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1.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(2): 255-269, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525435

ABSTRACT

Liver injury, characterized predominantly by elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, is a common feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with acute-on-chronic liver failure in patients with cirrhosis and has a notably elevated mortality in patients with alcohol-related liver disease compared to other etiologies. Direct viral infection of the liver with SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial, and alternative pathophysiologic explanations for its hepatic effects are an area of active investigation. In this review, we discuss the effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the inflammatory environment it creates on endothelial cells and platelets more generally and then with a hepatic focus. In doing this, we present vascular inflammation and thrombosis as a potential mechanism of liver injury and liver-related complications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelet Disorders/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Inflammation/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Blood Platelet Disorders/immunology , Blood Platelet Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
2.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(2): 270-280, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384171

ABSTRACT

Liver test abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are associated with worse prognosis. However, information is limited about pathological changes in the liver in this infection, so the mechanism of liver injury is unclear. Here we describe liver histopathology and clinical correlates of 27 patients who died of COVID-19 in Manaus, Brazil. There was a high prevalence of liver injury (elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in 44% and 48% of patients, respectively) in these patients. Histological analysis showed sinusoidal congestion and ischemic necrosis in more than 85% of the cases, but these appeared to be secondary to systemic rather than intrahepatic thrombotic events, as only 14% and 22% of samples were positive for CD61 (marker of platelet activation) and C4d (activated complement factor), respectively. Furthermore, the extent of these vascular findings did not correlate with the extent of transaminase elevations. Steatosis was present in 63% of patients, and portal inflammation was present in 52%. In most cases, hepatocytes expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is responsible for binding and entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), even though this ectoenzyme was minimally expressed on hepatocytes in normal controls. However, SARS-CoV-2 staining was not observed. Most hepatocytes also expressed inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 3 (ITPR3), a calcium channel that becomes expressed in acute liver injury. Conclusion: The hepatocellular injury that commonly occurs in patients with severe COVID-19 is not due to the vascular events that contribute to pulmonary or cardiac damage. However, new expression of ACE2 and ITPR3 with concomitant inflammation and steatosis suggests that liver injury may result from inflammation, metabolic abnormalities, and perhaps direct viral injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(6): 101752, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 has primary pulmonary impairment, but other organs such as the liver can also be affected. This implies a worsening of patient's prognosis and an increase in morbidity and mortality. The metabolic pathways and molecular factors involved in the genesis of this injury are still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to carry out an integrative review about the pathophysiology and possible molecular mechanisms of liver injury by COVID-19. METHODS: We carried out an integrative literature review in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Embase from December 2020 to March 2021 using the following descriptors: # 1 "COVID-19" (MeSH) AND / OR # 2 "Liver injury" (MeSH) AND / OR # 3 "Pathophysiology" (MesH). RESULTS: The data were extracted and divided into two main themes, for heuristic purposes: "Hepatotropism and SARS-CoV-2", and "Pathophysiological hypotheses for liver injury associated with SARS-CoV-2". CONCLUSIONS: The virus seems to promote liver damage through five mechanisms: direct injury, humoral and cellular inflammatory response, hypoxemia caused by a decrease in the effective circulating volume, reinfection through the portal system, and use of drugs in the treatment. The literature also points out that the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme II and transmembrane serine protease 2 receptors is expressive in cholangiocyte and is present in hepatocytes, which is a risk factor for the virus to enter these cells. Finally, patients with previous liver disease appear to be more susceptible to liver injury by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Risk Factors
4.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 104, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlation. The pathognomonic sign of HS is cutaneous hyperpigmentation located mainly in the inner thighs and often accompanied by other systemic manifestations. Improvement after tocilizumab treatment has been reported in a few patients with HS. We report the first patient with HS who presented cardiogenic shock, multiorgan infiltration, and digital ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: 8-year-old boy born to consanguineous parents of Moroccan origin who was admitted to the intensive care unit during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with tachypnoea, tachycardia, and oliguria. Echocardiography showed dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction compatible with cardiogenic shock. Additionally, he presented with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection by chromatographic immunoassay were negative. A previously ordered gene panel for pre-existing sensorineural hearing loss showed a pathological mutation in the SCL29A3 gene compatible with H syndrome. Computed tomography scan revealed extensive alveolar infiltrates in the lungs and multiple poor defined hypodense lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys; adenopathy; and cardiomegaly with left ventricle subendocardial nodules. Invasive mechanical ventilation, broad antibiotic and antifungal coverage showed no significant response. Therefore, Tocilizumab as compassionate use together with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. Improvement was impressive leading to normalization of inflammation markers, liver and kidney function, and stabilising heart function. Two weeks later, he was discharged and has been clinically well since then on two weekly administration of Tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most severe disease course produced by HS described so far in the literature. Our patient's manifestations included uncommon, new complications such as acute heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction, multi-organ cell infiltrate, and digital ischemia. Most of the clinical symptoms of our patient could have been explained by SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating the importance of a detailed differential diagnosis to ensure optimal treatment. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of HS remains uncertain, the good response of our patient to Tocilizumab makes a case for the important role of IL-6 in this syndrome and for considering Tocilizumab as a first-line treatment, at least in severely affected patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/diagnosis , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/physiopathology , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/genetics , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/physiopathology , Splenic Diseases/therapy , Toes/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
5.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(7): 750-765, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges in all fields of society with social, economic, and health-related consequences worldwide. In this context, gastroenterology patients and healthcare systems and professionals have seen their routines changed and were forced to adapt, adopting measures to minimize the risk of infection while guaranteeing continuous medical care to chronic patients. OBJECTIVE: At this point, it is important to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on this field to further improve the quality of the services provided in this context. METHODS/RESULTS/CONCLUSION: We performed a literature review that summarizes the main aspects to consider in gastroenterology, during the pandemic crisis, and includes a deep discussion on the main changes affecting gastroenterology patients and healthcare systems, anticipating the pandemic recovery scenario with future practices and policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Delivery of Health Care , Gastroenterology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Management , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25913, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262273

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and liver injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and analyze the differences between suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients, this retrospective study was performed on 157 COVID-19 patients and 93 suspected patients who were ultimately excluded from COVID-19 (control patients). Differences in clinical characteristics and liver injury between suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Age, male sex, fever, chest tightness and dyspnea were related to the severity of COVID-19. C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer may be predictors of the severity of COVID-19. Computed tomography (CT) played an important role in the screening of COVID-19 and the evaluation of disease severity. Multiple factors may cause liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be more likely to cause liver injury than common respiratory infectious diseases. Age, temperature (T), white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LY), hematocrit (HCT), CRP, and finger pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) may correlate with liver function impairment and may predict the occurrence and severity of liver function impairment. Some therapeutic drugs (like glucocorticoid) may be involved in the liver function impairment of COVID-19 patients. Most liver function indices improved significantly after active treatment. Although COVID-19 and other common respiratory infectious diseases share some clinical characteristics, COVID-19 has its own characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(3): 303-308, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver function tests (LFT) are common in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vary from 15% to 53%. There are scanty data  from India on the prevalence of liver injury in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We did this retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital, Chennai, India. Patients aged >18 years admitted with COVID-19 from May 1, 2020, to May 31, 2020, were included. We noted the demographic details, symptoms at presentation, history of pre-existing illnesses, and laboratory tests. We also recorded the patient's clinical course and outcome. RESULTS: We took 445 patients for final analysis. Aspartate transaminase (AST) was borderline elevated in 47.5%, mildly elevated in 11.2%, moderately elevated in 2% and severely in 0.7%. Alanine transaminase (ALT) was borderline elevated in 28.7%, mildly elevated in 11.4%, and moderately elevated in 1.3%. Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were abnormal in only 19 (4.2%) and 15 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Patients with abnormal LFT were more likely to be symptomatic (90.3% vs. 80.6%, p 0.002). Respiratory symptoms (43.5% vs. 29.7%) and loose stools (11.4% vs. 3.4%) were also more common among them. Patients with abnormal LFT were more likely to have severe disease (25.2% vs. 13.6%, p value 0.003) and mortality (8.8% vs. 0.7%). CONCLUSION: Liver test abnormalities were widespread in patients with COVID-19. Most of the patients had borderline or mild transaminase elevation. Despite only mild changes, patients with abnormal LFT were more likely to be symptomatic and had more severe disease and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , India , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 835-853, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injury is common and also can be fatal, particularly in severe or critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM: To conduct an in-depth investigation into the risk factors for liver injury and into the effective measures to prevent subsequent mortality risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 440 consecutive patients with relatively severe COVID-19 between January 28 and March 9, 2020 at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and prognosis were collected. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated liver injury more frequently occurred in patients aged ≥ 65 years, female patients, or those with other comorbidities, decreased lymphocyte count, or elevated D-dimer or serum ferritin (P < 0.05). The disease severity of COVID-19 was an independent risk factor for liver injury (severe patients: Odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-4.59; critical patients: OR = 13.44, 95%CI: 7.21-25.97). The elevated levels of on-admission aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin indicated an increased mortality risk (P < 0.001). Using intravenous nutrition or antibiotics increased the risk of COVID-19-associated liver injury. Hepatoprotective drugs tended to be of assistance to treat the liver injury and improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19-associated liver injury. CONCLUSION: More intensive monitoring of aspartate aminotransferase or total bilirubin is recommended for COVID-19 patients, especially patients aged ≥ 65 years, female patients, or those with other comorbidities. Drug hepatotoxicity of antibiotics and intravenous nutrition should be alert for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/mortality , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(5): e204-e205, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085313

ABSTRACT

Liver dysfunction is highlighted by several studies as a relevant complication in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We present a pediatric patient with mild phenotype but transient severe liver injury. Hepatic damage should be considered even in mild cases of the disease to ensure prompt recognition and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , Humans , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 33(3): e14104, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestation in up to one fifth of patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors triggering a cascade of events leading to mucosal and systemic inflammation. Symptomatic patients display changes in gut microbiota composition and function which may contribute to intestinal barrier dysfunction and immune activation. Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mucosal inflammation impact on the function of the enteric nervous system and the activation of sensory fibers conveying information to the central nervous system, which, may at least in part, contribute symptom generation such as vomiting and diarrhea described in COVID-19. Liver and pancreas dysfunctions have also been described as non-respiratory complications of COVID-19 and add further emphasis to the common view of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement. PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to highlight the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the crosstalk with the gut microbiota, the fecal-oral route of virus transmission, and the potential interaction of the virus with the enteric nervous system. We also review the current available data on gastrointestinal and liver manifestations, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Animals , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/virology , Enteric Nervous System/physiopathology , Enteric Nervous System/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pancreatic Diseases/etiology , Pancreatic Diseases/physiopathology , Pancreatic Diseases/virology
11.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(7): 151284, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030195

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses unique challenges to the medical community as the optimal treatment has not been determined and is often at the discretion of institutional guidelines. Pregnancy has previously been described as a high-risk state in the context of infectious diseases, given a particular susceptibility to pathogens and adverse outcomes. Although ongoing studies have provided insight on the course of this disease in the adult population, the implications of COVID-19 on pregnancy remains an understudied area. The objective of this study is to review the literature and describe clinical presentations among pregnant women afflicted with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Asymptomatic Infections , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , HELLP Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Hypercapnia , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Mass Screening , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
12.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(2): 125-135, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 is mainly a respiratory virus that has relevant systemic effects. We assessed the impact of baseline liver function (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], bilirubin) on COVID-19-related outcomes, including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and non-fatal severe complications. METHODS: after a systematic review of the relevant studies the odds ratio (OR), mean difference, sensitivity, specificity, and both positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the prediction of relevant COVID-19 outcomes by performing a meta-analysis using fixed and random effects models. A Fagan nomogram was used to assess clinical usefulness. Heterogeneity was explored by sensitivity analysis and univariate meta-regression. RESULTS: twenty-six studies were included (22 studies and 5,271 patients for AST, 20 studies and 5,440 subjects for ALT, and nine studies and 3,542 patients for bilirubin). The outcomes assessed by these studies were: survival (n = 8), ICU admission (n = 4), and non-fatal severe complications (n = 16). AST > upper limit of normal (ULN) (OR: 3.10 [95 % CI, 2.61-3.68]), ALT > ULN (OR: 2.15 [95 % CI, 1.43-3.23]), and bilirubin > ULN (OR: 2.78 [95 % CI, 1.88-4.13]) were associated with an increased prevalence of severe complications with a specificity of 78 %, 77 %, and 94 %, respectively. The mean difference between mild and severe COVID-19 was 10.7 U/l (95 % CI, 5.8-15.6) for AST, 8 U/l (95 % CI, 1.0-15) for ALT, and 0.3 mg/dl (95 % CI, 0.16-0.45) for bilirubin. CONCLUSIONS: patients showing liver injury had a significantly higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 as compared to those with normal liver function tests at admission. We should include the assessment of AST, ALT, and total bilirubin (TB) routinely in the workup of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 in order to predict those at risk of developing COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 1-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940825

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the least deadly but most infectious coronavirus strain transmitted from wild animals. It may affect many organ systems. Aim of the current guideline is to delineate the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver. Asymptomatic aminotransferase elevations are common in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Its pathogenesis may be multifactorial. It may involve primary liver injury and indirect effects such as "bystander hepatitis," myositis, toxic liver injury, hypoxia, and preexisting liver disease. Higher aminotransferase elevations, lower albumin, and platelets have been reported in severe compared with mild COVID-19. Despite the dominance of respiratory disease, acute on chronic liver disease/acute hepatic decompensation have been reported in patients with COVID-19 and preexisting liver disease, in particular cirrhosis. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has a higher risk of respiratory disease progression than those without MAFLD. Alcohol-associated liver disease may be severely affected by COVID-19-such patients frequently have comorbidities including metabolic syndrome and smoking-induced chronic lung disease. World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO) recommends that interventional procedures such as endoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be performed in emergency cases or when they are considered strictly necessary such as high risk varices or cholangitis. Hepatocellular cancer surveillance may be postponed by 2 to 3 months. A short delay in treatment initiation and non-surgical approaches should be considered. Liver transplantation should be restricted to patients with high MELD scores, acute liver failure and hepatocellular cancer within Milan criteria. Donors and recipients should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 and if found positive donors should be excluded and liver transplantation postponed until recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(2): 267-275, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), became a global threat to human health. Liver impairment has been frequently reported as a common manifestation, although its clinical significance is still unclear, particularly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD). AIMS: To summarise the changes in liver function tests during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact of COVID-19 in patients with underlying CLD. METHODS: A literature review using online database PubMed was done using the search terms "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "liver", "cirrhosis" and "liver transplantation". RESULTS: COVID-19 is frequently associated with different degrees of abnormal liver function tests, most notably transaminases, which are usually transitory and of mild degree. Available evidence suggests that liver injury may result from direct pathogenic effect by the virus, systemic inflammation or toxicity from commonly used drugs in this subset of patients. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is associated with minimal or no increase in liver enzymes, thus the presence of abnormal liver function tests should trigger evaluation for underlying liver diseases. Although it seems that patients with CLD are not at greater risk for acquiring the infection, those with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases or liver transplant may have a greater risk for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal liver function tests during the course of COVID-19 are common, though clinically significant liver injury is rare. Further research is needed focusing on the effect of existing liver-related comorbidities on treatment and outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 140S-147S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. To date, the analysis of fatal cases and the risk factors for death have rarely been reported. METHODS: In this study, 220 adult patients with confirmed and suspected COVID-19 were enrolled. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatments, and complications were compared between 168 survivors and 52 nonsurvivors. Univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 220 patients (168 were discharged and 52 died in the hospital) were enrolled in the study. The median age of all patients was 59.5 (47.0-69.0) years, and the median age of patients who died was significantly older than that of patients who survived (70.5 vs 56.0 years, respectively; P < .001). According to multivariate logistic regression, older age (odds ratio: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15; P = .001), initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score >2 (37.4, 9.4-148.0; P = .011), and respiratory rate >24 per minute (10.89, 1.47-80.67; P = .019) were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory parameters predicting poor prognosis including older age, baseline SOFA score >2, and respiratory rate >24 per minute were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Respiratory Rate , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , China , Comorbidity , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy
16.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-910811

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
17.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(1): 198-209, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits many extrapulmonary manifestations, including liver injury. This scoping review aimed to provide insight into the incidence, patterns, risk factors, histopathological findings, and relationship with disease severity of COVID-19-associated liver injury. Furthermore, we identified existing gaps in the research on the hepatic manifestations of COVID-19 and highlighted areas for future investigations. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O'Mallay. Five online databases, along with grey literature, were searched for articles published until 22 May 2020, and we included 62 articles in the review. The research domains, methodological characteristics, and key conclusions were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Retrospective observational studies comprised more than one third (41.9%) of the included publications, and 77.8% were conducted on living patients. The incidence of liver injury varied widely across the studies (4.8%-78%), and liver injury was frequently associated with severe COVID-19. We identified the following risk factors for liver injury: male sex, lymphopoenia, gastrointestinal involvement, old age, increased neutrophil count, and the use of hepatotoxic drugs. Histopathological findings indicate that COVID-19 has direct cytopathic effects and causes liver function test derangements secondary to inflammation, hypoxia, and vascular insult. CONCLUSIONS: Liver injury following COVID-19 infection is common and primarily hepatocellular, with a greater elevation of aspartate aminotransferase tahn of alanine aminotransferase. However, the evidence regarding hepatic failure secondary to COVID-19 is insufficient. Standardised criteria to diagnose liver injury need to be devised. Current use of hepatotoxic drugs necessitates close monitoring of liver function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Ups J Med Sci ; 125(4): 293-296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently breaking out worldwide. COVID-19 patients may have different degrees of coagulopathy, but the mechanism is not yet clear. We aimed to analyse the relationship between coagulation dysfunction and liver damage in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the First People's Hospital of Yueyang from 1 January to 30 March 2020 was carried out. According to the coagulation function, 27 cases entered the coagulopathy group and 47 cases entered the control group. A case control study was conducted to analyse the correlation between the occurrence of coagulation dysfunction and liver damage in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), markers of liver damage, were positively correlated with coagulopathy (p = 0.039, OR 2.960, 95% CI 1.055-8.304; and p = 0.028, OR 3.352, 95% CI 1.137-9.187). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were not statistically correlated with coagulopathy. According to the diagnosis and treatment plan, the included cases were classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical. The results showed that the occurrence of coagulation dysfunction had no statistical correlation with the severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Coagulation dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 is closely related to liver damage. A longer course of the disease may cause a vicious circle of coagulopathy and liver damage. Clinicians need to closely monitor coagulation and liver function tests and to give prophylactic or supportive therapy when needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 283: 103548, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, the current medical emergency for novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) leads to respiratory distress syndrome and death. PURPOSE: This review highlighted the effect of COVID-19 on systemic multiple organ failure syndromes. This review is intended to fill a gap in information about human physiological response to COVID-19 infections. This review may shed some light on other potential mechanisms and approaches in COVID -19 infections towards systemic multiorgan failure syndromes. FINDING: SARS-CoV-2 intervened mainly in the lung with progression to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2) receptor. Depending on the viral load, infection spread through the ACE2 receptor further to various organs such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, endothelium, GIT, immune cell, and RBC (thromboembolism). This may be aggravated by cytokine storm with the extensive release of proinflammatory cytokines from the deregulating immune system. CONCLUSION: The widespread and vicious combinations of cytokines with organ crosstalk contribute to systemic hyper inflammation and ultimately lead to multiple organ dysfunction (Fig. 1). This comprehensive study comprises various manifestations of different organs in COVID-19 and may assist the clinicians and scientists pertaining to a broad approach to fight COVID 19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Heart Failure/immunology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Lung/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Viral Load
20.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(3): e12977, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760191

ABSTRACT

In the natural history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, liver injury is frequent but quite mild and it is defined as any liver damage occurring during disease progression and treatment of infection in patients with or without pre-existing liver diseases. The underlying mechanisms for hepatic injury in patients with COVID-19 are still unclear but the liver damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be directly caused by virus-induced cytopathic effects. In this review, we will summarize all data of updated literature, regarding the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, acute response and liver involvement. An overview will be given on liver injury, liver transplant and the possible consequences of COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Hepatocytes/immunology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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