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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0264638, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779746

ABSTRACT

Young adults are currently the loneliest demographic in the UK and other Western countries, yet little is known about how they see the causes of their loneliness. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the subjective causes of loneliness among young adults (18-24 years old), particularly those of lower socio-economic status (SES) who are in employment, renting and living in the most deprived areas, since they are the loneliest in the UK. Utilising a free association technique and thematic analysis, and embedded in a phenomenological framework, the subjective causes of loneliness in a matched sample of 48 young adults in the four most deprived boroughs of London are found to cluster around five themes: The Feeling of Being Disconnected, Contemporary Culture, Pressure, Social Comparison and Transitions Between Life Stages. Disconnection arises from feeling one does not matter, is not understood or is unable to express oneself. Challenges pertaining to social media and materialism in contemporary culture contribute to loneliness as does pressure associated with work, fitting in and social comparison. Social media play a major role in exacerbating these experiences. Finally, transitions between life stages such as breakups, loss of significant others and transitory stages to do with education and employment are felt to cause loneliness. The findings suggest potential avenues for loneliness reduction.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , Emotions , Employment , Humans , London , Young Adult
2.
Kidney360 ; 1(11): 1226-1243, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776863

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients on dialysis with frequent comorbidities, advanced age, and frailty, who visit treatment facilities frequently, are perhaps more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection and related death-the risk factors and dynamics of which are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hospital outcomes in patients on dialysis infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Data on 224 patients on hemodialysis between February 29, 2020 and May 15, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed for outcomes and potential risk factors for death, using a competing risk-regression model assessed by subdistribution hazards ratio (SHR). Results: Crude data analyses suggest an overall case-fatality ratio of 23% (95% CI, 17% to 28%) overall, but that varies across age groups from 11% (95% CI, 0.9% to 9.2%) in patients ≤50 years old and 32% (95% CI, 17% to 48%) in patients >80 years; with 60% of deaths occurring in the first 15 days and 80% within 21 days, indicating a rapid deterioration toward death after admission. Almost 90% of surviving patients were discharged within 28 days. Death was more likely than hospital discharge in patients who were more frail (WHO performance status, 3-4; SHR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.25 to 3.74]; P=0.006), had ischemic heart disease (SHR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.32 to 3.94]; P=0.003), cerebrovascular disease (SHR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.20 to 3.72]; P=0.01), smoking history (SHR, 2.69 [95% CI, 1.33 to 5.45]; P=0.006), patients who were hospitalized (SHR, 10.26 [95% CI, 3.10 to 33.94]; P<0.001), and patients with high CRP (SHR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.67]) and a high neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (SHR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04], P<0.001). Our data did not support differences in the risk of death associated with sex, ethnicity, dialysis vintage, or other comorbidities. However, comparison with the entire dialysis population attending these hospitals, in which 13% were affected, revealed that patients who were non-White (62% versus 52% in all patients, P=0.001) and those with diabetes (54% versus 22%, P<0.001) were disproportionately affected. Conclusions: This report discusses the outcomes of a large cohort of patients on dialysis. We found SARS-CoV-2 infection affected more patients with diabetes and those who were non-White, with a high case-fatality ratio, which increased significantly with age, frailty, smoking, increasing CRP, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio at presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , London/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765725

ABSTRACT

Meaningful inclusion of young people's perceptions and experiences of inequalities is argued to be critical in the development of pro-equity policies. Our study explored young people's perceptions of what influences their opportunities to be healthy within their local area and their understandings of health inequalities. Three interlinked qualitative focus group discussions, each lasting 90 to 100 min, with the same six groups of young people (n = 42) aged 13-21, were conducted between February and June 2021. Participants were recruited from six youth groups in areas of high deprivation across three geographical locations in England (South Yorkshire, the North East and London). Our study demonstrates that young people understand that health inequalities are generated by social determinants of health, which in turn influence behaviours. They highlight a complex interweaving of pathways between social determinants and health outcomes. However, they do not tend to think in terms of the social determinants and their distribution as resulting from the power and influence of those who create and benefit from health and social inequalities. An informed understanding of the causes of health inequalities, influenced by their own unique generational experiences, is important to help young people contribute to the development of pro-equity policies of the future.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Adolescent , England , Humans , London , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Public Health ; 206: 29-30, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this commentary is to provide historical insight into the term endemicity and to demonstrate why framing COVID-19 as endemic in early 2022 is a misguided approach. STUDY DESIGN: The history of epidemiology as well as current data on COVID-19 as provided by the United States Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization, and the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Resource Center was surveyed. METHODS: Records of the Epidemiological Society of London for the period 1850-1900 were analyzed, and several key publications on how infectious diseases were considered endemic were identified. RESULTS: The term endemicity has a long and twisting history, changing from its meaning in the mid-nineteenth century until our use of it today. The concept has long been tied to historical patterns of colonialism. CONCLUSION: Framing COVID-19 as an endemic disease in early 2022 is a misguided attempt and a result of cultural and political forces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonialism , Endemic Diseases , Humans , London , World Health Organization
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3721, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735274

ABSTRACT

It is unclear if changes in public behaviours, developments in COVID-19 treatments, improved patient care, and directed policy initiatives have altered outcomes for minority ethnic groups in the second pandemic wave. This was a prospective analysis of patients aged ≥ 16 years having an emergency admission with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 01/09/2020 and 17/02/2021 to acute NHS hospitals in east London. Multivariable survival analysis was used to assess associations between ethnicity and mortality accounting for predefined risk factors. Age-standardised rates of hospital admission relative to the local population were compared between ethnic groups. Of 5533 patients, the ethnic distribution was White (n = 1805, 32.6%), Asian/Asian British (n = 1983, 35.8%), Black/Black British (n = 634, 11.4%), Mixed/Other (n = 433, 7.8%), and unknown (n = 678, 12.2%). Excluding 678 patients with missing data, 4855 were included in multivariable analysis. Relative to the White population, Asian and Black populations experienced 4.1 times (3.77-4.39) and 2.1 times (1.88-2.33) higher rates of age-standardised hospital admission. After adjustment for various patient risk factors including age, sex, and socioeconomic deprivation, Asian patients were at significantly higher risk of death within 30 days (HR 1.47 [1.24-1.73]). No association with increased risk of death in hospitalised patients was observed for Black or Mixed/Other ethnicity. Asian and Black ethnic groups continue to experience poor outcomes following COVID-19. Despite higher-than-expected rates of hospital admission, Black and Asian patients also experienced similar or greater risk of death in hospital since the start of the pandemic, implying a higher overall risk of COVID-19 associated death in these communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , London , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055504, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the barriers and facilitators that senior leaders' experience when using knowledge generated from the analysis of administrative health or care records ('analytics') to inform strategic health and care decision-making. SETTING: One London-based sustainability and transformation partnership (STP) in England, as it was on the cusp of forming an integrated care system (ICS). PARTICIPANTS: 20 senior leaders, including health and social care commissioners, public health leads and health providers. Participants were eligible for inclusion if they were a senior leader of a constituent organisation of the STP and involved in using analytics to make decisions for their own organisations or health and care systems. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews conducted between January 2020 and March 2020 and analysed using the framework method to generate common themes. RESULTS: Organisational fragmentation hindered use of analytics by creating siloed data systems, barriers to data sharing and different organisational priorities. Where trusted and collaborative relationships existed between leaders and analysts, organisational barriers were circumvented and access to and support for analytics facilitated. Trusted and collaborative relationships between individual leaders of different organisations also aided cross-organisational priority setting, which was a key facilitator of strategic health and care decision-making and use of analytics. Data linked across health and care settings were viewed as an enabler of use of analytics for decision-making, while concerns around data quality often stopped analytics use as a part of decision-making, with participants relying more so on expert opinion or intuition. CONCLUSIONS: The UK Governments' 2021 White Paper set out aspirations for data to transform care. While necessary, policy changes to facilitate data sharing across organisations will be insufficient to realise this aim. Better integration of organisations with aligned priorities could support and sustain cross-organisational relationships between leaders and analysts, and leaders of different organisations, to facilitate use of analytics in decision-making.


Subject(s)
Health Services , Organizations , England , Humans , London , Qualitative Research
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055474, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Alpha variant (B.1.1.7 lineage) of SARS-CoV-2 emerged and became the dominant circulating variant in the UK in late 2020. Current literature is unclear on whether the Alpha variant is associated with increased severity. We linked clinical data with viral genome sequence data to compare admitted cases between SARS-CoV-2 waves in London and to investigate the association between the Alpha variant and the severity of disease. METHODS: Clinical, demographic, laboratory and viral sequence data from electronic health record systems were collected for all cases with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test between 13 March 2020 and 17 February 2021 in a multisite London healthcare institution. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression assessed risk factors for severity as defined by hypoxia at admission. RESULTS: There were 5810 SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive cases of which 2341 were admitted (838 in wave 1 and 1503 in wave 2). Both waves had a temporally aligned rise in nosocomial cases (96 in wave 1 and 137 in wave 2). The Alpha variant was first identified on 15 November 2020 and increased rapidly to comprise 400/472 (85%) of sequenced isolates from admitted cases in wave 2. A multivariate analysis identified risk factors for severity on admission, such as age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03, for every year older; p<0.001), obesity (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.26; p<0.001) and infection with the Alpha variant (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.24; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is the first in hospitalised cohorts to show increased severity of disease associated with the Alpha variant. The number of nosocomial cases was similar in both waves despite the introduction of many infection control interventions before wave 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690253

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Approximately one in five women will experience mental health difficulties in the perinatal period. Women from ethnic minority backgrounds face a variety of barriers that can prevent or delay access to appropriate perinatal mental health care. COVID-19 pandemic restrictions created additional obstacles for this group of women. This study aims to explore minority ethnic women's experiences of perinatal mental health services during COVID-19 in London. (2) Methods: Eighteen women from ethnic minority backgrounds were interviewed, and data were subject to a thematic analysis. (3) Results: Three main themes were identified, each with two subthemes: 'Difficulties and Disruptions to Access' (Access to Appointments; Pandemic Restrictions and Disruption), 'Experiences of Remote Delivery' (Preference for Face-to-Face Contact; Advantages of Remote Support); and 'Psychosocial Experiences' linked to COVID-19 (Heightened Anxiety; Social Isolation). (4) Conclusions: Women from ethnic minority backgrounds experienced disrupted perinatal mental health care and COVID-19 restrictions compounding their mental health difficulties. Services should take women's circumstances into account and provide flexibility regarding remote delivery of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(4): 1026-1032, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF STUDY: To assess impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental wellbeing, workload, training progression, and fertility planning among London Obstetrics and Gynecology trainees. DESIGN: An anonymous survey comprising 41 peer-validated questions was sent to London trainees. Anxiety and depression were screened using Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD 7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-seven trainees completed the questionnaire, of whom 54% were aged 25-34 years, 43% were senior trainees (ST6-7), and 51% classified themselves as Black, Asian, and Minority Asian (BAME). Although the percentage of respondents with "moderate"/"severe" GAD 7 and PHQ-9 scores was two to three times that of UK population estimates, median GAD 7 and PHQ-9 scores were 7 and 6 ("mild"). Sixteen percent deferred their fertility plans and 26% of ST6-7 trainees changed their Advanced Training Skills Modules. Other issues raised ranged from lack of assistance with electronic portfolio, postponement of examinations, poor senior input for mental health, lack of debriefing for redeployed trainees and requests for deferment of annual reviews. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has incurred an impact on mental health, training progression, and fertility planning of London trainees. With recommencement of nonemergency consultations and elective gynecology theater, alongside Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Recovery Blueprint to optimize learning opportunities, there is optimism that these challenges can be overcome. Trainers and trainees need to safeguard training opportunities and consider innovative forms of future learning, while anticipating potential effects of subsequent waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gynecology , Obstetrics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fertility , Gynecology/education , Humans , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Obstetrics/education , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom has seen two waves; the first starting in March 2020 and the second in late October 2020. It is not known whether outcomes for those admitted with severe Covid were different in the first and second waves. METHODS: The study population comprised all patients admitted to a 1,500-bed London Hospital Trust between March 2020 and March 2021, who tested positive for Covid-19 by PCR within 3-days of admissions. Primary outcome was death within 28-days of admission. Socio-demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), hypertension, diabetes, obesity, baseline physiological observations, CRP, neutrophil, chest x-ray abnormality, remdesivir and dexamethasone were incorporated as co-variates. Proportional subhazards models compared mortality risk between wave 1 and wave 2. Cox-proportional hazard model with propensity score adjustment were used to compare mortality in patients prescribed remdesivir and dexamethasone. RESULTS: There were 3,949 COVID-19 admissions, 3,195 hospital discharges and 733 deaths. There were notable differences in age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and admission disease severity between wave 1 and wave 2. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher during wave 1 (26.1% versus 13.1%). Mortality risk adjusted for co-variates was significantly lower in wave 2 compared to wave 1 [adjSHR 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) p<0.001]. Analysis of treatment impact did not show statistically different effects of remdesivir [HR 0.84 (95%CI 0.65, 1.08), p = 0.17] or dexamethasone [HR 0.97 (95%CI 0.70, 1.35) p = 0.87]. CONCLUSION: There has been substantial improvements in COVID-19 mortality in the second wave, even accounting for demographics, comorbidity, and disease severity. Neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir appeared to be key explanatory factors, although there may be unmeasured confounding present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity/trends , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Proportional Hazards Models
13.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 58(6): 909-915, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the characteristics of ectopic pregnancies (EPs) in the year prior to vs during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with an EP on transvaginal sonography conducted at a center in London, UK, providing early-pregnancy assessment, between 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2020. Women were identified via the Astraia ultrasound reporting system using coded and non-coded outcomes of EP or pregnancy outside the uterine cavity. Data related to predefined outcomes were collected using Astraia and Cerner electronic reporting systems. Main outcome measures included clinical, ultrasound and biochemical features of EP, in addition to reported complications and management. RESULTS: There were 22 683 consultations over the 2-year period. Following consultation, a similar number and proportion of EPs were diagnosed in 2019 (141/12 657 (1%)) and 2020 (134/10 026 (1%)). Both cohorts were comparable in age, ethnicity, weight and method of conception. Gestational age at the first transvaginal sonography scan and at diagnosis were similar, and no difference in location, size or morphology of EP was found between the two cohorts. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels at the time of EP diagnosis were higher in 2020 than in 2019 (1005 IU/L vs 665 IU/L; P = 0.03). The proportions of women according to type of final EP management were similar, but the rate of failed first-line management was higher during vs before the pandemic (16% vs 6%; P = 0.01). The rates of blood detected in the pelvis (hemoperitoneum) on ultrasound (23% vs 26%; P = 0.58) and of ruptured EP confirmed surgically (9% vs 3%; P = 0.07) were similar in 2019 vs 2020. CONCLUSIONS: No difference was observed in the location, size, morphology or gestational age at the first ultrasound examination or at diagnosis of EP between women diagnosed before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Complication rates and final management strategy were also unchanged. However, hCG levels and the failure rate of first-line conservative management measures were higher during the pandemic. Our findings suggest that women continued to access appropriate care for EP during the COVID-19 pandemic, with no evidence of diagnostic delay or an increase in adverse outcome in our population. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnosis , Prenatal Care/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , London , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Ectopic/blood , Pregnancy, Ectopic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
15.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613512

ABSTRACT

Serum samples were collected pre- and post-booster vaccination with Comirnaty in 626 participants (aged ≥ 50 years) who had received two Comirnaty doses < 30 days apart, two Comirnaty doses ≥ 30 days apart or two Vaxzevria doses ≥ 30 days apart. Irrespective of primary vaccine type or schedule, spike antibody GMTs peaked 2-4 weeks after second dose, fell significantly ≤ 38 weeks later and rose above primary immunisation GMTs 2-4 weeks post-booster. Higher post-booster responses were observed with a longer interval between primary immunisation and boosting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , London , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050847, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With a growing role for health services in managing population health, there is a need for early identification of populations with high need. Segmentation approaches partition the population based on demographics, long-term conditions (LTCs) or healthcare utilisation but have mostly been applied to adults. Our study uses segmentation methods to distinguish patterns of healthcare utilisation in children and young people (CYP) and to explore predictors of segment membership. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Routinely collected primary and secondary healthcare data in Northwest London from the Discover database. PARTICIPANTS: 378 309 CYP aged 0-15 years registered to a general practice in Northwest London with 1 full year of follow-up. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Assignment of each participant to a segment defined by seven healthcare variables representing primary and secondary care attendances, and description of utilisation patterns by segment. Predictors of segment membership described by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation and LTCs. RESULTS: Participants were grouped into six segments based on healthcare utilisation. Three segments predominantly used primary care, two moderate utilisation segments differed in use of emergency or elective care, and a high utilisation segment, representing 16 632 (4.4%) children accounted for the highest mean presentations across all service types. The two smallest segments, representing 13.3% of the population, accounted for 62.5% of total costs. Younger age, residence in areas of higher deprivation and the presence of one or more LTCs were associated with membership of higher utilisation segments, but 75.0% of those in the highest utilisation segment had no LTC. CONCLUSIONS: This article identifies six segments of healthcare utilisation in CYP and predictors of segment membership. Demographics and LTCs may not explain utilisation patterns as strongly as in adults, which may limit the use of routine data in predicting utilisation and suggest children have less well-defined trajectories of service use than adults.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , London/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care
18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(2): 391-396, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis and management of nonculprit lesions remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the management and outcomes of patients with nonculprit lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway activations across the heart attack center network in London, UK. Data from the study period in 2020 were compared with prepandemic data in 2019. The primary outcome was the rate of nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: A total of 788 patients undergoing PPCI were identified, 209 (60%) in 2020 cohort and 263 (60%) in 2019 cohort had nonculprit lesions (p = .89). There was less functional assessment of the significance of nonculprit lesions in the 2020 cohort compared to 2019 cohort; in 8% 2020 cohort versus 15% 2019 cohort (p = .01). There was no difference in rates of PCI for nonculprit disease in the 2019 and 2020 cohorts (31% vs 30%, p = .11). Patients in 2020 cohort underwent nonculprit lesion PCI sooner than the 2019 cohort (p < .001). At 6 months there was higher rates of unplanned revascularization (4% vs. 2%, p = .05) and repeat myocardial infarction (4% vs. 1%, p = .02) in the 2019 cohort compared to 2020 cohort. CONCLUSION: Changes to clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with reduced rates of unplanned revascularization and myocardial infarction at 6-months follow-up, and despite the pandemic, there was no difference in mortality, suggesting that it is not only safe but maybe more efficacious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , London/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
19.
Nature ; 602(7896): 321-327, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585831

ABSTRACT

It is not fully understood why COVID-19 is typically milder in children1-3. Here, to examine the differences between children and adults in their response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analysed paediatric and adult patients with COVID-19 as well as healthy control individuals (total n = 93) using single-cell multi-omic profiling of matched nasal, tracheal, bronchial and blood samples. In the airways of healthy paediatric individuals, we observed cells that were already in an interferon-activated state, which after SARS-CoV-2 infection was further induced especially in airway immune cells. We postulate that higher paediatric innate interferon responses restrict viral replication and disease progression. The systemic response in children was characterized by increases in naive lymphocytes and a depletion of natural killer cells, whereas, in adults, cytotoxic T cells and interferon-stimulated subpopulations were significantly increased. We provide evidence that dendritic cells initiate interferon signalling in early infection, and identify epithelial cell states associated with COVID-19 and age. Our matching nasal and blood data show a strong interferon response in the airways with the induction of systemic interferon-stimulated populations, which were substantially reduced in paediatric patients. Together, we provide several mechanisms that explain the milder clinical syndrome observed in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Adult , Bronchi/immunology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Chicago , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , London , Male , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Single-Cell Analysis , Trachea/virology , Young Adult
20.
Am Surg ; 88(1): 133-139, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in fewer emergency presentations of many acute medical and surgical conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the severity of disease at presentation and quantify the change in number of presentations during this period. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients diagnosed with acute diverticulitis on abdominopelvic computerised tomography (CT) between March 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. Follow up scans on the index admission were excluded. Hinchey grade was assessed for all CT scans. Inflammatory markers were analysed, along with outcome measures including length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Acute diverticulitis was diagnosed in 52 CT scans in the acute pandemic period - a decrease of 51.4%. Average age at presentation was unchanged (63.3 ± 14.3 vs. 62.8 ± 13.8, P = .848). The number of Hinchey II, III and IV presentations were significantly higher in the acute pandemic period (28.8% vs. 11.2%, P = .005) and significantly more emergency operations were carried out (7.69% vs. .93%, P = .04). Mortality was not significantly increased, nor were serum levels of C-reactive protein, white cell count and lactate. DISCUSSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients presented and were diagnosed with acute diverticulitis. A significantly greater proportion presented at a more advanced stage and required emergency surgery, suggesting late presentation. Our findings support the need for maintaining acute surgical services and the provision of early radiological and surgical input in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute diverticulitis in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diverticulitis, Colonic/diagnosis , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Acuity , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diverticulitis, Colonic/epidemiology , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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