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2.
Stroke ; 52(3): 905-912, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke may occur in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but risk factors, in-hospital events, and outcomes are not well studied in large cohorts. We identified risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with or without acute ischemic stroke and compared with patients without COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed the data from 54 health care facilities using the Cerner deidentified COVID-19 dataset. The dataset included patients with an emergency department or inpatient encounter with discharge diagnoses codes that could be associated to suspicion of or exposure to COVID-19 or confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 103 (1.3%) patients developed acute ischemic stroke among 8163 patients with COVID-19. Among all patients with COVID-19, the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure was significantly higher among those with acute ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke was associated with discharge to destination other than home or death (relative risk, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4]; P<0.0001) after adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 199 (1.0%) patients developed acute ischemic stroke among 19 513 patients without COVID-19. Among all ischemic stroke patients, COVID-19 was associated with discharge to destination other than home or death (relative risk, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]; P=0.03) after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ischemic stroke was infrequent in patients with COVID-19 and usually occurs in the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of discharge to destination other than home or death increased 2-fold with occurrence of acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Edema/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038976, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the risk of pre-existing comorbidities on COVID-19 mortality, and provide clinical suggestions accordingly. SETTING: A nested case-control design using confirmed case reports released from the news or the national/provincial/municipal health commissions of China between 18 December 2019 and 8 March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, excluding asymptomatic patients, in mainland China outside of Hubei Province. OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, survival time and status, and history of comorbidities. METHOD: A total of 94 publicly reported deaths in locations outside of Hubei Province, mainland China, were included as cases. Each case was matched with up to three controls, based on gender and age ±1 year old (94 cases and 181 controls). The inverse probability-weighted Cox proportional hazard model was performed, controlling for age, gender and the early period of the outbreak. RESULTS: Of the 94 cases, the median age was 72.5 years old (IQR=16), and 59.6% were men, while in the control group the median age was 67 years old (IQR=22), and 64.6% were men. Adjusting for age, gender and the early period of the outbreak, poor health conditions were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (HR of comorbidity score, 1.31 [95% CI 1.11 to 1.54]; p=0.001). The estimated mortality risk in patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease (CHD) was three times that of those without CHD (p<0.001). The estimated 30-day survival probability for a profile patient with pre-existing CHD (65-year-old woman with no other comorbidities) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.82), while it was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) for those without CHD. Older age was also associated with increased mortality risk: every 1-year increase in age was associated with a 4% increased risk of mortality (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Extra care and early medical interventions are needed for patients with pre-existing comorbidities, especially CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Bronchitis, Chronic/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cerebral Infarction/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(6): 1135-1149, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657047

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are quinoline derivatives used to treat malaria. To date, these medications are not approved for the treatment of viral infections, and there are no well-controlled, prospective, randomized clinical studies or evidence to support their use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are being studied alone or in combination with other agents to assess their effectiveness in the treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19. The effective use of any medication involves an understanding of its pharmacokinetics, safety, and mechanism of action. This work provides basic clinical pharmacology information relevant for planning and initiating COVID-19 clinical studies with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, summarizes safety data from healthy volunteer studies, and summarizes safety data from phase II and phase II/III clinical studies in patients with uncomplicated malaria, including a phase II/III study in pediatric patients following administration of azithromycin and chloroquine in combination. In addition, this work presents data describing the proposed mechanisms of action against the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 and summarizes clinical efficacy to date.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Aging , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Malaria/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1399-1407, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639375

ABSTRACT

Little is known regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical spectrum in non-Asian populations. We herein describe the impact of COVID-19 on liver function in 100 COVID-19 consecutive patients (median age 70 years, range 25-97; 79 males) who were admitted to our internal medicine unit in March 2020. We retrospectively assessed liver function tests, taking into account demographic characteristics and clinical outcome. A patient was considered as having liver injury when alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was > 50 mU/ml, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) > 50 mU/ml, or total bilirubin > 1.1 mg/dl. Spearman correlation coefficient for laboratory data and bivariable analysis for mortality and/or need for intensive care were assessed. A minority of patients (18.6%) were obese, and most patients were non- or moderate-drinkers (88.5%). Liver function tests were altered in 62.4% of patients, and improved during follow-up. None of the seven patients with known chronic liver disease had liver decompensation. Only one patient developed acute liver failure. In patients with altered liver function tests, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was associated with greater mortality and need for intensive care (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.07-5.11, p = 0.033). To conclude, a high prevalence of altered liver function tests was noticed in Italian patients with COVID-19, and this was associated with worse outcomes when developing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Failure/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internal Medicine/methods , Internal Medicine/trends , Italy/epidemiology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 96-103, 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595083

ABSTRACT

Liver injury has been reported to occur during the disease in severe cases. Therefore, this meta-analysis study aims to investigate the incidence of liver injury among published literature from 2019-Jan-01 to 2020-April-03 to provide an outline for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19. Four databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Scopus were searched for studies published from 2019-Jan-01 to 2020-April-03. Data analysis and drawing of charts were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software Version 2.2 (Biostat, USA). The search yielded 450 publications, of which 64 potentially eligible studies were identified for full-text review and 21 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria remained. A total of 4191 COVID-19 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of liver injury was 19.5% (95% CI: 14.3-26.1). According to our results, there was significant heterogeneity among the 19 studies (X2 = 738.5; p < 0.001; I2 = 94.34%). Among 288 death cases, the pooled prevalence of liver injury was 22.8% (95% CI: 11.7-39.8). In summary, the COVID-19 disease itself can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases and even may lead to ARDS and multiple organ failure. The results of this systematic review highlight the importance of liver injury that may assist clinicians anywhere in the globe in controlling COVID-19-related infection and complications. Moreover, the prevalence of liver injury can be higher in severe cases than in mild cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Failure/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/etiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sample Size
8.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3042-3050, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591956

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic liver disease and patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are vulnerable to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated fears, attitudes, and opinions associated with COVID-19 in 365 SOT recipients (95% liver, 5% pancreas/kidney), 112 SOT candidates, and 394 immediate household contacts in 2 German transplant centers. Seven (1.5%) patients and 10 (2.5%) controls had contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases. Fear of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was expressed by 65% of SOT recipients and by 55% of SOT candidates. SOT recipients had higher levels of fear of infection and more often wore personal protective gear than household controls. Female sex, steroid treatment, and using the local newspaper as a primary source of information were independently associated with expressed fear of infection in SOT recipients. Younger age and more recent transplantation correlated with concerns about severe COVID-19 expressed by patients and with concerns about worse medical care expressed by household controls. One third of the patients expressed fear that immunosuppression could worsen COVID-19 but only 15% used the transplantation center as a source of information. These data show that fears associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are frequently expressed but measures to prevent infection are regularly followed by patients before and after SOT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Courage , Fear/psychology , Liver Failure/surgery , Liver Transplantation/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients/psychology , Aged , Attitude , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Liver Failure/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Waiting Lists
9.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 2989-2996, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457238

ABSTRACT

Liver transplantation (LT) during the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is challenging given the urgent need to reallocate resources to other areas of patient care. Available guidelines recommend reorganizing transplant care, but data on clinical experience in the context of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are scarce. Thus, we report strategies and preliminary results in LT during the peak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic from a single center in France. Our strategy to reorganize the transplant program included 4 main steps: optimization of available resources, especially intensive care unit capacity; multidisciplinary risk stratification of LT candidates on the waiting list; implementation of a systematic SARS-CoV-2 screening strategy prior to transplantation; and definition of optimal recipient-donor matching. After implementation of these 4 steps, we performed 10 successful LTs during the peak of the pandemic with a short median intensive care unit stay (2.5 days), benchmark posttransplant morbidity, and no occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during follow-up. From this preliminary experience we conclude that efforts in resource planning, optimal recipient selection, and organ allocation strategy are key to maintain a safe LT activity. Transplant centers should be ready to readapt their practices as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Failure/surgery , Liver Transplantation/standards , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Waiting Lists/mortality , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Tissue Donors
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