Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7768383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622118

ABSTRACT

Background: The suspension of the surgical activity, the burden of the infection in immunosuppressed patients, and the comorbidities underlying end-stage organ disease have impacted transplant programs significantly, even life-saving procedures, such as liver transplantation. Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to explore the challenges faced by transplant programs and the adopted strategies to overcome them, with a focus on indications for imaging in liver transplant candidates. Results: Liver transplantation relies on an appropriate imaging method for its success. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chest CT showed an additional value to detect early signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection and other screening modalities are less accurate than radiology. Conclusion: There is an emerging recognition of the chest CT value to recommend its use and help COVID-19 detection in patients. This examination appears highly sensitive for liver transplant candidates and recipients, who otherwise would have not undergone it, particularly when asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , Liver/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tissue Donors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods
2.
QJM ; 115(2): 69-76, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic is representing a massive burden to the community with the new virus. There is few data regarding Covid-19 in liver transplant patients. Concerns were raised regarding the course of the disease in transplanted patients due to immunosuppression and risk of hepatic injuries. AIM: To describe the outcomes of Covid-19 infection in recipients of living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 41 recipients of LDLT diagnosed with Covid-19 by real-time PCR or CT chest criteria of Covid-19 between April 2020 and April 2021. This Cohort was derived from Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation database, Ain Shams Specialized Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, which is considered one of the largest centers of LDLT in the Middle East. Patients were classified to mild, moderate, severe and critics according to clinical classification released by the National Health Commission of China. RESULTS: A total of 41 patients and 2 patients with reinfection were included in this cohort with mean age 54 years with 74% male and 26% female. The body mass index ranged from 19.3 to 37. About 30% were described as a mild case, 46.5% were moderate, 14% were severe and 9% were critical cases. Two cases developed infection twice. Total of 20 patients (46.5%) were managed in home isolation setting, 17 patients (39.5%) needed admission to ward, 4 patients (9%) in intermediate care unit and 2 patients (4%) admitted to intensive care unit. About 60% of cases were on room air, only 3 patients needed invasive methods, 2 patients needed face mask and 1 case needed invasive CPAP. In total, 41 patients recovered (95%) and 2 patients (5%) died; 1 was Covid related and the other one was non-Covid related. Female gender, higher BMI and hypertension were associated with severe course of the disease. CONCLUSION: In the setting of LDLT, the possibilities of catching Covid-19 infection are high due to chronic immunosuppression use. Yet, the outcome of infection in term of morbidity and the needs for hospital admission or intensive care is generally matched to general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Female , Humans , Liver Transplantation/methods , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 435-438, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were approved to prevent COVID-19 infection, with reported vaccine efficacy of 95%. Liver transplant (LT) recipients are at risk of lower vaccine immunogenicity and were not included in the registration trials. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and safety in this special population. METHODS: LT recipients followed at the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and healthy volunteers were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies directed against the Spike-protein (S) and Nucleocapsid-protein (N) 10-20 days after receiving the second Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose. Information regarding vaccine side effects and clinical data was collected from patients and medical records. RESULTS: Eighty LT recipients were enrolled. Mean age was 60 years and 30% were female. Twenty-five healthy volunteer controls were younger (mean age 52.7 years, p = 0.013) and mostly female (68%, p = 0.002). All participants were negative for IgG N-protein serology, indicating immunity did not result from prior COVID-19 infection. All controls were positive for IgG S-protein serology. Immunogenicity among LT recipients was significantly lower with positive serology in only 47.5% (p <0.001). Antibody titer was also significantly lower in this group (mean 95.41 AU/ml vs. 200.5 AU/ml in controls, p <0.001). Predictors for negative response among LT recipients were older age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and treatment with high dose steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. No serious adverse events were reported in either group. CONCLUSION: LT recipients developed substantially lower immunological response to the Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccine. Factors influencing serological antibody responses include age, renal function and immunosuppressive medications. The findings require re-evaluation of vaccine regimens in this population. LAY SUMMARY: The Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited substantially inferior immunity in liver transplant recipients. Less than half of the patients developed sufficient levels of antibodies against the virus, and in those who were positive, average antibody levels were 2x less compared to healthy controls. Factors predicting non-response were older age, renal function and immunosuppressive medications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Liver Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
4.
J Hepatol ; 75(6): 1434-1439, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver transplant (LT) recipients or other immunocompromised patients were not included in the registration trials studying the efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Although the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised patients is unknown, many societies have recommended vaccination of this highly vulnerable patient population. METHODS: In this prospective study, we determined antibody responses to spike protein, 4 weeks after the 2nd dose of mRNA vaccines or after the single dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine, in LT recipients and those with chronic liver disease (CLD) with and without cirrhosis. RESULTS: Of the 233 patients enrolled so far, 62 were LT recipients, 79 had cirrhosis (10 decompensated) and 92 had CLD without cirrhosis. Antibody titers were defined as undetectable (<0.40 U/ml), suboptimal (0.40-250 U/ml) and adequate (>250 U/ml). Of the 62 patients who had LT, antibody levels were undetectable in 11 patients and suboptimal (median titer 17.6, range 0.47-212 U/ml) in 27 patients. Among 79 patients with cirrhosis, 3 had undetectable antibody levels and 15 had suboptimal (median titer 41.3, range 0.49-221 U/L) antibody responses. Of the 92 patients without cirrhosis, 4 had undetectable antibody levels and 19 had suboptimal (median titer 95.5, range 4.9-234 U/L) antibody responses. Liver transplantation, use of 2 or more immunosuppression medications and vaccination with a single dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine were associated with poor immune response on multivariable analysis. No patient had any serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Poor antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were seen in 61% of LT recipients and 24% of those with CLD. LAY SUMMARY: The clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised patients is unknown. We performed a prospective study to evaluate immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna, Pfizer or Johnson & Johnson) in 62 liver transplant recipients, 79 patients with cirrhosis and 92 with chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis. We found that 17.8% of liver transplant recipients, 3.8% of those with cirrhosis and 4.3% of those with chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis had undetectable antibody levels. In total, 61.3% of liver transplant recipients and 24% of those with chronic liver diseases (with or without cirrhosis) had poor antibody responses (undetectable or suboptimal). Liver transplantation, use of immunosuppressive medications and vaccination with a single dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine were associated with poor antibody responses when adjusted for other factors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Liver Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
5.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2808-2812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248687

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and social justice movement have highlighted the impact of social determinants of health (SDOH) and structural racism in the United States on both access to care and patient outcomes. With the evaluation for liver transplantation being a highly subjective process, there are multiple ways for SDOH to place vulnerable patients at a disadvantage. This policy corner focuses on three different methods to reverse the deleterious effects of SDOH-identify and reduce implicit bias, expand and optimize telemedicine, and improve community outreach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity/organization & administration , Liver Transplantation , Racism/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Liver Diseases/ethnology , Liver Diseases/surgery , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Transplantation/standards , Policy Making , Public Health/standards , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 26(3): 339-345, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211441

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the pandemic on liver transplant candidates, recipients, and donors, and review guidelines and recommendations for integrating COVID-19 therapies into current practice. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has high morbidity and mortality for transplant candidates; interestingly, posttransplant comorbidities play a larger role than immunosuppression status. COVID-19 therapies and vaccinations are well tolerated in pre and postliver transplant patients with few exceptions, although further research is needed regarding effectiveness in this patient population. Provider practice patterns should evolve to minimize contagion during the current pandemic and prepare for an increase in liver disease due to after-shocks of missed diagnosis and progression of liver disease. SUMMARY: COVID-19 has spurred new research and technologies to ensure the safety of liver transplant candidates, recipients, and donors, and most COVID-19 therapies are safe in this patient population. Further work needs to be done regarding the use of COVID-19 positive organs and the efficacy of vaccines in the transplant population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(3): e13991, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a global pandemic, and to deal with the unexpected, enormous burden on healthcare system, liver transplantation (LT) services have been suspended in many centers. Development of robust and successful protocols in preventing the disease among the recipients, donors and healthcare workers would help in re-starting the LT programs. We adapted a protocol at our center, which is predominantly a living donor liver transplant center based in north India, and continued the service as the pandemic unfolded and peaked in India with good results and shared the experience of the same. Between March 24 and June 7, 2020, during the government-enforced public curfew-"lockdown"-7 children received LT. The protocols of infection control were drafted in our team by local customization of published guidelines. The number of pediatric LT done during the lockdown period in 2020 was similar to that done in corresponding pre-COVID period in 2019. The outcomes were of 100% survival, and none of recipients developed COVID. One potential donor was asymptomatic positive for COVID, responded well to conservative treatment, and was later accepted as a donor. LT program during the COVID pandemic can successfully function after putting in place standard protocols for infection control. These can be implemented with minimal extra involvement of healthcare infrastructure, hence without diversion of resources from COVID management. In conclusion, pediatric liver transplantation services can be continued amid COVID-19 pandemic after establishing a properly observed protocol with minimum additional resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Liver Transplantation/standards , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Protocols , Female , Health Policy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infection Control/methods , Liver Transplantation/methods , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
8.
Hepatology ; 74(3): 1674-1686, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103301

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary disease in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH) constitutes a challenging clinical scenario and may have important implications with regard to prognosis, liver transplantation (LT) candidacy, and post-LT outcome. Pre-LT evaluation should include adequate screening for pulmonary diseases that may occur concomitantly with liver disease as well as for those that may arise as a complication of end-stage liver disease and PH, given that either may jeopardize safe LT and successful outcome. It is key to discriminate those patients who would benefit from LT, especially pulmonary disorders that have been reported to resolve post-LT and are considered "pulmonary indications" for transplant, from those who are at increased mortality risk and in whom LT is contraindicated. In conclusion, in this article, we review the impact of several pulmonary disorders, including cystic fibrosis, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, sarcoidosis, coronavirus disease 2019, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary nodules, interstitial lung disease, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension, on post-LT survival, as well as the reciprocal impact of LT on the evolution of lung function.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Lung Diseases/complications , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cystic Fibrosis , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Liver Transplantation/methods , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Mass Screening , Patient Selection/ethics , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/epidemiology , Sarcoidosis/mortality , Survival Rate/trends , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/mortality , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/mortality
11.
J Hepatol ; 74(4): 944-951, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065333

ABSTRACT

According to a recent World Health Organization estimate, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which originated in China in 2019, has spread globally, infecting nearly 100 million people worldwide by January 2021. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), particularly cirrhosis, hepatobiliary malignancies, candidates for liver transplantation, and immunosuppressed individuals after liver transplantation appear to be at increased risk of infections in general, which in turn translates into increased mortality. This is also the case for SARS-CoV-2 infection, where patients with cirrhosis, in particular, are at high risk of a severe COVID-19 course. Therefore, vaccination against various pathogens including SARS-CoV-2, administered as early as possible in patients with CLD, is an important protective measure. However, due to impaired immune responses in these patients, the immediate and long-term protective response through immunisation may be incomplete. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the exceptionally fast development of several vaccine candidates. A small number of these SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have already undergone phase III, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in healthy individuals with proof of short-term safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. However, although regulatory agencies in the US and Europe have already approved some of these vaccines for clinical use, information on immunogenicity, duration of protection and long-term safety in patients with CLD, cirrhosis, hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients has yet to be generated. This review summarises the data on vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in this patient population in general and discusses the implications of this knowledge on the introduction of the new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biliary Tract Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/epidemiology , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/immunology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods
12.
Surgery ; 169(6): 1519-1524, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seen transplant volume decrease nationwide, resulting in a 2.2-fold increase in waitlist mortality. In particular, solid organ transplant patients are subjected to increased morbidity and mortality from infection. In the face of these challenges, transplant centers need to develop innovative protocols to ensure high-quality care. METHODS: A multidisciplinary protocol was developed that included the following: virtual selection meetings, coronavirus disease 2019 negative donors, pretransplant symptom screening, rapid testing on presentation, telehealth follow-up, and weekly community outreach town halls. All orthotopic liver transplants completed between January 2018 and August 2020 were included in the study (n = 344). The cohort was stratified from January 2018 to February 2020 as "pre-COVID-19," and from March 2020 to August 2020 as "COVID-19." Patient demographics and postoperative outcomes were compared. RESULTS: From March 2020 to August 2020, there was a significant decrease in average monthly referrals for orthotopic liver transplantation (29.8 vs 37.1, P = .01). However, listings (11.0 vs 14.3, P = .09) and transplant volume remained unchanged (12.2 vs 10.6, P = .26). Rapid testing was utilized on arrival for transplant, zero patients tested positively preoperatively, and median time from test result until abdominal incision was 4.5 h [interquartile range, 1.2, 9.2]. Simultaneously, telehealth visits increased rapidly, peaking at 85% of all visits. It is important to note that there was no difference in outcomes between cohorts. CONCLUSION: Orthotopic liver transplant can be accomplished safely and effectively in the COVID-19 era without compromising outcomes through increasing utilization of telehealth, rapid COVID-19 testing, and multidisciplinary protocols for managing immunosuppressed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Liver Transplantation/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Outcome Assessment , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Tissue Donors , Waiting Lists
13.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1118-1125, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978450

