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Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE00122, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20240462

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o ambiente da prática profissional em enfermagem na perspectiva de estudantes no contexto da pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos Estudo transversal, realizado com amostra por conveniência de 43 estudantes da última série do bacharelado em Enfermagem de uma universidade federal, localizada no município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Variáveis de caracterização: gênero, etnia, idade, local de estágio e um questionamento se já trabalharam e/ou realizam estágio extracurricular na área. Aplicou-se o Instrumento Practice Environment Scale - versão brasileira validada, composto de 24 itens e 5 subescalas. Os dados foram analisados com estatística descritiva e inferencial por meio dos testes: Kruskal Wallis, ANOVA, Tukey, t-student e Mann Whitney. Foi realizada a análise de regressão logística. Considerou-se como nível de significância de p<0,005. Resultados A Subescala 3 "adequação da equipe e de recursos" foi a única que apresentou média desfavorável (53,49%). A variável "ter trabalhado e/ou realizado estágio extracurricular" mostrou-se estatisticamente significante na Subescala 2 "habilidade, liderança e suporte dos coordenadores/supervisores de enfermagem aos enfermeiros/equipe de enfermagem" (p=0,003). Na média geral, os estudantes avaliaram o ambiente como favorável (p<0,001). Conclusão Apesar do contexto, a maioria dos estudantes avaliaram o ambiente como favorável. A variável "ter trabalhado e/ou realizado estágio extracurricular" foi estatisticamente significativa. A capacitação das lideranças, o fortalecimento de programas de educação continuada e o envolvimento dos enfermeiros nas atividades, resoluções de problemas e comissões internas da instituição, são considerados preâmbulos para ofertar uma assistência qualificada dentro de um ambiente de prática profissional próximo do favorável.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el ambiente de la práctica profesional de enfermería por la perspectiva de estudiantes en el contexto de la pandemia del COVID-19. Métodos Estudio transversal, realizado con muestra por conveniencia de 43 estudiantes del último año del grado de Enfermería de una universidad federal, ubicada en el municipio de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. Variables de caracterización: género, etnia, edad, lugar de la pasantía y un interrogante sobre si ya trabajaron o realizan una pasantía extracurricular en el área. Se aplicó el Instrumento Practice Environment Scale - versión brasileña validada, compuesto por 24 ítems y 5 subescalas. Los datos fueron analizados con estadística descriptiva e inferencial por medio de las pruebas: Kruskal Wallis, ANOVA, Tukey, t-student y Mann Whitney. Se realizó el análisis de regresión logística. Se consideró un nivel de significación de p<0,005. Resultados La Subescala 3 "adecuación del equipo y de recursos" fue la única que presentó un promedio desfavorable (53,49 %). La variable "haber trabajado o realizado una pasantía extracurricular" se mostró estadísticamente significante en la Subescala 2 "habilidad, liderazgo y suporte de los coordinadores/supervisores de enfermería a los enfermeros/equipo de enfermería" (p=0,003). En el promedio general, los estudiantes evaluaron al ambiente como favorable (p<0,001). Conclusión Pese al contexto, la mayoría de los estudiantes evaluaron al ambiente como favorable. La variable "haber trabajado o realizado una pasantía extracurricular" fue estadísticamente significante. La capacitación de los liderazgos, el fortalecimiento de programas de educación continua y la participación de los enfermeros en las actividades, resoluciones de problemas y comisiones internas de la institución, son considerados preámbulos para brindar una asistencia calificada dentro de un ambiente de práctica profesional próxima a lo favorable.


Abstract Objective To assess the professional nursing practice environment from the perspective of students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted with a convenience sample of 43 students attending the last grade of the Nursing Undergraduate course at a federal university located in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Characterization variables: sex, ethnicity, age, place of internship and a question on whether they have worked and/or did an extracurricular internship in the area. The Practice Environment Scale - Brazilian validated version, consisting of 24 items and five subscales, was applied. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the following tests: Kruskal Wallis, ANOVA, Tukey, t-student and Mann Whitney. Logistic regression analysis was performed. A significance level of p<0.005 was considered. Results Subscale 3 "Staffing and resource adequacy" was the only one with an unfavorable mean (53.49%). The variable "having worked and/or done an extracurricular internship" was statistically significant in Subscale 2 "Nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses" (p=0.003). On overall mean, students rated the environment as favorable (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite the context, most students rated the environment as favorable. The variable "having worked and/or done an extracurricular internship" was statistically significant. The training of leaders, the strengthening of continuing education programs and involvement of nurses in activities, problem solving and internal committees of the institution are considered preambles to offer qualified care within a close to favorable environment of professional practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Professional Practice , Students, Nursing , Working Conditions , COVID-19 , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240084

ABSTRACT

Globally, the coexistence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and HIV has become an important public health problem, putting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients at risk for severe manifestations and higher mortality. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients using secondary data from the Department of Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study included 15,151 patient clinical records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Data on MetS was extracted in the form of a cluster of metabolic factors. These included abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting glucose captured on an information sheet. Spatial distribution of mortality among patients was observed; overall (21-33%), hypertension (32-43%), diabetes (34-47%), and HIV (31-45%). A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Mortality among COVID-19 patients was associated with being older (≥50+ years), male, and HIV positive. Having hypertension and diabetes reduced the duration from admission to death. Being transferred from a primary health facility (PHC) to a referral hospital among COVID-19 patients was associated with ventilation and less chance of being transferred to another health facility when having HIV plus MetS. Patients with MetS had a higher mortality rate within seven days of hospitalization, followed by those with obesity as an individual component. MetS and its components such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity should be considered a composite predictor of COVID-19 fatal outcomes, mostly, increased risk of mortality. The study increases our understanding of the common contributing variables to severe manifestations and a greater mortality risk among COVID-19 hospitalized patients by investigating the influence of MetS, its components, and HIV coexistence. Prevention remains the mainstay for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The findings underscore the need for improvement of critical care resources across South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity , Hospitalization , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors
3.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285991, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234386

ABSTRACT

As findings on the epidemiological and genetic risk factors for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continue to accrue, their joint power and significance for prospective clinical applications remains virtually unexplored. Severity of symptoms in individuals affected by COVID-19 spans a broad spectrum, reflective of heterogeneous host susceptibilities across the population. Here, we assessed the utility of epidemiological risk factors to predict disease severity prospectively, and interrogated genetic information (polygenic scores) to evaluate whether they can provide further insights into symptom heterogeneity. A standard model was trained to predict severe COVID-19 based on principal component analysis and logistic regression based on information from eight known medical risk factors for COVID-19 measured before 2018. In UK Biobank participants of European ancestry, the model achieved a relatively high performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ~90%). Polygenic scores for COVID-19 computed from summary statistics of the Covid19 Host Genetics Initiative displayed significant associations with COVID-19 in the UK Biobank (p-values as low as 3.96e-9, all with R2 under 1%), but were unable to robustly improve predictive performance of the non-genetic factors. However, error analysis of the non-genetic models suggested that affected individuals misclassified by the medical risk factors (predicted low risk but actual high risk) display a small but consistent increase in polygenic scores. Overall, the results indicate that simple models based on health-related epidemiological factors measured years before COVID-19 onset can achieve high predictive power. Associations between COVID-19 and genetic factors were statistically robust, but currently they have limited predictive power for translational settings. Despite that, the outcomes also suggest that severely affected cases with a medical history profile of low risk might be partly explained by polygenic factors, prompting development of boosted COVID-19 polygenic models based on new data and tools to aid risk-prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Risk Factors , Logistic Models , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
4.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 27(11): 1036-1044, 2021-11.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369361

ABSTRACT

Background:There are no data on the association between clinical course and comorbidity in Iranian patients with COVID-19.Aims:To determine noncommunicable disease (NCD), clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.Methods:This multicentric retrospective observational study was performed on all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Isfahan from 17 February to 6 April 2020. We recruited 5055 patients. Data on clinical course and comorbid NCDs such as hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were collected. Statistical analyses were done by Mann–Whitney U, χ2 and logistic regression tests using Stata version 14.Results:DM and hypertension were the most prevalent comorbidities in patients with positive and negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of mortality-associated factors was significant for DM [1.35 (1.07–1.70)], CHD [1.58 (1.26–1.96)], CRD [2.18 (1.58–3.0)], and cancer [3.55 (2.42–5.21)]. These results remained significant for cancer after adjustment for age, sex and clinical factors. Among patients with positive RT-PCR, death was significantly associated with CRD and cancer, while this association disappeared after adjustment for all potential confounders. There was a significant association between NCDs and higher occurrence of low oxygen saturation, mechanical ventilation requirement and intensive care unit admission after adjustment for age and sex.Conclusion:The presence of NCDs alone did not increase mortality in patients with COVID-19, after adjustment for all potential confounders including clinical factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis
5.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 28(4): 249-257, 2022-04.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-368770

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide public health emergency. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Saveh city, Islamic Republic of Iran in 2020. Methods: In this descriptive analytical research, 3181 patients suspected of having COVID-19 who visited Saveh med- ical centres were investigated. Patients were confirmed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction testing. Data on sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected using a validated form through interviews and medical records. The chi-squared, t and Fisher exact tests were used to assess differences in socio- demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics between patients with positive and negative polymerase chain reaction results. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between independent variables and death from COVID-19. Results: About half the patients (48.3%) had a history of chronic disease. Diabetes (16.2%), high blood pressure (14.8%) and cardiovascular disease (12.4%) were the most prevalent chronic diseases among patients who were confirmed positive for COVID-19. Risk factors for death among confirmed COVID-19 patients were: intubation (odds ratio (OR) = 8.97; 95% con- fidence interval (CI): 5.15–15.63), age ≥ 80 years (OR = 5.81; 95% CI: 1.91–17.60), oxygen saturation < 93% (OR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.51–4.08), diabetes (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.00–3.54) and shortness of breath (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02–2.82). Conclusion: Given the greater risks of contracting and dying from COVID-19 in certain groups of patients, health educa- tion programmes targeting these groups are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Cardiovascular Diseases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
6.
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4092-4105, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327665

ABSTRACT

This article explores how preferences for risk reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic are influenced by personal experiences and contextual variables such as having a close friend or relative who has been infected by the virus (closeness), the severity of the illness (severity), people's own perceptions of being in a risky group (risk group), change in employment status due to the pandemic (employment situation), and vaccination status (vaccination status and altruistic vaccination). We conducted a choice experiment (CE) in Chile, Colombia, and Costa Rica. The attributes of the experiment were risk reduction, latency, and cost. Then, we estimated a mixed logit model to capture preference heterogeneity across the countries. The attributes presented in the CE were statistically significant, with the expected sign in each country. The variables closeness and employment situation presented homogeneous behavior in each country; however, severity, risk group, and vaccination status showed mixed results. We found that preferences were more heterogeneous for the attributes of the CE than for the personal experiences and contextual variables. Understanding the impact of these variables is essential for generating more effective risk reduction policies. For instance, methodologies such as the value of statistical life base their calculations on society's valuation of risk reduction. We provide evidence that the preferences for risk reduction vary due to the everyday situations that individuals face in the context of the pandemic. The latter may cause distortions in the values used to evaluate policies aimed at mitigating the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Choice Behavior , Logistic Models , Risk Reduction Behavior
7.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285900, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324673

ABSTRACT

In tropical regions, leptospirosis and dengue fever (DF) are infectious diseases of epidemiological importance and have overlapping symptomatic features. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated to diagnosing leptospirosis that differentiate it to DF at the initial hospital evaluation. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted comparing confirmed leptospirosis to DF cases. Clinical/laboratory findings were compiled at hospital admission on Reunion Island between 2018 and 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of leptospirosis. In total, 98 leptospirosis and 673 DF patients were included with a mean age of 47.8 (±17.1) and 48.9 (±23.3) years, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, the main parameters associated with leptospirosis were: i) increased neutrophil counts, ii) C-reactive protein values, iii) the absence of prolonged partial thromboplastin time, and iv) a decrease of platelets. The most discriminating parameter was C-reactive protein (CRP). With a threshold of 50mg/L, CRP taken alone had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 93.5%. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 14.5 and 0.06, respectively. In the setting of an early presumptive diagnosis, we found that an increased CRP value (>50 mg/L) could help diagnose leptospirosis and aid the decision process for hospital surveillance and/or a potential antibiotic treatment regimen.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Leptospirosis , Humans , Middle Aged , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein , Retrospective Studies , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Logistic Models
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(3): 771-784, 2023 Mar.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325904

ABSTRACT

The article aims to estimate the incidence and worsening of back pain (BP) during the first wave of COVID-19 in Brazil, as well as to investigate demographic, socioeconomic factors and associated changes in living conditions. ConVid - Behavior Research, applied between April and May 2020, was used as data source. The number and distribution of respondents who developed BP and those who had a worsening of the preexisting problem, their 95% confidence intervals and Pearson's Chi-square test were estimated. The odds ratio of developing BP or worsening a preexisting problem was also estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Pre-existing BP was reported by 33.9% (95%CI 32.5-35.3) of respondents and more than half (54.4%; 95%CI 51.9-56.9) had worsened. The cumulative incidence of BP in the first wave of the pandemic was 40.9% (95%CI 39.2-42.7). Being a woman, the perceived increase in housework and the frequent feeling of sadness or depression were associated with both outcomes. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with any of outcome. The high incidence and worsening of BP during the first wave reveal the need for studies in more recent periods, given the long duration of the pandemic.


O artigo tem como objetivo estimar a incidência e o agravamento do problema de coluna (PC) durante a primeira onda da COVID-19 no Brasil, bem como investigar os fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos e as mudanças nas condições de vida associadas. Utilizou-se a ConVid - Pesquisa de Comportamentos, realizada entre abril e maio de 2020, como fonte de dados. Estimou-se o número e a distribuição dos entrevistados que desenvolveram PC e a dos que tiveram agravamento no problema preexistente, seus intervalos de 95% de confiança e o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. Estimou-se também a razão de chance de desenvolver PC ou ter piora de problema preexistente por meio de modelos de regressão logística múltipla. O PC preexistente foi reportado por 33,9% (IC95% 32,5-35,3) dos entrevistados e mais da metade (54,4%; IC95% 51,9-56,9) teve piora do quadro. A incidência cumulativa de PC na primeira onda da pandemia foi de 40,9% (IC95% 39,2-42,7). Ser mulher, o aumento percebido do trabalho doméstico e o sentimento frequente de tristeza ou depressão foram associados a ambos os desfechos. Os fatores socioeconômicos não foram associados a nenhum dos desfechos. A alta incidência e agravamento do PC durante a primeira onda revelam a necessidade de estudos em períodos mais recentes, dada a longa duração da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Back Pain , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Back Pain/epidemiology , Back Pain/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Logistic Models
9.
J Affect Disord ; 333: 1-9, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms was significantly higher than that before the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and evaluate the importance of influencing factors through Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). METHODS: Data were sourced from the psychology and behavior investigation of Chinese residents (PBICR). A total of 21,916 individuals in China were included in the current study. Multiple logistic regression was applied to preliminarily identify potential risk factors for depressive symptoms. BPNN was used to explore the order of contributing factors of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic was 57.57 %. The top five important variables were determined based on the BPNN rank of importance: subjective sleep quality (100.00 %), loneliness (77.30 %), subjective well-being (67.90 %), stress (65.00 %), problematic internet use (51.20 %). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the general population was high during the COVID-19 pandemic. The BPNN model established has significant preventive and clinical meaning to identify depressive symptoms lay theoretical foundation for individualized and targeted psychological intervention in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Neural Networks, Computer , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Prevalence , China/epidemiology , Sleep Quality , Loneliness , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged
10.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 55: 244-250, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a devastating impact on health systems, food supplies, and population health. This is the first study to examine the association between zinc and vitamin C intakes and the risk of disease severity and symptoms among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 250 recovered COVID-19 patients aged 18-65 years from June to September 2021. Data on demographics, anthropometrics, medical history, and disease severity and symptoms were collected. Dietary intake was evaluated using a web-based, 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The severity of the disease was determined using the most recent version of the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. Using multivariable binary logistic regression, the association between zinc and vitamin C intakes and the risk of disease severity and symptoms in COVID-19 patients was evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of participants in this study was 44.1 ± 12.1, 52.4% of them were female, and 46% had a severe form of the disease. Participants with higher zinc intakes had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) (13.6 vs. 25.8 mg/l) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (15.9 vs. 29.3). In a fully adjusted model, a higher zinc intake was also associated with a lower risk of severe disease (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.90, P-trend = 0.03). Similarly, participants with higher vitamin C intakes had lower CRP (10.3 vs. 31.5 mg/l) and ESR serum concentrations (15.6 Vs. 35.6) and lower odds of severe disease after controlling for potential covariates (OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.65, P-trend = <0.01). Furthermore, an inverse association was found between dietary zinc intake and COVID-19 symptoms, such as dyspnea, cough, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and sore throat. Higher vitamin C intake was associated with a lower risk of dyspnea, cough, fever, chills, weakness, myalgia, nausea and vomiting, and sore throat. CONCLUSION: In the current study, higher zinc and vitamin C intakes were associated with decreased odds of developing severe COVID-19 and its common symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Humans , Female , Male , Ascorbic Acid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Zinc , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cough , Vitamins , Logistic Models , Eating
11.
Psychooncology ; 32(5): 730-740, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250245

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the Quality of Life (QOL) of breast-cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and analyse its evolution, compare the QOL of these patients according to the COVID-19 wave in which they were diagnosed, and examine the clinical and demographic determinants of QOL. METHODS: A total of 260 patients with breast cancer (90.8% I-III stages) and COVID-19 (85% light/moderate) were included (February-September 2021) in this study. Most patients were receiving anticancer treatment (mainly hormonotherapy). Patients were grouped according to the date of COVID-19 diagnosis: first wave (March-May 2020, 85 patients), second wave (June-December 2020, 107 patients) and third wave (January-September 2021, 68 patients). Quality of Life was assessed 10 months, 7 months, and 2 weeks after these dates, respectively. Patients completed QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR45, and Oslo COVID-19 QLQ-PW80 twice over four months. Patients ≥65 also completed QLQ-ELD14. The QOL of each group and changes in QOL for the whole sample were compared (non-parametric tests). Multivariate logistic regression identified patient characteristics related to (1) low global QOL and (2) changes in Global QOL between assessments. RESULTS: Moderate limitations (>30 points) appeared in the first assessment in Global QOL, sexual scales, three QLQ-ELD14 scales, and 13 symptoms and emotional COVID-19 areas. Differences between the COVID-19 groups appeared in two QLQ-C30 areas and four QLQ-BR45 areas. Quality of Life improvements between assessments appeared in six QLQ-C30, four QLQ-BR45 and 18 COVID-19 questionnaire areas. The best multivariate model to explain global QOL combined emotional functioning, fatigue, endocrine treatment, gastrointestinal symptoms, and targeted therapy (R2  = 0.393). The best model to explain changes in global QOL combined physical and emotional functioning, malaise, and sore eyes (R2  = 0.575). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with breast cancer and COVID-19 adapted well to illness. The few differences between wave-based groups (differences in follow-up notwithstanding) may have arisen because the second and third waves saw fewer COVID restrictions, more positive COVID information, and more vaccinated patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Quality of Life/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Logistic Models
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(6): e197-e200, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248009

ABSTRACT

Area deprivation index (ADI) is associated with the risk of severe COVID-19 in adults. However, this association has not been established in children. Information on ADI, demographics, clinical features, disease severity, and outcomes was analyzed for 3434 children with COVID-19. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that non-Hispanic Asians, extremes of weight, and higher ADI were associated with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Child , Patient Acuity , Residence Characteristics , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3070, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282019

ABSTRACT

Refuse storage and collection systems are potential sources of food and harbourage areas for rodents which transmit pathogens. We examined the factors associated with rodent activity in public housing municipal waste collection premises in a highly urbanized city-state. We analysed data from April 2019 to March 2020 in mixed-effects logistic regression models to examine the independent factors associated with rodent activity in central refuse chute rooms (CRCs), individual refuse chute (IRC) bin chambers and bin centres. We accounted for within-year patterns, repeated measures and nested effects. We observed a heterogeneous spatial distribution of rodent activity. Rodent droppings were strongly associated with rodent activity in CRCs (aOR: 6.20, 95% CI: 4.20-9.15), bin centres (aOR: 3.61, 95% CI: 1.70-7.64) and IRC bin chambers (aOR: 90.84, 95% CI: 70.13-117.67). Gnaw marks were positively associated with rodent activity in CRCs (aOR: 5.61, 95% CI: 3.55-8.97) and IRC bin chambers (aOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.43-2.95), as were rub marks in CRCs (aOR: 5.04, 95% CI: 3.44-7.37) and IRC bin chambers (aOR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.74-5.42). Each burrow increased the odds of rodent sightings in bin centres (aOR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06). The odds of rodent sightings in an IRC bin chamber increased with every additional bin chute chamber within the same block (aOR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). We identified several factors that well predicted rodent activity in waste collection premises. Municipal estate managers with limited resources can adopt a risk-based approach in tailoring the focus of their rodent control interventions.


Subject(s)
Garbage , Refuse Disposal , Singapore , Risk Factors , Logistic Models
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271434

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of 2020 there was a spinning point in the travel behavior of people around the world because of the pandemic and its consequences. This paper analyzes the specific behavior of travelers commuting to work or school during the COVID-19 pandemic based on a sample of 2000 respondents from two countries. We obtained data from an online survey, applying multinomial regression analysis. The results demonstrate the multinomial model with an accuracy of almost 70% that estimates the most used modes of transport (walking, public transport, car) based on independent variables. The respondents preferred the car as the most frequently used means of transport. However, commuters without car prefer public transport to walking. This prediction model could be a tool for planning and creating transport policy, especially in exceptional cases such as the limitation of public transport activities. Therefore, predicting travel behavior is essential for policymaking based on people's travel needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Logistic Models , Bicycling , Transportation
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 542, 2023 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. The dominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 has changed over time due to continuous evolution. We aimed to evaluate the coverage of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among employees in China, explore their willingness to receive the SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccine and examine the potential factors influencing vaccination coverage and willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted online from January 1, 2022, to January 30, 2022. The information collected in the survey included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, vaccination coverage, willingness to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 variants and the reasons for vaccination and willingness. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of potential factors with the rate of vaccination and the willingness to be vaccinated. RESULTS: Among 62,395 eligible participants, the coverage of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 98.9% for at least one dose and 70.1% for a booster. The great majority of vaccinated individuals (94.4%) voluntarily received the vaccine. A total of 60,694 respondents (97.7%) were willing to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 variants, mainly due to confidence in the effectiveness of vaccines (92.8%). A total of 1431 respondents were unwilling to be vaccinated, mainly because of concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines (77.6%). Longer education duration was associated with a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and willingness to be vaccinated. General or poor health status and having no history of influenza vaccination were associated with a lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and willingness to be vaccinated. Additionally, we observed a significant positive association of abuse experience with the willingness to be vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Although the rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and the willingness to be vaccinated were relatively high in the study population, there were still some respondents with vaccine hesitancy. Relevant strategies based on significant related factors should be developed and implemented to encourage vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Logistic Models , Occupational Groups , China
16.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1018378, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287154

ABSTRACT

This research focuses on the research problem of eliminating COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy through web search. A dynamic model of eliminating COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy through web search is constructed based on the Logistic model, the elimination degree is quantified, the elimination function is defined to analyze the dynamic elimination effect, and the model parameter estimation method is proposed. The numerical solution, process parameters, initial value parameters and stationary point parameters of the model are simulated, respectively, and the mechanism of elimination is deeply analyzed to determine the key time period. Based on the real data of web search and COVID-19 vaccination, data modeling is carried out from two aspects: full sample and segmented sample, and the rationality of the model is verified. On this basis, the model is used to carry out dynamic prediction and verified to have certain medium-term prediction ability. Through this research, the methods of eliminating vaccine hesitancy are enriched, and a new practical idea is provided for eliminating vaccine hesitancy. It also provides a method to predict the quantity of COVID-19 vaccination, provides theoretical guidance for dynamically adjusting the public health policy of the COVID-19, and can provide reference for the vaccination of other vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Logistic Models , Public Policy , Vaccination
17.
Environ Res ; 220: 115167, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284644

ABSTRACT

The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in many biological and technical domains is on the rise. There hasn't been much research on the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological systems, despite their ubiquitous usage. In the current investigation, samples were exposed to various dosages of TiO2 nanoparticles for 4 days, 1 month, and 2 months following treatment. ICP-AES was used to dose TiO2 into the tissues, and the results showed that the kidney had a significant TiO2 buildup. On the other hand, apoptosis of renal tubular cells is one of the most frequent cellular processes contributing to kidney disease (KD). Nevertheless, the impact of macroalgal seaweed extract on KD remains undetermined. In this work, machine learning (ML) approaches have been applied to develop prediction algorithms for acute kidney injury (AKI) by use of titanium dioxide and macroalgae in hospitalized patients. Fifty patients with (AKI) and 50 patients (non-AKI group) have been admitted and considered. Regarding demographic data, and laboratory test data as input parameters, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) are utilized to build models of AKI prediction and compared to the predictive performance of logistic regression (LR). Due to its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory powers, the current research ruled out the potential of using G. oblongata red macro algae as a source for a variety of products for medicinal uses. Despite a high and fast processing of algorithms, logistic regression showed lower overfitting in comparison to SVM, and Random Forest. The dataset is subjected to algorithms, and the categorization of potential risk variables yields the best results. AKI samples showed significant organ defects than non-AKI ones. Multivariate LR indicated that lymphocyte, and myoglobin (MB) ≥ 1000 ng/ml were independent risk parameters for AKI samples. Also, GCS score (95% CI 1.4-8.3 P = 0.014) were the risk parameters for 60-day mortality in samples with AKI. Also, 90-day mortality in AKI patients was significantly high (P < 0.0001). In compared to the control group, there were no appreciable changes in the kidney/body weight ratio or body weight increases. Total thiol levels in kidney homogenate significantly decreased, and histopathological analysis confirmed these biochemical alterations. According to the results, oral TiO2 NP treatment may cause kidney damage in experimental samples.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Seaweed , Humans , Logistic Models , Support Vector Machine , Random Forest , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Kidney , Body Weight
18.
J Adolesc Health ; 72(5): 688-695, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230684

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze potential associations between sociodemographic factors and adolescents' worry about family finances and other types of worries during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential associations between different worry themes and psychosomatic problems. METHODS: From December 2020 to March 2021, 3,068 16-17 years old students in Sweden completed a questionnaire about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their schooling and everyday life. From April to June 2020, 70% of these students also responded to questions about their psychosomatic health. Logistic regression was applied to analyze the associations between sociodemographic factors and different worry themes and estimate the association between worry and psychosomatic problems. RESULTS: Across all 13 worry themes, girls reported worry to a higher degree than boys. In most of the cases, adolescents with a lower parental educational background or immigrant background reported more frequent worrying. This was most evident for worry about family finances. The differences between adolescents with a Swedish background and those with a foreign background were large except for worry about climate change. All worry themes were associated with the students' psychosomatic health. Those who often or always experienced worry were more likely to report psychosomatic problems. Worry about family finances showed the highest odds ratio and marginal effect. DISCUSSION: Worry about family finances during the COVID-19 pandemic turns out to be a strong and socially structured stressor that may widen the health inequalities among young people. This underlines the need for preventive and promoting measures aimed at supporting socioeconomic disadvantaged groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Sweden/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Logistic Models , Psychophysiologic Disorders/epidemiology
19.
J Emerg Med ; 63(5): 709-710, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229539

Subject(s)
Logistic Models , Humans
20.
JAMA ; 323(24): 2493-2502, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219559

ABSTRACT

Importance: Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited data on efficacy and associated adverse events. Objective: To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective multicenter cohort study of patients from a random sample of all admitted patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in 25 hospitals, representing 88.2% of patients with COVID-19 in the New York metropolitan region. Eligible patients were admitted for at least 24 hours between March 15 and 28, 2020. Medications, preexisting conditions, clinical measures on admission, outcomes, and adverse events were abstracted from medical records. The date of final follow-up was April 24, 2020. Exposures: Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were cardiac arrest and abnormal electrocardiogram findings (arrhythmia or QT prolongation). Results: Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. Overall in-hospital mortality was 20.3% (95% CI, 18.2%-22.4%). The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . In adjusted logistic regression models, there were no significant differences in the relative likelihood of abnormal electrocardiogram findings. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality. However, the interpretation of these findings may be limited by the observational design.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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