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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 818, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injuries have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the clinical role played by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective study, the parameters of liver function tests in COVID-19 inpatients were compared between various time-points in reference to SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and 3 to 7 days before the first detection of viral shedding was regarded as the reference baseline. RESULTS: In total, 70 COVID-19 inpatients were enrolled. Twenty-two (31.4%) patients had a self-medication history after illness. At baseline, 10 (14.3%), 7 (10%), 9 (12.9%), 2 (2.9%), 15 (21.4%), and 4 (5.7%) patients already had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and total bilirubin (TBIL) values, respectively. ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not show any significant dynamic changes during the full period of viral shedding (all p > 0.05). The GGT abnormal rate (p = 0.008) and level (p = 0.033) significantly increased on day 10 of viral shedding. Meanwhile, no simultaneous significant increases in abnormal ALP rates and levels were observed. TBIL abnormal rates and levels significantly increased on days 1 and 5 of viral shedding (all p < 0.05). Albumin abnormal decrease rates increased, and levels decreased consistently from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 clearance day (all p < 0.05). Thirteen (18.6%) patients had chronic liver disease, two of whom died. The ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not increase in patients with chronic liver disease during SARS-CoV-2 shedding. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 does not directly lead to elevations in ALT and AST but may result in elevations in GGT and TBIL; albumin decreased extraordinarily even when SARS-CoV-2 shedding ended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver/virology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(12): 1559-1564, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334105

ABSTRACT

Background: Remdesivir has been used for treating patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) although there is conflicting evidence regarding its usefulness. Data regarding its safety largely come from the clinical trials conducted to support its emergency use authorization (EUA). This study aimed to identify the adverse events of remdesivir with disproportionately high reporting using real-world data.Research design and methods: The adverse event reports submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) by health-care professionals for drugs that have received EUA or approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in the US were studied. Adisproportionality analysis was performed to determine adverse events more frequently reported with remdesivir compared with other COVID-19 drugs in the database.Results: Elevated liver enzymes, acute kidney injury, raised blood creatinine levels, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, and death had disproportionately higher reporting with remdesivir as asuspect drug compared with other drugs. There is no significant difference in the reporting of these events based on patient sex or age.Conclusions: Our study confirms the drug label information regarding liver enzyme elevation. The renal and cardiac safety signals identified necessitate reevaluation for potential drug-labeling changes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver Function Tests , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Approval/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Female , Humans , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data
7.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 453-457, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing major health emergency, but its occurrence and clinical impact on patients withliver cirrhosis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study of 2.6 million Danish citizens investigating the occurrence and impact of COVID-19 in patients with liver cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective population-based cohort study was conducted in the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand in the study period between 1 March 2020 up until 31 May 2020, with the only eligibility criteria being a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for presence of viral genomic material confirming COVID-19. The patients were subsequently stratified according to presence of pre-existing liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: Among 575,935 individuals tested, 1713 patients had a diagnosis of cirrhosis. COVID-19 occurredsignificantly lessamongpatients with cirrhosis (n = 15; 0.9%, p < .01) compared with the population without cirrhosis (n = 10,593; 1.8%). However, a large proportion (n = 6;40.0%) required a COVID-19 related hospitalization which was correlated with higher values of alanine aminotransferase (p < .01) and lactate dehydrogenase (p = .04). In addition, one-in-three (n = 2; 13.3%) required intensive therapy. Four patients died (26.7%) and mortality was associated with higher MELD scores, co-existing type 2 diabetes, and bacterial superinfections. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, patientswith cirrhosis may have a lower risk of COVID-19; but a higher risk of complications hereto and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
8.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(5): 589-591, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082921

ABSTRACT

Encorafenib (Braftovi) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600 mutation, in combination with binimetinib (Mektovi). According to the product label of encorafenib, there are no specific treatment recommendations in case of an overdose. We report on a 63-year-old man who ingested a double dose (900 mg) of encorafenib for 16 days. He developed overall minor chronic overdose symptoms such as nausea and vomiting grade 1 and muscle pain. Based on the most occurring adverse events of encorafenib, liver values, kidney function parameters and QTc interval were measured. Kidney function parameters were normal, whereas liver values were slightly increased (grade 1) and QTc slightly prolonged. The plasma concentration 3 h after the last dose was 2110 ng/mL. We describe the course of a case with a chronic overdose during 16 days of the double dose of encorafenib as well as the followed approach, which could be taken into account when observing an encorafenib overdose. Providing information in times of Covid-19 is challenging, but remains necessary for good clinical care.


Subject(s)
Carbamates , Drug Overdose , Liver Function Tests/methods , Long QT Syndrome , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Sulfonamides , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Benzimidazoles/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbamates/administration & dosage , Carbamates/adverse effects , Carbamates/blood , Communicable Disease Control , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Overdose/blood , Drug Overdose/diagnosis , Drug Overdose/etiology , Drug Overdose/physiopathology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Melanoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/genetics , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Sulfonamides/blood , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/diagnosis
9.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(5): 101556, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064960

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the impact of liver function test (LFT) abnormalities on the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a French cohort of hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: From March 13 to April 22, 2020, we collected on a computerized and anonymized database, medical records, laboratory data and clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (RT-PCR and/or CT-scan). Patients were followed up until April 22, 2020 or until death or discharge. We have considered for statistical analysis, LFT abnormalities with levels greater than two times the upper limit of normal. Composite endpoint included admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, severe radiologic injury and death to define disease severity. RESULTS: Among 281 patients (median age 60 years) with COVID-19, 102 (36.3%) had abnormal LFT. Hypertension (45.6%) and diabetes (29.5%) were the main comorbidities. 20.2% were taken liver-toxic drugs at the admission and 27.4% were given drugs known to induce hepatic cytolysis during hospitalization. Patients with elevated levels of ALT or AST were significantly more severe with a higher rate of admission to ICU (40.0% vs 6.0%, p< 0.0001), and global mortality (26.7% vs 12.1%, p= 0.03). In multivariate analysis, obesity and cytolytic profil were associated with the composite endpoint (respectively 2.37 [1.21; 4.64], p= 0.01 and OR 6.20, 95% confidence interval [1.84, 20.95], p-value 0.003) CONCLUSION: Most of liver injuries are mild and transient during COVID-19. LFT abnormalities are associated with a poorer prognosis and could be a relevant biomarker for early detection of severe infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Diseases , Liver Function Tests/methods , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(5): 525-533, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic diseases are risk factors for severe Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which have a close relationship with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). AIMS: To evaluate the presence of MAFLD and fibrosis in patients with COVID-19 and its association with prognosis. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the presence of liver steatosis was determined by computed tomography scan (CT). Liver fibrosis was assessed using the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS score), and when altered, the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score. Mann-Whitney U, Student´s t-test, logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were used. RESULTS: 432 patients were analyzed, finding steatosis in 40.6%. No differences in pulmonary involvement on CT scan, treatment, or number of days between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission were found between patients with and without MAFLD. The presence of liver fibrosis was associated with higher severity scores, higher levels of inflammatory markers, requirement of mechanical ventilation, incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and higher mortality than patients without fibrosis. CONCLUSION: The presence of fibrosis rather than the presence of MAFLD is associated with increased risk for mechanical ventilation, development of AKI, and higher mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Fatty Liver/diagnosis , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
Dig Dis ; 39(1): 52-57, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver function has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. The aim of our study was to report on the prevalence of liver injury in our cohort, to evaluate the association of mild versus severe liver injury with mortality in COVID-19 patients and to scrutinize the temporal pattern of viral detection and liver injury. METHODS: We present data from a German cohort of 147 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their liver status during treatment. The first group included patients without elevated alanine aminotransferase or bilirubin, the third group patients meeting the biochemical criteria of acute liver failure (ALF), and the second group all other patients. RESULTS: Liver injury was detected in 75 (50.7%) and 93 (63%) patients by admission and during treatment, respectively. ALF was associated with the male sex, younger age, and higher BMI. Mortality was associated with the presence of ALF (OR = 9.423, 95% CI: 2.410-36.858) in contrast to milder liver injury (OR 1.101, 95% CI: 0.435-2.791). In 30% of patients with mild liver injury and in 50% of ALF patients, peak liver injury was observed at a time point when the virus was no longer detectable in the respiratory tract. CONCLUSION: Mild liver injury was not associated with worse outcome in our cohort, and the pattern of liver injury did not fit well to the theory of SARS-CoV-2 directly causing liver impairment. Instead, severe liver injury in our cohort was associated multiple-organ failure and acute vascular events.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Correlation of Data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/blood , Liver Failure, Acute/epidemiology , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(5): 1077-1082, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Liver chemistry abnormalities are a frequent manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but are usually transient and resolve with disease resolution. METHODS: We describe the clinical course and histologic features of 3 adults who developed prolonged and severe cholestasis during recovery from critical cardiopulmonary COVID-19. RESULTS: These patients had clinical and histologic features similar to secondary sclerosing cholangitis of the critically ill patient, but with unique histologic features including severe cholangiocyte injury and intrahepatic microangiopathy suggestive of direct hepatic injury from COVID-19. DISCUSSION: We believe that these cases constitute a novel severe post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy with potential for long-term hepatic morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cholangitis , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver , Adult , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance/methods , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Cholangitis/virology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Diagnosis, Differential , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Liver/blood supply , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver/pathology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
14.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 29(3): 473-475, 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005155
15.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(1): 198-209, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits many extrapulmonary manifestations, including liver injury. This scoping review aimed to provide insight into the incidence, patterns, risk factors, histopathological findings, and relationship with disease severity of COVID-19-associated liver injury. Furthermore, we identified existing gaps in the research on the hepatic manifestations of COVID-19 and highlighted areas for future investigations. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O'Mallay. Five online databases, along with grey literature, were searched for articles published until 22 May 2020, and we included 62 articles in the review. The research domains, methodological characteristics, and key conclusions were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Retrospective observational studies comprised more than one third (41.9%) of the included publications, and 77.8% were conducted on living patients. The incidence of liver injury varied widely across the studies (4.8%-78%), and liver injury was frequently associated with severe COVID-19. We identified the following risk factors for liver injury: male sex, lymphopoenia, gastrointestinal involvement, old age, increased neutrophil count, and the use of hepatotoxic drugs. Histopathological findings indicate that COVID-19 has direct cytopathic effects and causes liver function test derangements secondary to inflammation, hypoxia, and vascular insult. CONCLUSIONS: Liver injury following COVID-19 infection is common and primarily hepatocellular, with a greater elevation of aspartate aminotransferase tahn of alanine aminotransferase. However, the evidence regarding hepatic failure secondary to COVID-19 is insufficient. Standardised criteria to diagnose liver injury need to be devised. Current use of hepatotoxic drugs necessitates close monitoring of liver function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 723-732, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a major international public health concern. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19-associated liver injury. METHODS: A fraction of 657 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were derived from electronic medical records and compared between patients with or without liver injury. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors for liver injury. RESULTS: Among 657 patients, 303 (46.1%) patients had liver injury with higher rate in severe/critically ill patients [148/257 (57.6%)] than those in moderate cases [155/400 (38.8%)]. The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission. Liver injury-related inflammations included increased white blood cells, neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes. More patients with liver injury than without had increased serum IL-2R, TNFα, ferritin, hsCRP, PCT, ESR, γ-GT, and LDH. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increasing odds of liver injury were related to male, higher serum hsCRP (≥ 10 mg/L), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (≥ 5). Moreover, more deceased patients (14/82 (17%)) had significantly elevated serum TBIL than discharged patients [25/532 (4.7%)]. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is a common complication in COVID-19 patients. The potential risk factors of liver injury include male, hsCRP and NLR score. A close monitor of liver function should be warned in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe/critical individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/blood , Hepatic Insufficiency , Leukocyte Count/methods , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hepatic Insufficiency/blood , Hepatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
J Hepatol ; 74(3): 567-577, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are associated with immune dysregulation, leading to concerns that affected patients may be at risk of adverse outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on patients with pre-existing liver disease, which currently remains ill-defined. METHODS: Between 25th March and 8th July 2020, data on 745 patients with CLD and SARS-CoV-2 (including 386 with and 359 without cirrhosis) were collected by 2 international registries and compared to data on non-CLD patients with SARS-CoV-2 from a UK hospital network. RESULTS: Mortality was 32% in patients with cirrhosis compared to 8% in those without (p <0.001). Mortality in patients with cirrhosis increased according to Child-Pugh class (A [19%], B [35%], C [51%]) and the main cause of death was from respiratory failure (71%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, factors associated with death in the total CLD cohort were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 1.01-1.04), Child-Pugh A (OR 1.90; 1.03-3.52), B (OR 4.14; 2.4-7.65), or C (OR 9.32; 4.80-18.08) cirrhosis and alcohol-related liver disease (OR 1.79; 1.03-3.13). Compared to patients without CLD (n = 620), propensity-score-matched analysis revealed significant increases in mortality in those with Child-Pugh B (+20.0% [8.8%-31.3%]) and C (+38.1% [27.1%-49.2%]) cirrhosis. Acute hepatic decompensation occurred in 46% of patients with cirrhosis, of whom 21% had no respiratory symptoms. Half of those with hepatic decompensation had acute-on-chronic liver failure. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest such cohort to date, we demonstrate that baseline liver disease stage and alcohol-related liver disease are independent risk factors for death from COVID-19. These data have important implications for the risk stratification of patients with CLD across the globe during the COVID-19 pandemic. LAY SUMMARY: This international registry study demonstrates that patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of death from COVID-19. Mortality from COVID-19 was particularly high among patients with more advanced cirrhosis and those with alcohol-related liver disease.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , COVID-19 , Liver Cirrhosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(2): 146-152, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807581

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has changed the priorities of the whole medical society. During the clinical course of COVID-19, it has been observed that hepatic injury occurs in a significant proportion of patients, particularly in those with severe or critical illness. In this literature review, we summarize the most recent studies, which covered the pathophysiology of COVID-19 induced liver injury including; hepatic pathological findings, therapy related liver damage, and the effects of the viral infection on pre-existing liver diseasesin context of the most recent recommendations. Conclusions: This review sheds light on the impact of COVID-19 infection on the liver, as well as the prognostic effect of liver laboratory markers on disease outcome. Temporal variations in liver parameters during disease course as well as different patterns of derangement are depicted. More intensive surveillance and individualized therapeutic approaches should be tailored for immunocompromised patients with advanced liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplant patients. Despite the limited studies on COVID-19 infected patients with preexisting liver disease, this comprehensive overview provides a perspective on the management of liver disease during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver , Patient Care Management/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Prognosis
19.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 733-742, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver injury is found in some of patients with COVID-19. Liver injury of COVID-19 patients based on severity grading and abdominal radiological signs have not been reported until now. The aim of our study is to determine clinical profiles of the patients based on severity grading, describe abdominal radiological signs, and investigate the correlations of the severity with clinical profiles and radiological signs. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 115 patients with COVID-19 from Jan 2020 to Feb 2020. Medical records of the patients were collected and CT images were reviewed. RESULTS: Common clinical manifestations of patients with COVID-19 were fever (68.70%), cough (56.52%), fatigue (31.30%); some of them had gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, 12.17%; nausea or vomiting 7.83%; inappetence, 7.83%). Abnormal liver function was observed in some of patients with COVID-19. Significant differences in the levels of AST, albumin,CRP were observed among different groups classified by the severity. Common findings of upper abdominal CT scan were liver hypodensity (26.09%) and pericholecystic fat stranding (21.27%); liver hypodensity was more frequently found in critical cases (58.82%). The severity of COVID-19 correlated with semi-quantitative CT score of pulmonary lesions, CT-quantified liver/spleen attenuation ratio in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the patients with COVID-19 displayed liver damage revealed by liver functional tests and upper abdominal CT imaging, and the severity of COVID-19 patients correlated with some of liver functional tests and CT signs; thus, it will allow an earlier identification of high-risk patients for early effective intervention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Liver Diseases , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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