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1.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488679

ABSTRACT

Zinc is the second most abundant trace element in the human body, and it plays a fundamental role in human physiology, being an integral component of hundreds of enzymes and transcription factors. The discovery that zinc atoms may compete with copper for their absorption in the gastrointestinal tract let to introduce zinc in the therapy of Wilson's disease, a congenital disorder of copper metabolism characterized by a systemic copper storage. Nowadays, zinc salts are considered one of the best therapeutic approach in patients affected by Wilson's disease. On the basis of the similarities, at histological level, between Wilson's disease and non-alcoholic liver disease, zinc has been successfully introduced in the therapy of non-alcoholic liver disease, with positive effects both on insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Recently, zinc deficiency has been indicated as a possible factor responsible for the susceptibility of elderly patients to undergo infection by SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we present the data correlating zinc deficiency with the insurgence and progression of Covid-19 with low zinc levels associated with severe disease states. Finally, the relevance of zinc supplementation in aged people at risk for SARS-CoV-2 is underlined, with the aim that the zinc-based drug, classically used in the treatment of copper overload, might be recorded as one of the tools reducing the mortality of COVID-19, particularly in elderly people.


Subject(s)
Liver/drug effects , Liver/injuries , Zinc/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelating Agents/metabolism , Copper/metabolism , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/complications , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/drug therapy , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/metabolism , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zinc/deficiency , Zinc/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477819

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has unveiled the secondary infection as one of the mortal causes of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the factors related to secondary bacterial or fungi infection remains largely unexplored. We here systematically investigated the factors that might contribute to secondary infection. By clinical examination index analysis of patients, combined with the integrative analysis with RNA-seq analysis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolated shortly from initial infection, this study showed that the antibiotic catabolic process and myeloid cell homeostasis were activated while the T-cell response were relatively repressed in those with the risk of secondary infection. Further monitoring analysis of immune cell and liver injury analysis showed that the risk of secondary infection was accompanied by severe lymphocytopenia at the intermediate and late stages and liver injury at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the metagenomics analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the microbial culture analysis, to some extent, showed that the severe pneumonia-related bacteria have already existed in the initial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Mycoses/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Liver/injuries , Liver/virology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 712572, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472386

ABSTRACT

The complement system is central to first-line defense against invading pathogens. However, excessive complement activation and/or the loss of complement regulation contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases, systemic inflammation, and thrombosis. One of the three pathways of the complement system, the alternative complement pathway, plays a vital role in amplifying complement activation and pathway signaling. Complement factor D, a serine protease of this pathway that is required for the formation of C3 convertase, is the rate-limiting enzyme. In this review, we discuss the function of factor D within the alternative pathway and its implication in both healthy physiology and disease. Because the alternative pathway has a role in many diseases that are characterized by excessive or poorly mediated complement activation, this pathway is an enticing target for effective therapeutic intervention. Nonetheless, although the underlying disease mechanisms of many of these complement-driven diseases are quite well understood, some of the diseases have limited treatment options or no approved treatments at all. Therefore, in this review we explore factor D as a strategic target for advancing therapeutic control of pathological complement activation.


Subject(s)
Complement Factor D/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Pathway, Alternative/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Aging/immunology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Complement Factor D/biosynthesis , Complement Factor D/deficiency , Complement Factor D/physiology , Energy Metabolism , Geographic Atrophy/genetics , Geographic Atrophy/immunology , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/genetics , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/immunology , Hepatocytes , Humans , Kidney Diseases/immunology , Liver/injuries , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Phagocytosis
4.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(11): 1232-1237, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431093

ABSTRACT

Shortages of grafts for liver transplant remain a persistent problem. The use of lacerated livers for liver transplant can add an option for extended criteria donations, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the case of a successful liver transplant performed using a high-grade lacerated liver previously treated with superselective arterial embolization and packing for bleeding control. In view of the absence of guidelines for the use of lacerated livers for transplant, we also performed a review of the literature on injured liver grafts that were used for liver transplants. Meticulous care and careful selection of recipients were essential prerequisites for achieving successful outcomes.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries/etiology , COVID-19 , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Heart Massage/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation , Liver/injuries , Liver/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/complications , Abdominal Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Injuries/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Clinical Decision-Making , Donor Selection , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 739025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417086

ABSTRACT

A rise in adiposity in the United States has resulted in more than 70% of adults being overweight or obese, and global obesity rates have tripled since 1975. Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, obesity was characterized as a risk factor that could predict severe infection outcomes to viral infection. Amidst the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, obesity has remained a significant risk factor for severe viral disease as obese patients have a higher likelihood for developing severe symptoms and requiring hospitalization. However, the mechanism by which obesity enhances viral disease is unknown. In this study, we utilized a diet-induced obesity mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV) infection, a flavivirus that cycles between birds and mosquitoes and incidentally infects both humans and mice. Likelihood for severe WNV disease is associated with risk factors such as diabetes that are comorbidities also linked to obesity. Utilizing this model, we showed that obesity-associated chronic inflammation increased viral disease severity as obese female mice displayed higher mortality rates and elevated viral titers in the central nervous system. In addition, our studies highlighted that obesity also dysregulates host acute adaptive immune responses, as obese female mice displayed significant dysfunction in neutralizing antibody function. These studies highlight that obesity-induced immunological dysfunction begins at early time points post infection and is sustained through memory phase, thus illuminating a potential for obesity to alter the differentiation landscape of adaptive immune cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cytokines/blood , Obesity/immunology , West Nile Fever/mortality , West Nile virus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Liver/injuries , Liver/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , West Nile Fever/immunology , West Nile Fever/pathology
6.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 1018-1026, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired liver injury is associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19. This study investigated the temporal progression of clinical variables of in-hospital liver injury in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: COVID-19 patients (n = 1361) were divided into no, mild and severe liver injury (nLI, mLI and sLI) groups. Time courses of laboratory variables were time-locked to liver-injury onset defined by alanine aminotransferase level. Predictors of liver injury were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of mLI was 39.4% and sLI was 9.2%. Patients with escalated care had higher prevalence of sLI (23.2% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.05). sLI developed 9.4 days after hospitalization. sLI group used more invasive ventilation, anticoagulants, steroids, and dialysis (p < 0.05). sLI, but not mLI, had higher adjusted mortality odds ratio (= 1.37 [95% CI 1.10, 1.70], p = 0.005). Time courses of the clinical variables of the sLI group differed from those of the nLI and mLI group. In the sLI group, alanine aminotransferase, procalcitonin, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase showed similar temporal profiles, whereas white-blood-cell count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, respiration and heart rate were elevated early on, and lymphocyte and SpO2 were lower early on. The top predictors of sLI were alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, respiration rate, ferritin, and lymphocyte, yielding an AUC of 0.98, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.84 at 0, - 1, - 2 and - 3 days prior to onset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified key clinical variables predictive of liver injury in COVID-19, which may prove useful for management of liver injury. Late onset of sLI and more aggressive care are suggestive of treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver , Alanine Transaminase , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(7): e22795, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222632

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing an unprecedented pandemic caused by a newly recognized and highly pathogenic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; induced by SARS-CoV-2 virus), which is a severe and ongoing threat to global public health. Since COVID-19 was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, several drug regimens have rapidly undergone clinical trials for the management of COVID-19. However, one of the major issues is drug-induced organ injury, which is a prominent clinical challenge. Unfortunately, most drugs used against COVID-19 are associated with adverse effects in different organs, such as the kidney, heart, and liver. These side effects are dangerous and, in some cases, they can be lethal. More importantly, organ injury is also a clinical manifestation of COVID-19 infection. These adverse reactions are increasingly recognized as outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of drug-induced adverse effects from COVID-19-induced organ injury is a clinical complication. This review highlights the importance of drug-induced organ injury, its known mechanisms, and the potential therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 pharmacotherapy. We review the potential strategies for the differential diagnosis of drug-induced organ injury. This information can facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies, not only against COVID-19 but also for future outbreaks of other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/injuries , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/injuries , Liver/drug effects , Liver/injuries , Oxidative Stress
9.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 841-849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 2 million people worldwide over the course of just several months. Various studies have highlighted that patients infected with COVID-19 may develop various degrees of liver injury. Here, we discuss the impact of underlying liver disease and manifestations of hepatic injury with COVID-19. We also review mechanisms of hepatic injury. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed for all studies focused on hepatic injury in COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 13 studies that assessed the impact of underlying liver disease in patients infected with COVID-19 (N=3046). Underlying liver disease was one of the most common known comorbid categories in patients infected with COVID-19. Overall, 25% of the patients identified from the 13 studies had hepatic injury. Twenty-one percent and 24% had elevated alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values, respectively. Nine percent of the patients had elevated total bilirubin values. Ten of the 13 studies assessed COVID-19 acuity with severity of hepatic injury. In 9 of the 10 studies, clinical outcomes were worse with hepatic injury. CONCLUSIONS: Liver injury is highly prevalent in patients that present with COVID-19. Since the liver is one of the most affected organs outside of the respiratory system in COVID-19, more intensive surveillance is warranted for severe cases, particularly among those with pre-existing advanced liver disease.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hepatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Hepatic Insufficiency/diagnosis , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928849, 2020 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Emerging studies noted that liver injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be induced by virus-mediated inflammation, which was confirmed by liver pathology. The aim of this study was to observe clinical characteristics and explore risk factors in COVID-19 patients with liver injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 40 confirmed COVID-19 patients with normal alanine transaminase (ALT) on admission were divided into a group of normal ALT patients whose ALT was always less than 40 U/l during hospitalization and a group of elevated ALT patients whose ALT was at least once more than 40 U/l after admission. Clinical data, especially virus-induced inflammatory parameters, were analyzed for risk factors and predictive value. The Mann-Whitney U test and t test for comparing means and logistic regression were performed for analysis of risk factors. Area under the ROC curve was used for predictive values. RESULTS Sixteen of 40 (40.0%) patients developed elevated ALT, many of them with more severe COVID-19. The highest ALT level was 101 U/l. The risk factors for liver injury were C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), CD8+T cell count, and severity of disease, and CRP (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.045-1.222, p=0.002) was the independent risk factor. CONCLUSIONS Liver injury in COVID-19 patients was mild and associated with inflammatory markers, especially CRP, which suggests that liver injury may be induced by virus-mediated inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver/metabolism , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/analysis , Liver/injuries , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 83(3): 454-460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a public health emergency of international concern, causing thousands of deaths worldwide. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis in order to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19-induced liver injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library, for studies reporting laboratory data about COVID-19 patients, with last update on 25th March 2020. The primary outcome was the pooled prevalence of COVID- 19-induced liver damage, mainly represented by increase in serum transaminases and bilirubin. The secondary outcome was the description of abnormalities in serum albumin and prothrombin time (PT). We focused on laboratory data only on hospital admission, and adopted random-effects model for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eleven studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Out of 793 included patients, the pooled prevalence of COVID-19-related liver damage was 22.17% (95% CI 17.64 to 27.07), mostly indicated by hypertransaminasemia. Serum bilirubin was increased in 5.53% (95% CI 3.60 to 7.85) of cases. Abnormal serum albumin was observed in 78.92% (95% CI 39.82 to 99.56), and increased PT value in 19.98% (95% CI 2.49 to 78.23), but these results derived from significantly heterogeneous studies. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-induced liver injury must not be ignored, as it is observed in one fifth of infected patients. Prospective studies evaluating liver function during the course of COVID-19 are needed to provide a complete overview of hepatic involvement during this viral infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver/injuries , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 80-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979832

ABSTRACT

The interaction between existing chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and COVID-19 has not been studied. We analysed 70 COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection (CHI) to determine the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome. We investigated clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 patients of seven hospitals from Jan 20 to March 20, 2020. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse risk factors for progression of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. Compared with COVID-19 without HBV infection (WHI) group, patients with dual infection had a higher proportion of severe/critically ill disease (32.86% vs. 15.27%, P = .000), higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) [50(28-69)vs 21(14-30), P = .000; 40(25-54) vs 23(18-30), P = .000; 34.0(27.2-38.7) vs 37.2(31.1-41.4), P = .031]. The utilization rates of Arbidol and immunoglobulin were significantly higher than those in the co-infected group [48.57% vs. 35.64%, P < .05; 21.43% vs. 8.18%, P < .001], while the utilization rate of chloroquine phosphate was lower (1.43% vs 14.00%, P < .05) in the co-infected patients group. Age and c-reactive protein (CRP) level were independent risk factors for recovery of patients with COVID-19 combined with HBV infection. The original characteristics of COVID-19 cases combined with HBV infection were higher rate of liver injury, coagulation disorders, severe/critical tendency and increased susceptibility. The elderly and patients with higher level of CRP were more likely to experience a severe outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver/pathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 4-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944757

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), with an estimated 22 million people infected worldwide so far although involving primarily the respiratory tract, has a remarkable tropism for the liver and the biliary tract. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and no antecedent liver disease may display evidence of cytolytic liver damage, proportional to the severity of COVID-19 but rarely of clinical significance. The mechanism of hepatocellular injury is unclear and possibly multifactorial. The clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease, a cohort whose global size is difficult to estimate, has been assessed appropriately only recently and data are still evolving. Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 and worse liver-related outcomes as compared to those with non-cirrhotic liver disease. OLT patients have an intermediate risk. Specific interventions in order to reduce the risk of transmission of infection among this high-risk population have been outlined by international societies, together with recommendations for modified treatment and follow-up regimens during the COVID-19 pandemic. When a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 becomes available, patients with fibrotic liver disease and those with OLT should be considered as prime targets for prophylaxis of COVID-19, as all other highly susceptible subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver/injuries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Humans , Liver/virology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Risk
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110033, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623792

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the entire world has witnessed the birth of a new member of coronavirus family in Wuhan, China. Ever since, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has swiftly invaded every corner on the planet. By the end of April 2020, almost 3.5 million cases have been reported worldwide, with a death toll of about 250,000 deaths. It is currently well-recognized that patient's immune response plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This inflammatory element was evidenced by its elevated mediators that, in severe cases, reach their peak in a cytokine storm. Together with the reported markers of liver injury, such hyperinflammatory state may trigger significant derangements in hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolic machinery, and subsequent modulation of drug clearance that may result in unexpected therapeutic/toxic response. We hypothesize that COVID-19 patients are potentially vulnerable to a significant disease-drug interaction, and therefore, suitable dosing guidelines with therapeutic drug monitoring should be implemented to assure optimal clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/chemistry , Drug Interactions , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/genetics , Liver/injuries , Liver/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Treatment Outcome , Vulnerable Populations
15.
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1775-1781, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were mainly based on information from adult populations. Limited data are available for children with COVID-19, especially for infected infants. METHODS: We report a 55-day-old case with COVID-19 confirmed in China and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of the patient, including the disease progression from day 7 to day 11 of illness. RESULTS: This case highlights that children with COVID-19 can also present with multiple organ damage and rapid disease changes. CONCLUSIONS: When managing such infant patients with COVID-19, frequent and careful clinical monitoring is essential.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Heart Injuries/etiology , Liver/injuries , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Hepatol ; 73(3): 566-574, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent data on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun to shine light on the impact of the disease on the liver. But no studies to date have systematically described liver test abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with abnormal liver test results. METHODS: Clinical records and laboratory results were obtained from 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China from January 11 to February 21, 2020 and followed up to March 7, 2020. Information on clinical features of patients with abnormal liver tests were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 patients with COVID-19, 318 (76.3%) had abnormal liver test results and 90 (21.5%) had liver injury during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests became more pronounced during hospitalization within 2 weeks, with 49 (23.4%), 31 (14.8%), 24 (11.5%) and 51 (24.4%) patients having alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels elevated to more than 3× the upper limit of normal, respectively. Patients with abnormal liver tests of hepatocellular type or mixed type at admission had higher odds of progressing to severe disease (odds ratios [ORs] 2.73; 95% CI 1.19-6.3, and 4.44, 95% CI 1.93-10.23, respectively). The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients with abnormal liver tests were at higher risk of progressing to severe disease. The detrimental effects on liver injury mainly related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which should be monitored and evaluated frequently. LAY SUMMARY: Data on liver tests in patients with COVID-19 are scarce. We observed a high prevalence of liver test abnormalities and liver injury in 417 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our referral center, and the prevalence increased substantially during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests and liver injury were associated with the progression to severe pneumonia. The detrimental effects on liver injury were related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which warrants frequent monitoring and evaluation for these patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Liver/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Liver/injuries , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
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