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Front Public Health ; 9: 750551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775934


Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial infectious diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis globally, and is recognized as a significant zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance amongst Campylobacter isolates is a significant global concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify and characterize Campylobacter species in humans, animals and water sources in livestock owning households of peri-urban Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and to characterize antimicrobial resistance. A total of 519 fecal samples from humans (n = 99), livestock (n = 179), poultry (n = 69), and water (n = 172) were collected. Samples were cultured for viable Campylobacter spp. and multiplex PCR utilized for the identification and confirmation. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 67/519 (13.0%) of the total tested samples, and the household level prevalence of Campylobacter was 42.4%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was: humans (10.1%), cattle (18.5%), poultry (13.0%), sheep (13.3%), goats (7.1%), and water (10.5%). Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus were the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. coli. The majority of isolates obtained from human samples had co-occurrence with isolates from cattle, poultry or water samples from the same household. The use of stored water, the practice of indoor and outdoor manure collecting, and animal species Campylobacter positivity were significantly associated with greater odds of human Campylobacter spp. positivity. All Campylobacter isolates from humans, poultry, sheep, goats and water, and 96.0% of isolates from cattle were resistant to at least one or more of the tested antimicrobials, with 95.5% of isolates resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. A One Health approach is recommended to further investigate Campylobacter species infections, and other zoonotic infectious diseases, in the livestock owning populations in Ethiopia, where there is close interaction between humans, animals and the environment.

Campylobacter , One Health , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Livestock , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sheep , Water
Int J Food Microbiol ; 366: 109572, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719840


Listeria monocytogenes remains a significant public health threat, leading to invasive listeriosis with severe manifestations (i.e. septicemia, meningitis, and abortion) and up to 30% of fatal cases. Here, we aimed to investigate genotypic diversity, virulence profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns from a large and integrated population of L. monocytogenes isolates in China (n = 369), including food (n = 326), livestock (n = 25), and hospitalized humans (n = 18) over the years (2002-2019). PCR-based serogrouping showed the dominance of serogroup 1/2a-3a (37.4%) in food, 4a-4c (76%) in livestock, and 1/2a-3a (44.4%) in humans. Phylogenetic lineage analysis revealed the dominance of lineage II (63.4%) in food, lineage III (76%) in livestock, and lineage II (55.5%) in humans. Altogether, 369 isolates were grouped into 55 sequence types (STs) via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), which belonged to 26 clonal complexes (CCs) and 17 singletons. Among various STs, ST9 (26%) was the most abundant in food, ST202 (76%) in livestock, and ST8 (16.6%) in humans. Overall, ST4/CC4, ST218/CC218, and ST619 isolates harbored both LIPI-3 and LIPI-4 genes subsets indicating their hypervirulence potential. Additionally, a low resistance was observed towards tetracycline (5.1%), erythromycin (3.2%), cotrimoxazole (2.9%), chloramphenicol (2.7%), gentamicin (2.4%), and ampicillin (2.1%). Collectively, detection of hypervirulent determinants and antimicrobial-resistant phenotype among Chinese isolates poses an alarming threat to food safety and public health, which requires a continued and enhanced surveillance system for further prevention of human listeriosis.

Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Listeria monocytogenes , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , China/epidemiology , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Listeriosis/epidemiology , Listeriosis/veterinary , Livestock/microbiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Phylogeny , Virulence Factors/genetics
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0252972, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598722


SARS-CoV-2 has clearly shown that efficient management of infectious diseases requires a top-down approach which must be complemented with a bottom-up response to be effective. Here we investigate a novel approach to surveillance for transboundary animal diseases using African Swine (ASF) fever as a model. We collected data both at a population level and at the local level on information-seeking behavior respectively through digital data and targeted questionnaire-based surveys to relevant stakeholders such as pig farmers and veterinary authorities. Our study shows how information-seeking behavior and resulting public attention during an epidemic, can be identified through novel data streams from digital platforms such as Wikipedia. Leveraging attention in a critical moment can be key to providing the correct information at the right moment, especially to an interested cohort of people. We also bring evidence on how field surveys aimed at local workers and veterinary authorities remain a crucial tool to assess more in-depth preparedness and awareness among front-line actors. We conclude that these two tools should be used in combination to maximize the outcome of surveillance and prevention activities for selected transboundary animal diseases such as ASF.

African Swine Fever/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Livestock/virology , Animals , Awareness , Estonia/epidemiology , Farmers , Internet , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surveys and Questionnaires , Swine
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511821


INTRODUCTION: Anthrax is the highest-ranked priority zoonotic disease in Kenya with about ten human cases annually. Anthrax outbreak was reported in Kisumu East Sub County after some villagers slaughtered and ate beef from a cow suspected to have died of anthrax. We aimed at establishing the magnitude of the outbreak, described associated factors, and assessed community knowledge, attitude, and practices on anthrax. METHODS: We reviewed human and animal records, conducted case search and contact tracing using standard case definitions in the period from July 1through to July 28, 2019. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess community knowledge, attitude, and practices towards anthrax. The household selection was done using multistage sampling. We cleaned and analyzed data in Ms. Excel and Epi Info. Descriptive statistics were carried out for continuous and categorical variables while analytical statistics for the association between dependent and independent variables were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 53 persons exposed through consumption or contact with suspicious beef, 23 cases (confirmed: 1, probable: 4, suspected: 18) were reviewed. The proportion of females was 52.17% (12/23), median age 13.5 years and range 45 years. The attack rate was 43.4% (23/53) and the case fatality rate was 4.35% (1/23). Knowledge level, determined by dividing those considered to be 'having good knowledge' on anthrax (numerator) by the total number of respondents (denominator) in the population regarding cause, transmission, symptoms and prevention was 51% for human anthrax and 52% for animal anthrax. Having good knowledge on anthrax was associated with rural residence [OR = 5.5 (95% CI 2.1-14.4; p<0.001)], having seen a case of anthrax [OR = 6.2 (95% CI 2.8-14.2; p<0.001)] and among those who present cattle for vaccination [OR = 2.6 (95% CI 1.2-5.6; p = 0.02)]. About 23.2% (26/112) would slaughter and sell beef to neighbors while 63.4% (71/112) would bury or burn the carcass. Nearly 93.8% (105/112) believed vaccination prevents anthrax. However, 5.4% (62/112) present livestock for vaccination. CONCLUSION: Most anthrax exposures were through meat consumption. Poor knowledge of the disease might hamper prevention and control efforts.

Anthrax/epidemiology , Bacillus anthracis/pathogenicity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Anthrax/microbiology , Anthrax/psychology , Cattle , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Livestock/microbiology , Male , Meat Products/microbiology , Middle Aged , Red Meat/microbiology , Risk Factors , Vaccination , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/microbiology
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680


We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.

COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481009


The livestock industry is constantly threatened by viral disease outbreaks, including infections with zoonotic potential. While preventive vaccination is frequently applied, disease control and eradication also depend on strict biosecurity measures. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated proteins (Cas) have been repurposed as genome editors to induce targeted double-strand breaks at almost any location in the genome. Thus, CRISPR/Cas genome editors can also be utilized to generate disease-resistant or resilient livestock, develop vaccines, and further understand virus-host interactions. Genes of interest in animals and viruses can be targeted to understand their functions during infection. Furthermore, transgenic animals expressing CRISPR/Cas can be generated to target the viral genome upon infection. Genetically modified livestock can thereby reduce disease outbreaks and decrease zoonotic threats.

Gene Editing/methods , Livestock/virology , Viruses/genetics , Animal Husbandry/methods , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Viruses/pathogenicity
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444334


Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.

Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cats/virology , Cattle/virology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Dogs/virology , Livestock/virology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444333


Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.

Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Gammacoronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Livestock/virology , Rodentia/virology
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 497-509, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431209


Growth in the livestock sector is associated with heightened risk for epidemic diseases. The increasing spillover of new diseases from wildlife is being driven by wide-scale anthropogenic changes allowing for more frequent and closer wildlife-human and wildlife-livestock contacts. An increasing number of epidemics in livestock are associated with rapid transition of livestock systems from extensive to intensive, and local to global movement of livestock and their products through value chain networks with weak biosecurity. Major livestock epidemics in the past two decades have had substantial economic impacts, and the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the devastating socio-economic consequences that spillovers can have when not identified and controlled early in the process of emergence. This highlights the importance of Veterinary Services to integrated, whole-of-society efforts to control infectious diseases in animals. Emphasis within Veterinary Services must be placed on prevention and preparedness. The authors suggest four areas for continued improvement in Veterinary Services to meet this challenge. These are a) continued development of staff capacity for risk assessment and value chain analysis, together with improved policies and communication, b) appropriate adaptation of approaches to prevention and control in resource-poor settings, c) improved multi-sectoral and transboundary cooperation, which enables the sharing of resources and expertise, and d) systematic approaches that enable Veterinary Services to influence decisionmaking for trade, markets, business, public health, and livelihood development at the national and regional levels.

La croissance du secteur de l'élevage est associée à un risque accru de maladies épidémiques. Les changements anthropiques à grande échelle sont à l'origine du nombre croissant de maladies émergentes atteignant de nouvelles espèces réceptives (spillover) à partir de réservoirs sauvages, à la faveur de contacts plus fréquents et plus rapprochés entre la faune sauvage et les humains, d'une part, et entre la faune sauvage et les animaux domestiques, d'autre part. On considère qu'un nombre croissant d'épidémies affectant le bétail sont dues à la transition rapide des systèmes d'élevage extensif vers des systèmes intensifs, et aux mouvements du bétail et des produits de l'élevage de l'échelle locale à l'échelle mondiale par le biais de réseaux de chaînes de valeur dotés d'un faible niveau de biosécurité. Au cours des deux dernières décennies, d'importantes épidémies affectant le bétail ont eu un impact économique considérable ; en outre, la pandémie de COVID-19 a mis en évidence les conséquences socio-économiques dévastatrices des atteintes de nouvelles espèces réceptives par des agents pathogènes, lorsque ces maladies ne sont pas détectées et maîtrisées dès le processus d'émergence. Cela souligne l'importance cruciale des Services vétérinaires dans les efforts de lutte contre les maladies infectieuses chez les animaux, qui doivent être intégrés et mobiliser la société entière. Les Services vétérinaires doivent mettre un accent particulier sur la prévention et la préparation. Les auteurs proposent quatre aspects d'amélioration continue pour que les Services vétérinaires puissent relever ce défi. Il s'agit : a) du développement permanent des compétences des personnels vétérinaires en matière d'évaluation du risque et d'analyse des chaînes de valeur, et leur articulation avec de meilleures politiques et une communication plus performante ; b) une adaptation adéquate des méthodes de prévention et de contrôle dans les configurations faiblement dotées en ressources ; c) une meilleure coopération multisectorielle et transfrontalière afin de partager les ressources et les compétences ; d) des dispositifs systémiques permettant aux Services vétérinaires d'influencer les prises de décision en matière d'échanges internationaux, de marchés, de commerce, de santé publique et de développement des moyens de subsistance, à l'échelle nationale et régionale.

El crecimiento del sector pecuario está condicionado por la existencia de un mayor riesgo de enfermedades epidémicas. La creciente diseminación de nuevas enfermedades a partir de animales silvestres es consecuencia de transformaciones antrópicas a gran escala que posibilitan un contacto más frecuente y estrecho de la fauna silvestre con el ser humano y el ganado. Cada vez son más las epidemias del ganado que tienen que ver con la rápida transición de los sistemas pecuarios de un régimen de producción extensiva a otro de producción intensiva y con el paso de la dimensión local a la mundial de la circulación de animales y sus derivados a través de redes de cadenas de valor que presentan una endeble seguridad biológica. En los últimos dos decenios ha habido grandes epidemias que han afectado al ganado y tenido importantes consecuencias económicas. La pandemia de COVID-19 es un elocuente ejemplo de los devastadores efectos socioeconómicos que puede tener la extensión de un patógeno cuando no se detecta y controla en un momento lo bastante precoz del proceso de emergencia. Ello pone de relieve la importancia que revisten los Servicios Veterinarios para que toda la sociedad pueda reaccionar de forma integrada a la hora de combatir las enfermedades infecciosas de los animales. Dentro de los Servicios Veterinarios, conviene poner el acento en la prevención y la preparación. Para lograr este objetivo los autores señalan cuatro ámbitos que exigen una constante mejora: a) el desarrollo continuo de la capacidad del personal en materia de determinación de riesgos y análisis de cadenas de valor, ligado a la mejora de las políticas y la comunicación; b) la adecuada adaptación de los métodos de prevención y control en contextos de escasos recursos; c) una mejor cooperación multisectorial y transfronteriza, que permita poner en común recursos y competencias técnicas; y d) enfoques sistemáticos que hagan posible que los Servicios Veterinarios influyan en los procesos decisorios relativos al desarrollo del comercio, los mercados, las empresas, la salud pública y los medios de sustento a escala tanto nacional como regional.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Livestock , SARS-CoV-2
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 413-420, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431208


The world is facing a broad range of challenges related to agriculture, and particularly the livestock sector, including threats to productivity, the natural environment and human health. While much research has been conducted into potential risks and their drivers, the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated how governments can be affected by shocks that are to some extent predictable but for which they are often ill prepared. Policy seeks to anticipate and also influence the future and, as policy-makers, national Veterinary Services have an important role in both anticipating and influencing the future of their countries and the world. In the first part of this paper, the author summarises a wide range of Foresight methodologies and tools relevant to, or used by, Veterinary Services or veterinary researchers. This discussion is followed by an example of the adaptation and application of a Foresight framework tailored specifically to Veterinary Services. Finally, the author draws conclusions on Foresight methodologies useful to Veterinary Services.

Le monde est confronté à un large éventail de défis en lien avec l'agriculture et plus particulièrement avec le secteur de l'élevage, parmi lesquels figurent les menaces pesant sur la productivité, l'environnement naturel et la santé humaine. Alors même que maints travaux de recherches ont été menés sur les risques potentiels et leurs facteurs déterminants, la pandémie de COVID-19 de 2020 a montré que les gouvernements peuvent être atteints par des chocs qui sont, jusqu'à un certain point, prévisibles, mais auxquels ils sont souvent mal préparés. La politique cherche à anticiper et à influencer l'avenir ; en tant que responsables des politiques à mener, les Services vétérinaires nationaux jouent un rôle majeur aussi bien pour anticiper l'avenir de leur pays et du monde que pour y influer. Dans une première partie, l'auteure décrit brièvement les diverses méthodes et outils de prospective utilisés par les Services vétérinaires ou les chercheurs du secteur vétérinaire, ou qui présentent un intérêt pour eux. Elle examine ensuite l'exemple d'un cadre de prospective qui a été adapté et appliqué dans le but de répondre spécifiquement aux besoins des Services vétérinaires. Enfin, elle tire des conclusions sur les méthodes de prospective les plus utiles pour les Services vétérinaires.

El mundo hace frente a un rosario de problemas ligados a la agricultura, y en especial al sector ganadero, entre ellos las amenazas que pesan sobre la productividad, el medio natural y la salud humana. Aunque se ha investigado mucho sobre los posibles riesgos y sus condicionantes, la pandemia de COVID-19 de 2020 puso de relieve cuán afectados pueden verse los gobiernos por choques hasta cierto punto predecibles, pero para los cuales suelen estar mal preparados. Las políticas tienen por objetivo anticipar el futuro y también influir en él. Los Servicios Veterinarios nacionales, como artífices que son de ciertas políticas, cumplen una importante función a la hora de prever y orientar el futuro de su país y del mundo. En la primera parte del artículo, la autora resume toda una serie de métodos y herramientas de prospectiva que emplean los Servicios Veterinarios o los investigadores en veterinaria o que revisten interés para ellos. A continuación presenta un ejemplo de adaptación y aplicación de un marco de prospectiva concebido específicamente para los Servicios Veterinarios. Por último, extrae conclusiones sobre los métodos de prospectiva que son de utilidad para los Servicios Veterinarios.