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been mostly suspended and deceased-donor living transplantation activity has been considerably reduced because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We modified our protocols and procedures in line with COVID-19 guidelines. Since the restructuring, we have performed 20 LDLTs. Our study reports the outcomes of these cases and demonstrates the feasibility of LDLT during this pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The changes were influenced by experiences and communications from across the globe. A month-long self-imposed moratorium was spent in restructuring the program and implementing new protocols. Twenty LDLTs were performed between April 18 and September 15 using the new protocols. Our experience includes 2 simultaneous liver-kidney transplants, 1 ABO-incompatible LDLT, and 1 pediatric case (age 11 months). RESULTS: Nineteen patients recovered and 1 patient died. We maintained our postoperative immunosuppression protocol without many changes. Major complications were observed in 30% of recipients but none of the donors. One recipient was infected with COVID-19 during the postoperative period. A donor-recipient couple contracted COVID-19 after discharge from the hospital. All patients recovered from COVID-19 and liver enzymes were unaffected. CONCLUSION: This study represents a microcosm of experience in LDLT during the COVID-19 era. Outcomes of LDLT are not affected by COVID-19 per se, provided that we make necessary changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Liver Transplantation/methods , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , ABO Blood-Group System , Adult , Blood Group Incompatibility , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/standards , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Postoperative Complications/virology , Postoperative Period , Treatment Outcome
15.
Transplant Proc ; 52(9): 2707-2710, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899628

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed life on a global scale. The numbers of transplantations have plummeted as a result of fear of disease transmission, recipient coronavirus disease 2019 infection, priority shift, and resource limitations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) complicates transplantation because donor testing, (re)allocation of limited resources, and recipient testing may exceed permissible ischemia times. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) helps safely prolong liver preservation up to 38 hours. Additional time is essential under the current circumstances. Here we present the case of a 29-year-old liver transplant recipient in whom prolonged liver preservation required for SARS-CoV-2 screening was accomplished through NMP. Donor and recipient test results for SARS-CoV-2 were negative, and intensive care unit capacity was eventually available. The surgical procedure and postoperative course were uneventful. NMP can extend preservation times in liver transplantation while awaiting SARS-CoV-2 test results and available intensive care unit capacity.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Liver Transplantation/methods , Organ Preservation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Perfusion/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors
16.
Am J Transplant ; 21(3): 1312-1316, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814198

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2, first described in December 2019, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Various surgical and medical societies promptly published guidelines, based on expert opinion, on managing patients with COVID-19, with a consensus to postpone elective surgeries and procedures. We describe the case of an orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a young female who presented with acute liver failure secondary to acetaminophen toxicity to manage abdominal pain and in the setting of a positive SARS-CoV2 test. Despite a positive test, she had no respiratory symptoms at time of presentation. The positive test was thought to be residual viral load. The patient had a very favorable outcome, likely related to multiple factors including her young age, lack of respiratory COVID-19 manifestations and plasma exchange peri-operatively. We recommend a full work-up for OLT in COVID-19 patients with uncomplicated disease according to standard of care, with careful interpretation of COVID-19 testing in patients presenting with conditions requiring urgent or emergent surgery as well as repeat testing even a few days after initial testing, as this could alter management.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/poisoning , COVID-19/virology , Drug Overdose/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/chemically induced , Liver Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/poisoning , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/surgery , RNA, Viral , Treatment Outcome
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1507-1515, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802945

ABSTRACT

Transplant programs have been severely disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Italy was one of the first countries with the highest number of deaths in the world due to SARS-CoV-2. Here we propose a management model for the reorganization of liver transplant (LT) activities and policies in a local intensive care unit (ICU) assigned to liver transplantation affected by restrictions on mobility and availability of donors and recipients as well as health personnel and beds. We describe the solutions implemented to continue transplantation activities throughout a given pandemic: management of donors and recipients' LT program, ICU rearrangement, healthcare personnel training and monitoring to minimize mortality rates of patients on the waiting list. Transplantation activities from February 22, 2020, the data of first known COVID-19 case in Italy's Emilia Romagna region to June 30, 2020, were compared with the corresponding period in 2019. During the 2020 study period, 38 LTs were performed, whereas 41 were performed in 2019. Patients transplanted during the COVID-19 pandemic had higher MELD and MELD-Na scores, cold ischaemia times, and hospitalization rates (p < 0.05); accordingly, they spent fewer days on the waitlist and had a lower prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p < 0.05). No differences were found in the provenance area, additional MELD scores, age of donors and recipients, BMI, re-transplant rates, and post-transplant mortality. No transplanted patients contracted COVID-19, although five healthcare workers did. Ultimately, our policy allowed us to continue the ICU's operations by prioritizing patients hospitalized with higher MELD without any case of transplant infection due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Critical Care/methods , Liver Transplantation/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/trends , Crowding , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/epidemiology , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation/standards , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
18.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e13880, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796050

