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World J Gastroenterol ; 27(5): 377-390, 2021 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081093


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undoubtedly revolutionized the whole globe and given a new point of view on respiratory tract infections. Nevertheless, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cannot be perceived as a disease limited only to pneumonia with diverse severity. More and more reports have demonstrated a wide range of possible systemic symptoms, including hepatic complications. Liver injury has been observed in a significant proportion of patients, especially in those with a severe or critical illness. COVID-19 might provoke a deterioration of liver function in patients with already diagnosed chronic liver diseases and without pre-existing liver disorders. The deterioration of liver function worsens the prognosis, increases the risk of a severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and prolongs the hospital stay. In general, patients who develop liver dysfunction in COVID-19 are mainly males, elderly people, and those with higher body mass index. The underlying mechanisms for hepatic failure in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are still unclear, nevertheless liver damage appears to be directly connected with virus-induced cytopathic effects. A liver injury observed during hospitalization might be simultaneously caused by the use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs, mainly antiviral agents. This minireview focuses on a possible relationship between COVID-19 and the liver, potential molecular mechanisms of liver damage, the characteristics of liver injury and suggested factors predisposing to hepatic manifestations in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19/complications , Liver Failure/virology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Liver/pathology , Liver Failure/chemically induced , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology