate immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna, Pfizer or Johnson & Johnson) in 62 liver transplant recipients, 79 patients with cirrhosis and 92 with chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis. We found that 17.8% of liver transplant recipients, 3.8% of those with cirrhosis and 4.3% of those with chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis had undetectable antibody levels. In total, 61.3% of liver transplant recipients and 24% of those with chronic liver diseases (with or without cirrhosis) had poor antibody responses (undetectable or suboptimal). Liver transplantation, use of immunosuppressive medications and vaccination with a single dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine were associated with poor antibody responses when adjusted for other factors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Liver Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
10.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 46(2): 101793, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363934

ABSTRACT

Currently, there have been more than one hundred million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with two million deaths worldwide. This has caused a huge medical burden. Severe COVID-19 patients can experience multi-organ damage, including cardiac injury, kidney injury, and liver injury. About 2.0%-4.9% of COVID-19 cases involve patients with preexisting liver diseases. Additionally, preexisting liver diseases were reported and associated with severity (odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) = 1.48-1.70) and mortality (OR or RR = 1.08-2.65) among COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the prevalence of liver injury was 16%-29% in COVID-19 patients. Higher prevalence of liver injury may worsen prognosis in patients (severity: OR or RR = 1.9-2.6; mortality: OR or RR = 1.1-4.0). The mechanisms of this association between liver injury and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection are complex, including direct cholangiocyte damage induced by SARS-COV-2, cytokine storm, and drug-induced liver injury. In particular, drug-induced liver injury may be the most important reason. This review discusses the epidemiology of COVID-19 and liver dysfunction as well as potential mechanisms underlying the association between COVID-19 and liver dysfunction or other preexisting liver diseases. However, the association between preexisting liver diseases and COVID-19 prognosis and potential mechanisms underlying these associations require further prospective studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(1): 4-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341285

ABSTRACT

Globally, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) has been a major cause for significant morbidity and mortality. Since the start of the pandemic, several hepato-biliary manifestations in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described and unique considerations raised. The review aims to summarize the pathogenesis and hepato-biliary manifestations in COVID-19 and discuss the similarities, contrasting features and disease-specific management across a range of hepato-biliary diseases from the EAST and the WEST. Published studies and regional society guidelines from the EAST and the WEST were comprehensively reviewed and summarized. A wide range of hepato-biliary manifestations, including the infrequent and chronic manifestation of cholangiopathy, has been observed in COVID-19. The pathogenesis of liver injury is multifactorial and with scant evidence for a direct SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer are potentially at increased risk for severe COVID-19, and there are unique considerations in chronic hepatitis B or C, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in those immunosuppressed such as autoimmune hepatitis or liver transplant recipients. With the surges in SARS-CoV-2 infection, liver transplant activity has variably been impacted. Preliminarily, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines appear to be safe in those with chronic liver disease and in transplant recipients, while emerging data suggest the need for a third dose in immunosuppressed patients. In conclusion, patients with chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis, and liver transplant recipients, are vulnerable to severe COVID-19. Over the past year, several unique considerations have been highlighted across a spectrum of hepato-biliary diseases. Vaccination is strongly recommended for those with chronic liver disease and liver transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(28): 4504-4535, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335269

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has become an international danger to human health. Although respiratory transmission and symptoms are still the essential manifestations of COVID-19, the digestive system could be an unconventional or supplementary route for COVID-19 to be transmitted and manifested, most likely due to the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 can trigger hepatic injury via direct binding to the ACE2 receptor in cholangiocytes, antibody-dependent enhancement of infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, inflammatory cytokine storms, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and adverse events of treatment drugs. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which are unusual in patients with COVID-19, and some digestive signs may occur without other respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can be found in infected patients' stool, demonstrating the likelihood of transmission through the fecal-oral route. In addition, liver function should be monitored during COVID-19, particularly in more severe cases. This review summarizes the evidence for extra-pulmonary manifestations, mechanisms, and management of COVID-19, particularly those related to the gastrointestinal tract and liver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Liver Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14054, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307339

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there have been health concerns related to alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to examine the population-level change in cases of alcohol-related liver disease and pancreatitis that required admission during the COVID-19 epidemic by interrupted time series (ITS) analysis using claims data. We defined the period from April 2020, when the Japanese government declared a state of emergency, as the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic. This ITS analysis included 3,026,389 overall admissions and 10,242 admissions for alcohol-related liver disease or pancreatitis from 257 hospitals between July 2018 and June 2020. The rate of admissions per 1000 admissions during the COVID-19 epidemic period (April 2020-June 2020) was 1.2 times (rate ratio: 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.33) compared to the pre-epidemic period. Analyses stratified by sex revealed that the increases in admission rates of alcohol-related liver disease or pancreatitis for females were higher than for males during the COVID-19 epidemic period. The COVID-19 epidemic in Japan might associates an increase in hospital admissions for alcohol-related liver disease and pancreatitis. Our study could support the concern of alcohol consumption and health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Alcohol-Related Disorders/complications , Alcohol-Related Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Health Policy , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(12): 2664-2666.e2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306898

ABSTRACT

Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis accounts for approximately 2 million deaths annually worldwide. CLD and cirrhosis-related mortality has increased steadily in the United States.1,2 With the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), patients with CLD and cirrhosis represent a vulnerable population at higher risk for complications and mortality.3,4 Although high mortality from COVID-19 among patients with CLD and cirrhosis have been reported,5 national trends in mortality related to CLD and cirrhosis before and during the COVID-19 pandemic have not been assessed. This study estimated the temporal quarterly trends in CLD and cirrhosis-related mortality in the United States from 2017 Q1 to 2020 Q3 using provisional data releases from the National Vital Statistics System.6,7.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
15.
Liver Int ; 41(9): 1988-1998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276751

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China and has since resulted in a global pandemic in excess of 165 million reported infections and 3.4 million attributable deaths. COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, which may be complicated by pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 is also responsible for numerous extrapulmonary manifestations involving the haematologic, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary, endocrinologic, neurologic, ophthalmologic and dermatologic systems. This review will discuss the pathophysiology of COVID-19; focusing on the mechanisms and outcomes of liver injury associated with COVID-19; its impact on chronic liver disease (CLD); management of CLD during the COVID-19 pandemic and the long-term impact of COVID-19 on CLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11734, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258596

ABSTRACT

To explore the role of chronic liver disease (CLD) in COVID-19. A total of 1439 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from one large medical center in the United States from March 16, 2020 to April 23, 2020 were retrospectively identified. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients with and without CLD. Postmortem examination of liver in 8 critically ill COVID-19 patients was performed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CLD between critical and non-critical groups (4.1% vs 2.9%, p = 0.259), or COVID-19 related liver injury between patients with and without CLD (65.7% vs 49.7%, p = 0.065). Postmortem examination of liver demonstrated mild liver injury associated central vein outflow obstruction and minimal to moderate portal lymphocytic infiltrate without evidence of CLD. Patients with CLD were not associated with a higher risk of liver injury or critical/fatal outcomes. CLD was not a significant comorbid condition for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , United States/epidemiology
17.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(7): e14061, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2019, SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 emerged. Severe COVID-19 symptoms may evolve by virtue of hyperactivation of the immune system. Equally, immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk to develop COVID-19. However, treatment guidelines for children following liver transplantation are elusive. METHODS: As a liver transplantation center, we diagnosed and followed up 10 children (male/female: 8/2) with a median age of 8.5 years (IQR: 5.2-11.0), with COVID-19 post-liver transplant between March 2019 and December 2020. COVID-19 diagnosis was based on PCR test and or florid X-ray findings compatible with COVID-19 in the absence of other cause. We retrospectively collected clinical and laboratory data from electronic patient records following written consent from patients/parents. RESULTS: Nine patients were diagnosed as definitive (PCR positive) with one patient being diagnosed as probable COVID-19. Seven patients recovered without any support whereas three were admitted for non-invasive oxygenation. Lymphopenia and/or high levels of serum IL-6 were detected in four patients. Six patients mounted anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at median 30 days (IQR: 26.5-119.0) following COVID-19 diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy, favipiravir, anakinra, and IVIG were used as treatment in 4,1,1 and 2 patients, respectively. Furthermore, we kept the tacrolimus with or without everolimus but stopped MMF in 2 patients. Importantly, liver allograft function was retained in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that being immunocompromised did not affect disease severity nor survival. Stopping MMF yet continuing with tacrolimus was an apt treatment modality in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Liver Diseases/surgery , Liver Transplantation , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Infant , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
18.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 393-398, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of increased serum pancreatic enzymes (PEs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not yet been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the frequency and the impact on clinical outcome of PE elevation and acute pancreatitis in such patients. METHODS: Clinical data, laboratory tests, and cross-sectional images were analyzed from COVID-19 patients admitted to the Tor Vergata Hospital in Rome. Variables associated with PE abnormalities, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death were investigated through univariate and multivariate analyses and Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pancreatic enzymes were available in 254 of 282 COVID-19 patients. Among these, 66 patients (26%) showed mild elevation of PE, and 11 patients (4.3%) had severe elevation (>3 times of the upper limit of normal). Overall, 2 patients met the diagnostic criteria for acute pancreatitis. Hepatic and renal involvements were associated with PE elevation. Multivariate analysis showed that mild and severe PE elevations were significantly associated with ICU admission (odds ratios, 5.51 [95% confidence interval, 2.36-12.89; P < 0.0001] and 26.2 [95% confidence interval, 4.82-142.39; P < 0.0001]). CONCLUSIONS: Increase in serum PE, but not acute pancreatitis, is frequent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and associates with ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pancreas/enzymology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/enzymology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10599, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236092

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggest association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with the development of many liver abnormalities. The overarching aim of this study was therefore to assess the available evidence on the clinical effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the profiles of liver chemistries and coagulation in COVID-19 diagnosed patients. We considered all study designs including epidemiological and observational that reported liver function test abnormalities in patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Medline, Embase databases and Google Scholar as well as relevant reviews were searched to identify appropriate studies from inception to 31st of August 2020. We calculated the pooled mean with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) through a random-effect model meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies with 10,692 participants were considered for the review from which 23 studies with sufficient quantitative data were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled mean for liver enzymes and coagulation parameters did not significantly change in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and remained within normal range. Notwithstanding potential bias from confounding factors in interpretation of data in this review, findings from the observational studies and case reports suggest that COVID-19 does not appear to have a significant impact on the transaminases or total bilirubin levels of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further controlled studies and larger sample size observational studies are needed with adequate reporting of other liver function parameters are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(8): 472-480, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235898

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has proven to be a serious challenge for the Spanish healthcare system. The impact of the virus on the liver is not well known, but in patients with chronic liver disease, mostly in advanced stages, it can critically compromise survival and trigger decompensation. Treatment in this subpopulation is complex due to the potential hepatotoxicity of some of the medicinal products used. Moreover, the pandemic has also negatively impacted patients with liver disease who have not contracted COVID-19, since the reallocation of human and material resources to the care of patients with the virus has resulted in a decrease in the treatment, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with liver disease, which will surely have negative consequences in the near future. Efficient reorganization of hepatology units is a priority to minimise the impact of the pandemic on a population as vulnerable as liver disease patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bile Ducts/virology , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Gastroenterology/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Hepatitis, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Liver Function Tests , Liver Transplantation , Obesity/epidemiology , Resource Allocation , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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