COVID-19 , Veterinary Medicine , Agriculture , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Livestock , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 395-411, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431207


Rising per capita consumption, economic growth, and urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, have been driving an increased global demand for food. These changing socio-economic trends, which have greatly influenced changes in dietary patterns globally and, more specifically, have increased consumption of livestock products in developing countries, are expected to endure and to place new pressures on livestock-sector infrastructure and the delivery of veterinary services. This paper summarises current trade in meat and presents plausible projections for the future. It highlights the impact of animal disease on trade and considers the effect of ongoing disease outbreaks, particularly the outbreaks of African swine fever and COVID-19, on current and future trade dynamics. The authors analysed published statistics on the demand for, and international trade in, livestock products at national and regional levels and made projections of the same up to 2050, generated from an integrated model of the global agricultural and food system. The resulting analyses identified patterns of trade consistent with growing populations, increasing incomes and changing diets in developing countries. The analyses also pointed to slow expansion of livestock production, and the impacts of countries' disease status on livestock trade. For most of the livestock products analysed, economic model projections indicate increased consolidation of production and exports among a few countries. Marked increases in the trade in livestock products suggest a changing role for Veterinary Services in facilitating trade and extension in the years to come.

La demande mondiale en denrées alimentaires connaît une hausse continue sous l'effet conjugué de la progression de la consommation par habitant, de la croissance économique et de l'urbanisation, en particulier dans les pays en développement. Ces tendances socio-économiques ont modifié les structures des régimes alimentaires dans le monde, plus spécifiquement dans les pays en développement où la consommation de denrées alimentaires d'origine animale s'est accrue, et elles vont très certainement perdurer et exercer de nouvelles pressions sur les infrastructures du secteur de l'élevage comme sur les prestations de services vétérinaires. Les auteurs font une synthèse de l'état actuel des échanges internationaux de viande et présentent quelques projections plausibles concernant l'avenir. Ils soulignent l'impact des maladies animales sur les échanges et examinent les répercussions que les foyers actuels de maladies peuvent avoir sur les dynamiques actuelles et futures des échanges, en citant la peste porcine africaine et l'épidémie de COVID-19 à titre d'illustrations. Les auteurs analysent ensuite les statistiques publiées relatives à la demande en produits issus de l'élevage et aux échanges internationaux de ces produits à l'échelle nationale et régionale, et présentent leurs propres projections de ces tendances jusqu'en 2050, élaborées à partir d'un modèle intégré du système agricole et alimentaire mondial. Les analyses qui en résultent font apparaître que les structures des échanges évolueront parallèlement à la croissance démographique, à l'augmentation des revenus et aux modifications des régimes alimentaires dans les pays en développement. Les analyses relèvent également une croissance lente de l'élevage, ainsi que les conséquences du statut sanitaire des pays sur les échanges commerciaux. Pour la plupart des produits issus de l'élevage pris en compte dans cette analyse, les projections du modèle économique prévoient une concentration accrue de la production et des exportations, dans un nombre limité de pays. Une augmentation marquée des échanges de produits issus de l'élevage devra s'accompagner d'une évolution du rôle des Services vétérinaires afin de faciliter les échanges et de soutenir leur extension dans les années à venir.

El aumento del consumo per cápita, el crecimiento económico y los procesos de urbanización, especialmente en los países en desarrollo, han venido induciendo una mayor demanda mundial de alimentos. Estas tendencias socioeconómicas han influido sobremanera en la evolución de los regímenes alimentarios en todo el mundo y, más concretamente, han llevado a un mayor consumo de productos ganaderos en los países en desarrollo. Según apuntan las previsiones, esta evolución se prolongará en el tiempo y ejercerá nuevas presiones sobre la infraestructura del sector pecuario y la prestación de servicios veterinarios. Los autores resumen la situación actual del comercio de productos cárnicos y presentan proyecciones plausibles de lo que puede deparar el futuro. Tras destacar el peso que tienen las enfermedades animales en el comercio, examinan los efectos de brotes infecciosos hoy en curso, en particular de peste porcina africana y COVID-19, sobre la dinámica actual y futura del comercio. Los autores analizaron las estadísticas publicadas sobre la demanda y el comercio internacional de productos procedentes de la ganadería, por países y regiones, tras lo cual hicieron proyecciones del curso de estas tendencias hasta 2050, generadas a partir de un modelo integrado del sistema agrícola y alimentario mundial. Los análisis resultantes depararon una configuración del comercio coherente con poblaciones cada vez más numerosas, un creciente nivel de ingresos y cambios en el régimen alimentario en los países en desarrollo. Los análisis también apuntaban a una lenta expansión de la producción pecuaria y ponían de relieve la influencia de la situación sanitaria de los países en el comercio de ganado. Para la mayoría de los productos ganaderos analizados, las proyecciones de los modelos económicos apuntaban a una mayor concentración en unos pocos países de la actividad de producción y exportación. La marcada intensificación del comercio de productos ganaderos lleva a pensar en una evolución del papel de los Servicios Veterinarios para facilitar el comercio y su extensión en los próximos años.

African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Commerce , Developing Countries , Internationality , Livestock , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369767


According to Darwin's theory, endless evolution leads to a revolution. One such example is the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system, an adaptive immunity system in most archaea and many bacteria. Gene editing technology possesses a crucial potential to dramatically impact miscellaneous areas of life, and CRISPR-Cas represents the most suitable strategy. The system has ignited a revolution in the field of genetic engineering. The ease, precision, affordability of this system is akin to a Midas touch for researchers editing genomes. Undoubtedly, the applications of this system are endless. The CRISPR-Cas system is extensively employed in the treatment of infectious and genetic diseases, in metabolic disorders, in curing cancer, in developing sustainable methods for fuel production and chemicals, in improving the quality and quantity of food crops, and thus in catering to global food demands. Future applications of CRISPR-Cas will provide benefits for everyone and will save countless lives. The technology is evolving rapidly; therefore, an overview of continuous improvement is important. In this review, we aim to elucidate the current state of the CRISPR-Cas revolution in a tailor-made format from its discovery to exciting breakthroughs at the application level and further upcoming trends related to opportunities and challenges including ethical concerns.

CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Engineering/methods , Animals , Archaea/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Genetic Engineering/history , Genome , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Livestock
Animal ; 15(6): 100241, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1250997


The ongoing coronavirus disease 19s pandemic has yet again demonstrated the importance of the human-animal interface in the emergence of zoonotic diseases, and in particular the role of wildlife and livestock species as potential hosts and virus reservoirs. As most diseases emerge out of the human-animal interface, a better understanding of the specific drivers and mechanisms involved is crucial to prepare for future disease outbreaks. Interactions between wildlife and livestock systems contribute to the emergence of zoonotic diseases, especially in the face of globalization, habitat fragmentation and destruction and climate change. As several groups of viruses and bacteria are more likely to emerge, we focus on pathogenic viruses of the Bunyavirales, Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, and Paramyxoviridae, as well as bacterial species including Mycobacterium sp., Brucella sp., Bacillus anthracis and Coxiella burnetii. Noteworthy, it was difficult to predict the drivers of disease emergence in the past, even for well-known pathogens. Thus, an improved surveillance in hotspot areas and the availability of fast, effective, and adaptable control measures would definitely contribute to preparedness. We here propose strategies to mitigate the risk of emergence and/or re-emergence of prioritized pathogens to prevent future epidemics.

Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Livestock , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 1279569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225726


Due to changes in the livestock sector and the rise of consumer demand for comprehensive and integrated food security and safety, there has been a concern on the use of farm data in enhancing animal traceability and decision-making by farmers and other decision-makers in the livestock sector. To ensure high production through effective decision-making and auditable standards, producers are required to have better traceability and record systems. Therefore, this study aimed at (1) reviewing the current recording/data management and animal traceability systems used by small-scale farmers in developing countries and (2) analyzing how data management systems should be designed to enhance efficient decision-making and animal traceability from farm to fork. This study found that, still, a majority of small-scale farmers do not keep records leading to poor decision-making on the farm and policymaking. We also found that those who keep records do not store their data in electronic format, which again poses another challenge in data analysis. Moreover, this study found that the majority of traceability tools used by farmers in developing countries do not meet international standards based on tools they use for tracing animals; farmers were reported to use tools like branding and ear tagging, which provide very little information about the animal. Such tools lack the capability to keep track of useful information about an animal, e.g., information about feeding and animal health. In conclusion, this study recommended a better electronic system to be used at the farm level to facilitate data analysis, hence promoting informed decision-making and adherence to the international animal traceability standards. Otherwise, there is a need for researchers to conduct more studies in developing different analytical models for exploring on-farm data in order to improve the decision-making process by farmers and other stakeholders.

Animal Husbandry , Decision Making , Farmers , Information Technology , Livestock , Animals , Humans , Policy Making
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1351-1360, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196508


While the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to wreak havoc, there is little known about the susceptibility of the livestock and companion animals relative to humans. Here, we explore the susceptibility of companion and agricultural animals, in light of the existing information on natural infections, experimental infections, serosurveillance, and in vitro protein-homology binding interaction studies of the SARS-CoV-2 with the proposed receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 from diverse animal species.

COVID-19/veterinary , Livestock/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Host Specificity , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Adv Virus Res ; 110: 59-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172111


Within only one year after the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), nearly 100 million infections were reported in the human population globally, with more than two million fatal cases. While SARS-CoV-2 most likely originated from a natural wildlife reservoir, neither the immediate viral precursor nor the reservoir or intermediate hosts have been identified conclusively. Due to its zoonotic origin, SARS-CoV-2 may also be relevant to animals. Thus, to evaluate the host range of the virus and to assess the risk to act as potential animal reservoir, a large number of different animal species were experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 or monitored in the field in the last months. In this review, we provide an update on studies describing permissive and resistant animal species. Using a scoring system based on viral genome detection subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 inoculation, seroconversion, the development of clinical signs and transmission to conspecifics or humans, the susceptibility of diverse animal species was classified on a semi-quantitative scale. While major livestock species such as pigs, cattle and poultry are mostly resistant, companion animals appear moderately susceptible, while several model animal species used in research, including several Cricetidae species and non-human primates, are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. By natural infections, it became obvious that American minks (Neovison vison) in fur farms, e.g., in the Netherlands and Denmark are highly susceptible resulting in local epidemics in these animals.

COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , Models, Animal , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104614
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009143, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097205


A majority of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonotic, mainly caused through spillover events linked to human-animal interactions. We conducted a survey-based human behavioral study in Laikipia County, Kenya, which is characterized by a dynamic human-wildlife-livestock interface. Questionnaires that assessed human-animal interactions, sanitation, and illnesses experienced within the past year were distributed to 327 participants among five communities in Laikipia. This study aimed to 1) describe variation in reported high-risk behaviors by community type and 2) assess the relationship between specific behaviors and self-reported illnesses. Behavioral trends were assessed in R via Fisher's exact tests. A generalized linear mixed model with Lasso penalization (GLMMLasso) was used to assess correlations between behaviors and participants' self-reported illness within the past year, with reported behaviors as independent variables and reported priority symptoms as the outcome. Reported behaviors varied significantly among the study communities. Participants from one community (Pastoralist-1) were significantly more likely to report eating a sick animal in the past year (p< 0.001), collecting an animal found dead to sell in the past year (p<0.0001), and not having a designated location for human waste (p<0.0001) when compared to participants from other communities. The GLMMLasso revealed that reports of an ill person in the household in the past year was significantly associated with self-reported illness. Sixty-eight percent of participants reported that bushmeat is available within the communities. Our study demonstrates community-level variation in behaviors that may influence zoonotic pathogen exposure. We further recommend development of targeted studies that explore behavioral variations among land use systems in animal production contexts.

Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Zoonoses , Adolescent , Animals , Animals, Wild , Child , Female , Humans , Kenya , Livestock , Male , Risk Factors , Sanitation , Surveys and Questionnaires