Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9308, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238512

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the outcome of patients on the liver transplantation (LT) waitlist in 2020 in France, in particular, the incidence of deaths and delisting for worsening condition, depending on the allocation score component. The 2020 cohort of patients on the waiting list was compared with the 2018/2019 cohorts. 2020 saw fewer LTs than in either 2019 or 2018 (1128, 1356, and 1325, respectively), together with fewer actual brain dead donors (1355, 1729, and 1743). In 2020, deaths or delisting for worsening condition increased significantly versus 2018/2019 (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), after adjustment for age, place of care, diabetes, blood type, and score component, although COVID-19-related mortality was low. This increased risk mainly concerned patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.90), with 650 MELD exception points (2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43), and especially those without HCC and MELD scores from 25 to 30 (3.36 [95% CI 1.82-6.18]). In conclusion, by significantly decreasing LT activity in 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic increased the number of waitlist deaths and delisting for worsening condition, and significantly more for particular components of the score, including intermediate severity cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , End Stage Liver Disease , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 187, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317892

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given limitations of the health care systems in case of unforeseeable events, e.g., the COVID pandemic as well as trends in prehabilitation, time from diagnosis to surgery (time to surgery, (TTS)) has become a research issue in malignancies. Thus, we investigated whether TTS is associated with oncological outcome in HCC patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: A monocentric cohort of 217 patients undergoing liver resection for HCC between 2009 and 2021 was analyzed. Individuals were grouped according to TTS and compared regarding clinical characteristics. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and investigated by univariate and multivariable Cox regressions. RESULTS: TTS was not associated with OS (p=0.126) or RFS (p=0.761) of the study cohort in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis age (p=0.028), ASA (p=0.027), INR (0.016), number of HCC nodules (p=0.026), microvascular invasion (MVI; p<0.001), and postoperative complications (p<0.001) were associated with OS and INR (p=0.005), and number of HCC nodules (p<0.001) and MVI (p<0.001) were associated with RFS. A comparative analysis of TTS subgroups was conducted (group 1, ≤30 days, n=55; group 2, 31-60 days, n=79; group 3, 61-90 days, n=45; group 4, >90 days, n=38). Here, the median OS were 62, 41, 38, and 40 months (p=0.602 log rank) and median RFS were 21, 26, 26, and 25 months (p=0.994 log rank). No statistical difference regarding oncological risk factors were observed between these groups. CONCLUSION: TTS is not associated with earlier tumor recurrence or reduced overall survival in surgically treated HCC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors
3.
Transplant Proc ; 55(5): 1226-1230, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many clinical studies have shown that the COVID-19 case fatality rate is higher in older patients, those with comorbidities, those with immunosuppressive conditions, and those who stay in the intensive care unit. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of 66 liver transplant (LT) patients with primary liver cancer who were exposed to COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of 66 patients with primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma = 64, hepatoblastoma = 1, cholangiocarcinoma = 1) who underwent LT in our institute and were exposed to COVID-19 infection between March 2020 and November 2021 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. The following data of the patients were recorded: age, sex, body mass index (kg/m2), blood group, underlying primary liver disease, smoking, tumor characteristics, post-transplant immunosuppressive agents, COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalization, intensive care unit stay, intubation, and other clinical features. RESULTS: There were 55 (83.3%) male and 11 (16.7%) female patients, with a median age of 58 years. Sixty-four patients were exposed to COVID-19 only once, whereas the remaining 2 patients were exposed 2 and 4 times, respectively. After exposure to COVID-19, it was determined that 37 patients used antiviral drugs, 25 were hospitalized, 9 were followed in the intensive care unit, and 3 were intubated. One intubated patient was under hospital follow-up because of biliary complications before exposure to COVID-19, and this patient died from sepsis. CONCLUSION: The low mortality rate of LT patients with primary liver cancer exposed to COVID-19 infection can be attributed to background immunosuppression that prevents cytokine storm. However, it is appropriate to support this study with multicenter studies to make strong comments on this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
6.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 46(3): 327-336, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of using intra-procedural pre-ablation contrast-enhanced CT prior to percutaneous thermal ablation (pre-ablation CECT) of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) on local outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected liver ablation registry included 144 consecutive patients (median age 57 years IQR [49, 65], 60% men) who underwent 173 CT-guided ablation sessions for 250 CLM between October 2015 and March 2020. In addition to oncologic outcomes, technical success was retrospectively evaluated using a biomechanical deformable image registration software for 3D-minimal ablative margin (3D-MAM) quantification. Bayesian regression was used to estimate effects of pre-ablation CECT on residual unablated tumor, 3D-MAM, and local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS). RESULTS: Pre-ablation CECT was acquired in 71/173 (41%) sessions. Residual unablated tumor was present in one (0.9%) versus nine tumors (6.6%) ablated with versus without using pre-ablation CECT, respectively (p = 0.024). Pre-ablation CECT use decreased the odds of residual disease on first follow-up by 78% (CI95% [5, 86]) and incomplete ablation (3D-MAM ≤ 0 mm) by 58% (CI95% [13, 122]). The odds ratio for residual unablated tumor for larger CLM was lower when pre-ablation CECT was used (odds ratio 1.0 with pre-ablation CECT vs. 2.52 without). Pre-ablation CECT use was not associated with improvements on LTPFS. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-ablation CECT is associated with improved immediate outcomes by significantly reducing the incidence of residual unablated tumor and by mitigating the risk of incomplete ablation for larger CLM. We recommend performing baseline intra-procedural pre-ablation CECT as a standard imaging protocol. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3 (retrospective cohort study).


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Retrospective Studies , Contrast Media , Bayes Theorem , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Catheter Ablation/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Biosci Trends ; 16(3): 178-188, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903774

ABSTRACT

Liver resection is the standard curative treatment for liver cancer. Advances in surgical techniques over the last 30 years, including the preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant, have improved the safety of liver resection. In addition, advances in nonsurgical multidisciplinary treatment have increased the opportunities for tumor downstaging. Consequently, the indications for resection of more advanced liver cancer have expanded. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted liver resections have also gradually become more widespread. These techniques should be performed in stages, depending on the difficulty of the procedure. Advances in preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation technology may have also lowered the threshold for their performance and may have promoted their widespread use. New insights and experiences gained from laparoscopic surgery may be applicable in open surgery. Liver transplantation, which is usually indicated for patients with poor liver function, has also become safer with advances in perioperative management. The indications for liver transplantation in liver cancer are also expanding. Although the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has forced the postponement of liver resection and transplantation procedures, liver surgeons should appropriately tailor the surgical plan to the individual patient as part of multidisciplinary treatment. This review may provide an entry point for future clinical research by identifying currently unresolved issues regarding liver cancer, and particularly hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Hepatectomy/methods , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/surgery
8.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(4): 564-574, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In July 2017, the Emprint™ next-generation microwave ablation system using thermosphere technology (Covidien, Boulder, CO, USA) was approved for use in Japan. This system can produce a predictable spherical ablation zone at higher temperatures than radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether this new microwave thermosphere ablation (MTA) could safely improve outcome compared to RFA, which is the standard of care for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 513 patients with 630 HCCs (≤3 cm) who were performed by percutaneous RFA (174 patients, 214 HCCs) or MTA (339 patients, 416 HCCs) between January 2016 and March 2020. RESULTS: Median ablation time was significantly shorter for MTA (240 seconds) than for RFA (721 seconds; P<0.001). A significant difference in 3-year local tumor progression rate was evident between the RFA group (22%) and MTA group (8%; P<0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed ablation procedure and tumor diameter as independent factors contributing to local tumor progression (MTA; P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.565; 95% confidence interval, 0.437-0.731). In patients with primary HCC, a significant difference in overall survival was evident (RFA vs. MTA, 3-year, 77% vs. 95%, P=0.029). Ablation procedure and Child-Pugh score were independent factors contributing to survival. The total complication rate was significantly lower for MTA (8%) than for RFA (14%, P<0.05), particularly for bile duct injury (3% vs. 9%, respectively; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Next-generation MTA for small HCC could provide safer, more curative treatment in a shorter ablation time than RFA.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Catheter Ablation , Liver Neoplasms , Radiofrequency Ablation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Microwaves , Radiofrequency Ablation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 264, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with colorectal cancer develop colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). CRLM that become undetectable by imaging after chemotherapy are called disappearing liver metastases (DLM). But a DLM is not necessarily equal to cure. An increasing incidence of patients with DLM provides surgeons with a difficult dilemma: to resect or to not resect the original sites of DLM? The aim of this review was to investigate to what extent a DLM equates a complete response (CR) and to compare outcomes. METHODS: This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and registered in Prospero (registration number CRD42017070441). Literature search was made in the PubMed and Embase databases. During the process of writing, PubMed was repeatedly searched and reference lists of included studies were screened for additional studies of interest for this review. Results were independently screened by two authors with the Covidence platform. Studies eligible for inclusion were those reporting outcomes of DLM in adult patients undergoing surgery following chemotherapy. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included with a total of 2955 patients with CRLM. They had 4742 CRLM altogether. Post-chemotherapy, patients presented with 1561 DLM. Patients with one or more DLM ranged from 7 to 48% (median 19%). Median DLM per patient was 3.4 (range 0.4-5.6). Patients were predominantly evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) before and after chemotherapy, with some exceptions and with addition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in some studies. Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) was universally performed in all but two studies. If a DLM remained undetectable by IOUS, this DLM represented a CR in 24-96% (median 77.5%). Further, if a DLM on preoperative CE-CT remained undetectable by additional workup with MRI and CE-IOUS, this DLM was equal to a CR in 75-94% (median 89%). Patients with resected DLM had a longer disease-free survival compared to patients with DLM left in situ but statistically significant differences in overall survival could not be found. CONCLUSION: Combination of CE-CT, MRI, and IOUS showed promising results in accurately identifying DLM with CR. This suggests that leaving DLM in situ could be an alternative to surgical resection when a DLM remains undetectable by MRI and IOUS.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver Neoplasms , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Hepatectomy , Humans , Intraoperative Care , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis
13.
Clin Transplant ; 35(4): e14246, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069387

ABSTRACT

Adverse clinical outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection among liver transplant (LTx) recipients remain undefined. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the pooled prevalence of outcomes among hospitalized LTx recipients with COVID-19. A database search of literature published between December 1, 2019, and November 20, 2020, was performed per PRISMA guidelines. Twelve studies comprising 517 hospitalized LTx recipients with COVID-19 were analyzed. Common presenting symptoms were fever (71%), cough (62%), dyspnea (48%), and diarrhea (28%). Approximately 77% (95% CI, 61%-93%) of LTx recipients had a history of liver cirrhosis. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (55%), diabetes (45%), and cardiac disease (21%). In-hospital mortality was 20% (95% CI, 13%-28%) and rose to 41% (95% CI, 19%-63%) (P < 0.00) with ICU admission. Additional subgroup analysis demonstrated a higher mortality risk in the elderly (>60-65 years) (OR 4.26; 95% CI, 2.14-8.49). There was no correlation in respect to sex or time since transplant. In summary, LTx recipients with COVID-19 had a high prevalence of dyspnea and gastrointestinal symptoms. In-hospital mortality was comparable to non-transplant populations with similar comorbidities but appeared to be less than what is reported elsewhere for cirrhotic patients (26%-40%). Importantly, the observed high case fatality in the elderly could be due to age-associated comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Curr Oncol ; 27(5): e501-e511, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024675

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to review data about delaying strategies for the management of hepatobiliary cancers requiring surgery during the covid-19 pandemic. Background: Given the covid-19 pandemic, many jurisdictions, to spare resources, have limited access to operating rooms for elective surgical activity, including cancer, thus forcing deferral or cancellation of cancer surgeries. Surgery for hepatobiliary cancer is high-risk and particularly resource-intensive. Surgeons must critically appraise which patients will benefit most from surgery and which ones have other therapeutic options to delay surgery. Little guidance is currently available about potential delaying strategies for hepatobiliary cancers when surgery is not possible. Methods: An international multidisciplinary panel reviewed the available literature to summarize data relating to standard-of-care surgical management and possible mitigating strategies to be used as a bridge to surgery for colorectal liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Results: Outcomes of surgery during the covid-19 pandemic are reviewed. Resource requirements are summarized, including logistics and adverse effects profiles for hepatectomy and delaying strategies using systemic, percutaneous and radiation ablative, and liver embolic therapies. For each cancer type, the long-term oncologic outcomes of hepatectomy and the clinical tools that can be used to prognosticate for individual patients are detailed. Conclusions: There are a variety of delaying strategies to consider if availability of operating rooms decreases. This review summarizes available data to provide guidance about possible delaying strategies depending on patient, resource, institution, and systems factors. Multidisciplinary team discussions should be leveraged to consider patient- and tumour-specific information for each individual case.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hepatectomy/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Surgeons/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e13880, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796050

ABSTRACT

We describe the successful pediatric liver transplant for unresectable hepatoblastoma in a 4-year-old male with COVID-19 prior to transplant. The first negative NP swab was documented 1 month after initial diagnosis, when SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were also detected. The patient was actively listed for liver transplant after completing four blocks of a SIOPEL-4 based regimen due to his PRETEXT IV disease which remained unresectable. Following three additional negative NP swabs and resolution of symptoms for 4 weeks, he underwent a whole-organ pediatric liver transplant. COVID-19 positivity determined via NP swab SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR (Hologic Aptima SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay). IgG and IgM total SARS- CoV-2 antibodies detected by Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS® Immunodiagnostics Products Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Test. Patient received standard prednisone and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction therapy following transplant. Post-transplant course was remarkable for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with discharge home on post-transplant day #11. Surveillance tests have remained negative with persistent SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies at 6 weeks after transplant. We describe one of the earliest, if not the first case of liver transplant following recent recovery from COVID-19 in a pediatric patient with a lethal malignant liver tumor. A better understanding of how to balance the risk profile of transplant in the setting of COVID-19 with disease progression if transplant is not performed is needed. We followed existing ASTS guidelines to document clearance of the viral infection and resolution of symptoms before transplant. This case highlights that pediatric liver transplantation can be safely performed upon clearance of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hepatoblastoma/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Hepatoblastoma/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Male , Neutropenia/complications , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(3): 266-272, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720927

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic rendered the surgical approach as well as the surgical indication very complex due to the outstanding consumption of public health system' resources, especially in the intensive care subdivision. A multidisciplinary team-based strategy is necessary to adapt guidelines and medical practices to the actual situation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the therapeutic algorithm in a small group of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) enlisted for surgery during the COVID-19 outbreak. Materials and Methods: A multidisciplinary strategy has been adopted to allocate HCC patients to a treatment that permitted to reduce the risk of complications and the hospital stay, thus preventing contamination by the virus. Nasopharyngeal swab and a chest radiograph were performed in all patients within 48 hours before the surgical procedure: in the suspected cases with negative COVID tests, we prudently postponed surgery and repeated the diagnostic tests after 15 days. Results: During the emergency state, 11 HCC patients were treated (8 laparoscopic ablations and 3 hepatic resections). We reported only 1 postoperative complication (hemothorax) and 1 death during the follow-up for COVID pneumonia. Comparing our performances with those in the same time frame in the past 4 years, we treated a similar number of HCC patients, obtaining a decrease in operative timing (P = .0409) and hospital stay (P = .0412) (Fig. 2b) with similar rates of immediate postoperative complications, without ICU admissions. Conclusions: An adapted algorithm for the treatment of HCC to COVID outbreak permitted to manage safely these patients by identifying those most at risk of evolution of the neoplastic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Disease Management , Guideline Adherence , Hepatectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
HPB (Oxford) ; 22(8): 1128-1134, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting response has varied globally. The European and African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (E-AHPBA), the premier representative body for practicing HPB surgeons in Europe and Africa, conducted this survey to assess the impact of COVID-19 on HPB surgery. METHODS: An online survey was disseminated to all E-AHPBA members to assess the effects of the pandemic on unit capacity, management of HPB cancers, use of COVID-19 screening and other aspects of service delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 145 (25%) members responded. Most units, particularly in COVID-high countries (>100,000 cases) reported insufficient critical care capacity and reduced HPB operating sessions compared to COVID-low countries. Delayed access to cancer surgery necessitated alternatives including increased neoadjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer and colorectal liver metastases, and locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma. Other aspects of service delivery including COVID-19 screening and personal protective equipment varied between units and countries. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound adverse impact on the delivery of HPB cancer care across the continents of Europe and Africa. The findings illustrate the need for safe resumption of cancer surgery in a "new" normal world with screening of patients and staff for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Africa/epidemiology , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Male , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL