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1.
Kidney360 ; 1(11): 1226-1243, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776863

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients on dialysis with frequent comorbidities, advanced age, and frailty, who visit treatment facilities frequently, are perhaps more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection and related death-the risk factors and dynamics of which are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hospital outcomes in patients on dialysis infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Data on 224 patients on hemodialysis between February 29, 2020 and May 15, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed for outcomes and potential risk factors for death, using a competing risk-regression model assessed by subdistribution hazards ratio (SHR). Results: Crude data analyses suggest an overall case-fatality ratio of 23% (95% CI, 17% to 28%) overall, but that varies across age groups from 11% (95% CI, 0.9% to 9.2%) in patients ≤50 years old and 32% (95% CI, 17% to 48%) in patients >80 years; with 60% of deaths occurring in the first 15 days and 80% within 21 days, indicating a rapid deterioration toward death after admission. Almost 90% of surviving patients were discharged within 28 days. Death was more likely than hospital discharge in patients who were more frail (WHO performance status, 3-4; SHR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.25 to 3.74]; P=0.006), had ischemic heart disease (SHR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.32 to 3.94]; P=0.003), cerebrovascular disease (SHR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.20 to 3.72]; P=0.01), smoking history (SHR, 2.69 [95% CI, 1.33 to 5.45]; P=0.006), patients who were hospitalized (SHR, 10.26 [95% CI, 3.10 to 33.94]; P<0.001), and patients with high CRP (SHR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.67]) and a high neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (SHR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04], P<0.001). Our data did not support differences in the risk of death associated with sex, ethnicity, dialysis vintage, or other comorbidities. However, comparison with the entire dialysis population attending these hospitals, in which 13% were affected, revealed that patients who were non-White (62% versus 52% in all patients, P=0.001) and those with diabetes (54% versus 22%, P<0.001) were disproportionately affected. Conclusions: This report discusses the outcomes of a large cohort of patients on dialysis. We found SARS-CoV-2 infection affected more patients with diabetes and those who were non-White, with a high case-fatality ratio, which increased significantly with age, frailty, smoking, increasing CRP, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio at presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , London/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690253

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Approximately one in five women will experience mental health difficulties in the perinatal period. Women from ethnic minority backgrounds face a variety of barriers that can prevent or delay access to appropriate perinatal mental health care. COVID-19 pandemic restrictions created additional obstacles for this group of women. This study aims to explore minority ethnic women's experiences of perinatal mental health services during COVID-19 in London. (2) Methods: Eighteen women from ethnic minority backgrounds were interviewed, and data were subject to a thematic analysis. (3) Results: Three main themes were identified, each with two subthemes: 'Difficulties and Disruptions to Access' (Access to Appointments; Pandemic Restrictions and Disruption), 'Experiences of Remote Delivery' (Preference for Face-to-Face Contact; Advantages of Remote Support); and 'Psychosocial Experiences' linked to COVID-19 (Heightened Anxiety; Social Isolation). (4) Conclusions: Women from ethnic minority backgrounds experienced disrupted perinatal mental health care and COVID-19 restrictions compounding their mental health difficulties. Services should take women's circumstances into account and provide flexibility regarding remote delivery of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e055474, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Alpha variant (B.1.1.7 lineage) of SARS-CoV-2 emerged and became the dominant circulating variant in the UK in late 2020. Current literature is unclear on whether the Alpha variant is associated with increased severity. We linked clinical data with viral genome sequence data to compare admitted cases between SARS-CoV-2 waves in London and to investigate the association between the Alpha variant and the severity of disease. METHODS: Clinical, demographic, laboratory and viral sequence data from electronic health record systems were collected for all cases with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test between 13 March 2020 and 17 February 2021 in a multisite London healthcare institution. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression assessed risk factors for severity as defined by hypoxia at admission. RESULTS: There were 5810 SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive cases of which 2341 were admitted (838 in wave 1 and 1503 in wave 2). Both waves had a temporally aligned rise in nosocomial cases (96 in wave 1 and 137 in wave 2). The Alpha variant was first identified on 15 November 2020 and increased rapidly to comprise 400/472 (85%) of sequenced isolates from admitted cases in wave 2. A multivariate analysis identified risk factors for severity on admission, such as age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03, for every year older; p<0.001), obesity (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.26; p<0.001) and infection with the Alpha variant (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.24; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is the first in hospitalised cohorts to show increased severity of disease associated with the Alpha variant. The number of nosocomial cases was similar in both waves despite the introduction of many infection control interventions before wave 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(4): 1026-1032, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF STUDY: To assess impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental wellbeing, workload, training progression, and fertility planning among London Obstetrics and Gynecology trainees. DESIGN: An anonymous survey comprising 41 peer-validated questions was sent to London trainees. Anxiety and depression were screened using Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD 7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-seven trainees completed the questionnaire, of whom 54% were aged 25-34 years, 43% were senior trainees (ST6-7), and 51% classified themselves as Black, Asian, and Minority Asian (BAME). Although the percentage of respondents with "moderate"/"severe" GAD 7 and PHQ-9 scores was two to three times that of UK population estimates, median GAD 7 and PHQ-9 scores were 7 and 6 ("mild"). Sixteen percent deferred their fertility plans and 26% of ST6-7 trainees changed their Advanced Training Skills Modules. Other issues raised ranged from lack of assistance with electronic portfolio, postponement of examinations, poor senior input for mental health, lack of debriefing for redeployed trainees and requests for deferment of annual reviews. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has incurred an impact on mental health, training progression, and fertility planning of London trainees. With recommencement of nonemergency consultations and elective gynecology theater, alongside Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Recovery Blueprint to optimize learning opportunities, there is optimism that these challenges can be overcome. Trainers and trainees need to safeguard training opportunities and consider innovative forms of future learning, while anticipating potential effects of subsequent waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gynecology , Obstetrics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fertility , Gynecology/education , Humans , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Obstetrics/education , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050847, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With a growing role for health services in managing population health, there is a need for early identification of populations with high need. Segmentation approaches partition the population based on demographics, long-term conditions (LTCs) or healthcare utilisation but have mostly been applied to adults. Our study uses segmentation methods to distinguish patterns of healthcare utilisation in children and young people (CYP) and to explore predictors of segment membership. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Routinely collected primary and secondary healthcare data in Northwest London from the Discover database. PARTICIPANTS: 378 309 CYP aged 0-15 years registered to a general practice in Northwest London with 1 full year of follow-up. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Assignment of each participant to a segment defined by seven healthcare variables representing primary and secondary care attendances, and description of utilisation patterns by segment. Predictors of segment membership described by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation and LTCs. RESULTS: Participants were grouped into six segments based on healthcare utilisation. Three segments predominantly used primary care, two moderate utilisation segments differed in use of emergency or elective care, and a high utilisation segment, representing 16 632 (4.4%) children accounted for the highest mean presentations across all service types. The two smallest segments, representing 13.3% of the population, accounted for 62.5% of total costs. Younger age, residence in areas of higher deprivation and the presence of one or more LTCs were associated with membership of higher utilisation segments, but 75.0% of those in the highest utilisation segment had no LTC. CONCLUSIONS: This article identifies six segments of healthcare utilisation in CYP and predictors of segment membership. Demographics and LTCs may not explain utilisation patterns as strongly as in adults, which may limit the use of routine data in predicting utilisation and suggest children have less well-defined trajectories of service use than adults.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , London/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care
9.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(2): 391-396, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis and management of nonculprit lesions remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the management and outcomes of patients with nonculprit lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway activations across the heart attack center network in London, UK. Data from the study period in 2020 were compared with prepandemic data in 2019. The primary outcome was the rate of nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: A total of 788 patients undergoing PPCI were identified, 209 (60%) in 2020 cohort and 263 (60%) in 2019 cohort had nonculprit lesions (p = .89). There was less functional assessment of the significance of nonculprit lesions in the 2020 cohort compared to 2019 cohort; in 8% 2020 cohort versus 15% 2019 cohort (p = .01). There was no difference in rates of PCI for nonculprit disease in the 2019 and 2020 cohorts (31% vs 30%, p = .11). Patients in 2020 cohort underwent nonculprit lesion PCI sooner than the 2019 cohort (p < .001). At 6 months there was higher rates of unplanned revascularization (4% vs. 2%, p = .05) and repeat myocardial infarction (4% vs. 1%, p = .02) in the 2019 cohort compared to 2020 cohort. CONCLUSION: Changes to clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with reduced rates of unplanned revascularization and myocardial infarction at 6-months follow-up, and despite the pandemic, there was no difference in mortality, suggesting that it is not only safe but maybe more efficacious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , London/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Am Surg ; 88(1): 133-139, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in fewer emergency presentations of many acute medical and surgical conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the severity of disease at presentation and quantify the change in number of presentations during this period. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients diagnosed with acute diverticulitis on abdominopelvic computerised tomography (CT) between March 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. Follow up scans on the index admission were excluded. Hinchey grade was assessed for all CT scans. Inflammatory markers were analysed, along with outcome measures including length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Acute diverticulitis was diagnosed in 52 CT scans in the acute pandemic period - a decrease of 51.4%. Average age at presentation was unchanged (63.3 ± 14.3 vs. 62.8 ± 13.8, P = .848). The number of Hinchey II, III and IV presentations were significantly higher in the acute pandemic period (28.8% vs. 11.2%, P = .005) and significantly more emergency operations were carried out (7.69% vs. .93%, P = .04). Mortality was not significantly increased, nor were serum levels of C-reactive protein, white cell count and lactate. DISCUSSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients presented and were diagnosed with acute diverticulitis. A significantly greater proportion presented at a more advanced stage and required emergency surgery, suggesting late presentation. Our findings support the need for maintaining acute surgical services and the provision of early radiological and surgical input in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute diverticulitis in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diverticulitis, Colonic/diagnosis , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Acuity , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diverticulitis, Colonic/epidemiology , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Clin Radiol ; 77(3): 231-235, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568610

ABSTRACT

AIM: To follow-up previous work evaluating incidental findings of COVID-19 signs on computed tomography (CT) images of major trauma patients to include the second wave prior to any major effects from vaccines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included all patients admitted following major trauma between 1 January 2020 and 28 February 2021 with CT including the lungs (n=1776). Major trauma patients admitted pre-COVID-19 from alternate months from January 2019 to November 2019 comprised a control group (n=837). The assessing radiologists were blinded to the time period and used double reading in consensus to determine if the patient had signs of COVID-19. Lung appearances were classified as no evidence of COVID-19, minor signs, or major signs. RESULTS: The method successfully tracked the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in London. The estimated population affected by the disease based on those with major signs was similar to estimates of the proportion of the population in London with antibodies (around 30% by end February 2021) and the total of major and minor signs produced a much higher figure of 68%, which may include all those with both antibody and just T-cell responses. CONCLUSIONS: Incidental findings on CT from major trauma patients may provide a novel and sensitive way of tracking the virus. It is recommended that all major trauma units include a simple question on signs of COVID-19 to provide an early warning system for further waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Wounds and Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidental Findings , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4047-e4057, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Detailed clinical analyses of multicultural hospitalized patient cohorts remain largely undescribed. METHODS: We performed regression, survival, and cumulative competing risk analyses to evaluate factors associated with mortality in patients admitted for COVID-19 in 3 large London hospitals between 25 February and 5 April, censored as of 1 May 2020. RESULTS: Of 614 patients (median age, 69 [interquartile range, 25] years) and 62% male), 381 (62%) were discharged alive, 178 (29%) died, and 55 (9%) remained hospitalized at censoring. Severe hypoxemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.25 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.36-7.64]), leukocytosis (aOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.35-4.11]), thrombocytopenia (aOR [1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.01], increase per 109 decrease), severe renal impairment (aOR, 5.14 [95% CI, 2.65-9.97]), and low albumin (aOR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09], increase per gram decrease) were associated with death. Forty percent (n = 244) were from black, Asian, and other minority ethnic (BAME) groups, 38% (n = 235) were white, and ethnicity was unknown for 22% (n = 135). BAME patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities. Although the unadjusted odds of death did not differ by ethnicity, when adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, black patients were at higher odds of death compared to whites (aOR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.00-2.86]). This association was stronger when further adjusting for admission severity (aOR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.06-3.24]). CONCLUSIONS: BAME patients were overrepresented in our cohort; when accounting for demographic and clinical profile of admission, black patients were at increased odds of death. Further research is needed into biologic drivers of differences in COVID-19 outcomes by ethnicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260969, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546975

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing travel behaviour in many urban areas around the world since the beginning of 2020. As a consequence, bike-sharing schemes have been affected-partly due to the change in travel demand and behaviour as well as a shift from public transit. This study estimates the varying effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the London bike-sharing system (Santander Cycles) over the period March-December 2020. We employed a Bayesian second-order random walk time-series model to account for temporal correlation in the data. We compared the observed number of cycle hires and hire time with their respective counterfactuals (what would have been if the pandemic had not happened) to estimate the magnitude of the change caused by the pandemic. The results indicated that following a reduction in cycle hires in March and April 2020, the demand rebounded from May 2020, remaining in the expected range of what would have been if the pandemic had not occurred. This could indicate the resiliency of Santander Cycles. With respect to hire time, an important increase occurred in April, May, and June 2020, indicating that bikes were hired for longer trips, perhaps partly due to a shift from public transit.


Subject(s)
Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , London/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Time Factors
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 765-778, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 µg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031). FINDINGS: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. FUNDING: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales
16.
Physiotherapy ; 113: 153-159, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525919

ABSTRACT

In this short report the authors characterise inpatient bed occupancy and predicted rehabilitation need of patients cared for in two acute hospitals of a large London NHS Trust during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, including 394 people with confirmed COVID-19. Data were captured on a single day (17th April 2020) from the two Trust hospitals to inform discharge planning in line with national COVID-19 Hospital Discharge Service policy guidance. Our data suggests that the proportion of COVID-19 patients predicted to require rehabilitation upon hospital discharge may be greater than the estimates described in the national COVID-19 Hospital Discharge Service policy guidance; posing the question is there a demand-capacity mismatch between rehabilitation need and service provision as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospital Bed Capacity , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , London/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(11): 3178-3185, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491753

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) in 2019 resulted in the suspension of all elective hospital procedures during the height of the pandemic in the UK. The Clinic in London is one of the first day-case hospitals to resume cosmetic surgery in a post-COVID-19 clinical environment, whilst also employing the use of virtual consultations. Details of the protocol implemented by the Clinic to allow the safe resumption of cosmetic surgery are stated in this paper. The volume of procedures at the Clinic saw a significant increase post-lockdown; reasons as to why this occurred are also explored in this paper. The disruption of cosmetic practice during lockdown can be said to have resulted in a backlog of procedures once lockdown restrictions began to ease. Whilst this may be true, we believe that there are other confounding factors regarding what may have influenced the rise in cosmetic surgery during the pandemic, including the privacy of working from home and the increased exposure to video conferencing software.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control , London/epidemiology , Patient Selection , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Remote Consultation , Retrospective Studies
18.
Infection ; 50(2): 457-465, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The second coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic wave in the UK progressed aggressively and was characterised by the emergence and circulation of variant of concern alpha (VOC 202012/01). The impact of this variant on in-hospital COVID-19-specific mortality has not been widely studied. We aimed to compare mortality, clinical characteristics, and management of COVID-19 patients across epidemic waves to better understand the progression of the epidemic at a hospital level and support resource planning. METHODS: We conducted an analytical, dynamic cohort study in a large hospital in South London. We included all adults (≥ 18 years) with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who required hospital admission to COVID-19-specific wards between January 2020 and March 2021 (n = 2701). Outcome was COVID-19-specific in-hospital mortality ascertained through Medical Certificate Cause of Death. RESULTS: In the second wave, the number of COVID-19 admissions doubled, and the crude mortality rate dropped 25% (1.66 versus 2.23 per 100 person-days in second and first wave, respectively). After accounting for age, sex, dexamethasone, oxygen requirements, symptoms at admission and Charlson Comorbidity Index, mortality hazard ratio associated with COVID-19 admissions was 1.62 (95% CI 1.26, 2.08) times higher in the second wave. CONCLUSIONS: Although crude mortality rates dropped during the second wave, the multivariable analysis suggests a higher underlying risk of death for COVID-19 admissions in the second wave. These findings are ecologically correlated with an increased circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/1 (alpha). Availability of improved management, particularly dexamethasone, was important in reducing risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , London/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
19.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001116, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472315

ABSTRACT

Direct risk from infection from COVID-19 for children and young people (CYP) is low, but impact on services, education and mental health (so-called collateral damage) appears to have been more significant. In North Central London (NCL) during the first wave of the pandemic, in response to the needs and demands for adults with COVID-19, general paediatric wards in acute hospitals and some paediatric emergency departments were closed. Paediatric mental health services in NCL mental health services were reconfigured. Here we describe process and lessons learnt from a collaboration between physical and mental health services to provide care for CYP presenting in mental health crisis. Two new 'hubs' were created to coordinate crisis presentations in the region and to link community mental health teams with emergency departments. All CYP requiring a paediatric admission in the first wave were diverted to Great Ormond Street Hospital, a specialist children's hospital in NCL, and a new ward for CYP mental health crisis admissions was created. This brought together a multidisciplinary team of mental health and physical health professionals. The most common reason for admission to the ward was following a suicide attempt (n=17, 43%). Patients were of higher acute mental health complexity than usually admitted to the hospital, with some CYP needing an extended period of assessment. In this review, we describe the challenges and key lessons learnt for the development of this new ward setting that involved such factors as leadership, training and also new governance processes. We also report some personal perspectives from the professionals involved. Our review provides perspective and experience that can inform how CYP with mental health admissions can be managed in paediatric medical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Virol Methods ; 297: 114250, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461648

ABSTRACT

Recent publications have highlighted the emergence of mutations in the M1 gene of both influenza A H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 subtypes affecting the performance of commercial RT-PCR assays. Respiratory samples from the 2018/2019 season positive by our in-house RT-PCR for influenza A were analysed for the prevalence and impact of any M1 gene mutations. Sequence information was used to re-design primers for our routine assay and their performance assessed. Forty-five samples, consisting of 11 H1N1pdm09 and 34 H3N2 subtypes, together with the NIBSC H1N1 control were sequenced. All samples displayed the core mutations for H1N1 M1(C154T; G174A and G238A) and for H3N2 M1(C153T; C163T and G189T); three of the H1N1pdm09 viruses also showed a small number of point mutations. None of the mutations appeared to affect either the sensitivity or efficiency of the RT-PCR when compared to the re-designed primers. Although the mutations we found agreed with those in the publications cited we did not encounter any problems with our routine diagnostic assay and no improvements were found when the primers were modified to suit those mutations. However, it is likely that the influenza A virus M1 gene will accumulate further mutations that could impact RT-PCR assays and, therefore, it would be prudent to implement routine sequencing of samples during the influenza seasons to ensure no loss in assay performance.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , London/epidemiology , Seasons
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