ABSTRACT

We describe the successful pediatric liver transplant for unresectable hepatoblastoma in a 4-year-old male with COVID-19 prior to transplant. The first negative NP swab was documented 1 month after initial diagnosis, when SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were also detected. The patient was actively listed for liver transplant after completing four blocks of a SIOPEL-4 based regimen due to his PRETEXT IV disease which remained unresectable. Following three additional negative NP swabs and resolution of symptoms for 4 weeks, he underwent a whole-organ pediatric liver transplant. COVID-19 positivity determined via NP swab SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR (Hologic Aptima SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay). IgG and IgM total SARS- CoV-2 antibodies detected by Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS® Immunodiagnostics Products Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Test. Patient received standard prednisone and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction therapy following transplant. Post-transplant course was remarkable for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with discharge home on post-transplant day #11. Surveillance tests have remained negative with persistent SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies at 6 weeks after transplant. We describe one of the earliest, if not the first case of liver transplant following recent recovery from COVID-19 in a pediatric patient with a lethal malignant liver tumor. A better understanding of how to balance the risk profile of transplant in the setting of COVID-19 with disease progression if transplant is not performed is needed. We followed existing ASTS guidelines to document clearance of the viral infection and resolution of symptoms before transplant. This case highlights that pediatric liver transplantation can be safely performed upon clearance of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hepatoblastoma/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Hepatoblastoma/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Male , Neutropenia/complications , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Treatment Outcome
20.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(11): 1008-1016, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite concerns that patients with liver transplants might be at increased risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 because of coexisting comorbidities and use of immunosuppressants, the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on this patient group remains unclear. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes in these patients. METHODS: In this multicentre cohort study, we collected data on patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were older than 18 years, who had previously received a liver transplant, and for whom data had been submitted by clinicians to one of two international registries (COVID-Hep and SECURE-Cirrhosis) at the end of the patient's disease course. Patients without a known hospitalisation status or mortality outcome were excluded. For comparison, data from a contemporaneous cohort of consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who had not received a liver transplant were collected from the electronic patient records of the Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust. We compared the cohorts with regard to several outcomes (including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, requirement for intensive care, and need for invasive ventilation). A propensity score-matched analysis was done to test for an association between liver transplant and death. FINDINGS: Between March 25 and June 26, 2020, data were collected for 151 adult liver transplant recipients from 18 countries (median age 60 years [IQR 47-66], 102 [68%] men, 49 [32%] women) and 627 patients who had not undergone liver transplantation (median age 73 years [44-84], 329 [52%] men, 298 [48%] women). The groups did not differ with regard to the proportion of patients hospitalised (124 [82%] patients in the liver transplant cohort vs 474 [76%] in the comparison cohort, p=0·106), or who required intensive care (47 [31%] vs 185 [30%], p=0·837). However, ICU admission (43 [28%] vs 52 [8%], p<0·0001) and invasive ventilation (30 [20%] vs 32 [5%], p<0·0001) were more frequent in the liver transplant cohort. 28 (19%) patients in the liver transplant cohort died, compared with 167 (27%) in the comparison cohort (p=0·046). In the propensity score-matched analysis (adjusting for age, sex, creatinine concentration, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and ethnicity), liver transplantation did not significantly increase the risk of death in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (absolute risk difference 1·4% [95% CI -7·7 to 10·4]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio 1·06 [95% CI 1·01 to 1·11] per 1 year increase), serum creatinine concentration (1·57 [1·05 to 2·36] per 1 mg/dL increase), and non-liver cancer (18·30 [1·96 to 170·75]) were associated with death among liver transplant recipients. INTERPRETATION: Liver transplantation was not independently associated with death, whereas increased age and presence of comorbidities were. Factors other than transplantation should be preferentially considered in relation to physical distancing and provision of medical care for patients with liver transplants during the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: European Association for the Study of the Liver, US National Institutes of Health, UK National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Transplantation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Creatinine/analysis , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL