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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0264638, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779746

ABSTRACT

Young adults are currently the loneliest demographic in the UK and other Western countries, yet little is known about how they see the causes of their loneliness. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the subjective causes of loneliness among young adults (18-24 years old), particularly those of lower socio-economic status (SES) who are in employment, renting and living in the most deprived areas, since they are the loneliest in the UK. Utilising a free association technique and thematic analysis, and embedded in a phenomenological framework, the subjective causes of loneliness in a matched sample of 48 young adults in the four most deprived boroughs of London are found to cluster around five themes: The Feeling of Being Disconnected, Contemporary Culture, Pressure, Social Comparison and Transitions Between Life Stages. Disconnection arises from feeling one does not matter, is not understood or is unable to express oneself. Challenges pertaining to social media and materialism in contemporary culture contribute to loneliness as does pressure associated with work, fitting in and social comparison. Social media play a major role in exacerbating these experiences. Finally, transitions between life stages such as breakups, loss of significant others and transitory stages to do with education and employment are felt to cause loneliness. The findings suggest potential avenues for loneliness reduction.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , Emotions , Employment , Humans , London , Young Adult
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750736, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775936

ABSTRACT

The perception of feeling lonely is an influential factor in determining quality of life among aging adults. As the US Census Bureau projects that the number of Americans ages 65 and older will double by 2060, reducing loneliness is imperative. Personal voice assistants (PVAs) such as Amazon's Echo offer the ease-of-use of voice control with a friendly, helpful artificial intelligence. This study aimed to understand the influence of a PVA on loneliness reduction among adults of advanced ages, i.e., 75+, and explore anthropomorphism as a potential underlying mechanism. Participants (N = 16) ages 75 or older used an Amazon Echo PVA for 8 weeks in an independent living facility in the Midwest. Surveys were used to collect information about perceived loneliness, and PVA interaction data was recorded and analyzed. Participants consistently exceeded the required daily interactions. As hypothesized, after the first 4 weeks of the intervention, aging adults reported significantly lower loneliness (baseline mean = 2.22, SD = 0.42; week 4 mean = 1.99, SD = 0.45, Z = -2.45, and p = 0.01). Four dominant anthropomorphic themes emerged after thematic analysis of the entire 8 weeks' PVA interaction data (Cohen's Kappa = 0.92): (1) greetings (user-initiated, friendly phrases); (2) comments/questions (user-initiated, second-person pronoun), (3) polite interactions (user-initiated, direct-name friendly requests), (4) reaction (user response to Alexa). Relational greetings predicted loneliness reductions in the first 4 weeks and baseline loneliness predicted relational greetings with the PVA during the entire 8 weeks, suggesting that anthropomorphization of PVAs may play a role in mitigating loneliness in aging adults.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Aged , Aging , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Quality of Life
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770753

ABSTRACT

In early pandemic waves, when vaccination against COVID-19 was not yet an option, distancing and reduced social contact were the most effective measures to slow down the pandemic. Changes in frequency and forms of social contact have reduced the spread of the COVID-19 virus and thus saved lives, yet there is increasing evidence for negative side effects such as mental health issues. In the present study, we investigate the development of loneliness and its predictors to examine the role of changes in social networks due to social distancing and other COVID-19-related life changes. A total of 737 participants (age range = 18-81 years) completed an online survey in three waves during the last quarter of 2020 at one-month intervals. Latent growth and multilevel modeling revealed that emotional loneliness increased over time, while social loneliness remained stable. Moreover, socially lonely individuals were likely to also develop emotional loneliness over time. Increased social distancing and sanitary measures were accompanied by decreased social interactions and loss of individuals considered SOS contacts and confidants. Changes in specific social network indicators were differentially associated with changes in emotional vs social loneliness: Loss of friends considered confidants was associated with increasing emotional loneliness, whereas loss of friends considered SOS contacts and reduced overall social interactions were related to increasing social loneliness. Lastly, individuals with more family-and-friend SOS contacts, more friends as confidants and an overall higher number of social interactions were more protected from feeling socially or emotionally lonely. Study findings enhance the understanding of underlying mechanisms differentially contributing to social and emotional loneliness and offer practical suggestions to reduce mental-health side effects of social distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Loneliness/psychology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Relig Health ; 61(2): 1703-1718, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767558

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the relationship between the levels of hopelessness, loneliness, and spiritual well-being of patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes during the process of COVID-19 outbreak. The study was carried out with diabetic patients living in three different cities that are in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey between the dates of 15 of November and 30 of November 2020. The sample of the study consisted of 500 (Type 1, n = 218, Type 2, n = 282) diabetes patients. Data were collected using a demographic information form, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS), and Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp). While the mean scores of hopelessness and loneliness of type 1 patients were below the moderate level, the mean scores of their spiritual well-being were found to be above the moderate level. Moreover, while the mean scores of hopelessness and loneliness in type 2 patients were below the moderate level, the mean scores of their spiritual well-being were found above the moderate level. A significant relationship was found between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes patients' levels of hopelessness, loneliness, and spiritual well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak. It was found that as the spiritual well-being levels of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients increased, the levels of their loneliness and hopelessness decreased. It is recommended that mass communication that includes spiritual care practices can be used effectively to reduce diabetes patients' levels of loneliness and hopelessness during the pandemic. In addition, while providing care to diabetes patients, it can be suggested that health professionals offer a holistic approach with initiatives that will increase diabetes patients' spiritual well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Loneliness , Spirituality , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 253, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic challenged both the Norwegian population and healthcare system. In this study we explored how older men and women experienced rehabilitation and recovery after hospitalisation due to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 17 participants aged 60-96 years were performed 6 months after discharge from hospital. A thematic descriptive analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The results revealed that the participants experienced a challenging span between loneliness and companionship in recovering from severe COVID-19. The four subthemes highlighted experiences of being discharged to home and left to themselves, the importance of exercise and companionship at rehabilitation stay, requirement of self-effort and time to recover, and the challenging span between loneliness and companionship when being with family. CONCLUSION: Among participants, the experiences of loneliness throughout the recovery period were striking. An individualised approach including psychological support should be emphasized in primary healthcare to promote recovery in older survivors after severe COVID-19 and their next-of-kin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Walking
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263856, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a leading mental health problem worldwide. People with long-term conditions are at increased risk of experiencing depression. The COVID-19 pandemic led to strict social restrictions being imposed across the UK population. Social isolation can have negative consequences on the physical and mental wellbeing of older adults. In the Behavioural Activation in Social IsoLation (BASIL+) trial we will test whether a brief psychological intervention (based on Behavioural Activation), delivered remotely, can mitigate depression and loneliness in older adults with long-term conditions during isolation. METHODS: We will conduct a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial across several research sites, to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the BASIL+ intervention. Participants will be recruited via participating general practices across England and Wales. Participants must be aged ≥65 with two or more long-term conditions, or a condition that may indicate they are within a 'clinically extremely vulnerable' group in relation to COVID-19, and have scored ≥5 on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), to be eligible for inclusion. Randomisation will be 1:1, stratified by research site. Intervention participants will receive up to eight intervention sessions delivered remotely by trained BASIL+ Support Workers and supported by a self-help booklet. Control participants will receive usual care, with additional signposting to reputable sources of self-help and information, including advice on keeping mentally and physically well. A qualitative process evaluation will also be undertaken to explore the acceptability of the BASIL+ intervention, as well as barriers and enablers to integrating the intervention into participants' existing health and care support, and the impact of the intervention on participants' mood and general wellbeing in the context of the COVID-19 restrictions. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with intervention participants, participant's caregivers/supportive others and BASIL+ Support Workers. Outcome data will be collected at one, three, and 12 months post-randomisation. Clinical and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms at the three-month follow up, measured by the PHQ9. Secondary outcomes include loneliness, social isolation, anxiety, quality of life, and a bespoke health services use questionnaire. DISCUSSION: This study is the first large-scale trial evaluating a brief Behavioural Activation intervention in this population, and builds upon the results of a successful external pilot trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier ISRCTN63034289, registered on 5th February 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ocimum basilicum , Aged , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Depression/prevention & control , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Social Isolation
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 90, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A pandemic of loneliness is hitting the aging population. As COVID19 forced us to isolate ourselves, we are in a better position to understand consequences of social distancing. The recent literature showed that older incarcerated adults are particularly at risk of health-related complications due to isolation in the prison environment, reducing their social capital. Mental and physical health can be severely affected by loneliness and social isolation, especially in prison. METHODS: Our qualitative study investigates the view of older persons deprieved of their liberty on loneliness and social isolation pertaining to their mental health. We interviewed 57 older participants, including imprisoned individuals and forensic patients, following a semi-structured interview guide. During the data management and data analysis process, we excluded 7 interviews which were of poorer quality. Thereafter, we analyzed the remainders following a thematic approach. RESULTS: Most interviewees experience loneliness following lack of significant human relationships in prison. Making friends appears to be a challenge for all the participants, because, for one thing, they do not find people with similar interests. Also, secure institution setting aggravates isolation due to the restrictions of movement placed such as rules concerning movement between floors, hindering intimate relationship, and separation between friends. Moreover, contact with prison personnel is limited and lack social capital (e.g. trust). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to present incarcerated persons' perspective on loneliness, social isolation and poor social capital in the Swiss prison setting. These has been reported to cause health problems both somatic and psychological. Our participants experience these deleterious factors in detention. As prisons have the possibility to become a health-promoting environment through connectedness, friendship, and trust promotion, stakeholders need to better their social capital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e32598, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdown measures impacted mental health worldwide. However, the temporal dynamics of causal factors that modulate mental health during lockdown are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand how a COVID-19 lockdown changes the temporal dynamics of loneliness and other factors affecting mental health. This is the first study that compares network characteristics between lockdown stages to prioritize mental health intervention targets. METHODS: We combined ecological momentary assessments with wrist-worn motion tracking to investigate the mechanism and changes in network centrality of symptoms and behaviors before and during lockdown. A total of 258 participants who reported at least mild loneliness and distress were assessed 8 times a day for 7 consecutive days over a 213-day period from August 8, 2020, through March 9, 2021, in Germany, covering a "no-lockdown" and a "lockdown" stage. COVID-19-related worry, information-seeking, perceived restriction, and loneliness were assessed by digital visual analog scales ranging from 0 to 100. Social activity was assessed on a 7-point Likert scale, while physical activity was recorded from wrist-worn actigraphy devices. RESULTS: We built a multilevel vector autoregressive model to estimate dynamic networks. To compare network characteristics between a no-lockdown stage and a lockdown stage, we performed permutation tests. During lockdown, loneliness had the highest impact within the network, as indicated by its centrality index (ie, an index to identify variables that have a strong influence on the other variables). Moreover, during lockdown, the centrality of loneliness significantly increased. Physical activity contributed to a decrease in loneliness amid the lockdown stage. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown increased the central role of loneliness in triggering stress-related behaviors and cognition. Our study indicates that loneliness should be prioritized in mental health interventions during lockdown. Moreover, physical activity can serve as a buffer for loneliness amid social restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742464

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak in March 2020, restrictive measures (e.g., prohibiting physical visits and group activities) were introduced in nursing homes to protect older residents. Although the importance of social contacts and social activities to fulfill social needs and avoid loneliness is known, these were challenged during the pandemic. This qualitative study specifically focused on how residents, close relatives, and volunteers in nursing homes experienced the restrictive measures in retrospect and gained insights into the impact of the restrictive measures on social needs and loneliness, and the lessons that could be learned. Thirty semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with residents and close relatives, and one online focus group with ten volunteers, were conducted. Recruitment took place at psychogeriatric and somatic units in the Northern, Eastern and Southern regions of the Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium. The interviews and focus group were transcribed verbatim, and an open, inductive approach was used for analysis. Alternative ways of social contact could not fully compensate for physical visits. Generally, participants reported that it was a difficult time, indicated by feelings of loneliness, fear, sadness, and powerlessness. A great diversity in loneliness was reported. The most important reasons for feeling lonely were missing close social contacts and social activities. The diversity in the impact of restrictive measures depended on, e.g., social needs, coping strategies, and character. Restrictive COVID-19 measures in nursing homes resulted in negative emotions and unmet social needs of residents, close relatives, and volunteers. During future outbreaks of the COVID-19 virus or another virus or bacterium, for which restrictive measures may be needed, nursing homes should actively involve residents, close relatives, and volunteers to balance safety, self-determination, and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Nursing Homes , Volunteers
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 62, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An insecure attachment style is an important risk factor for psychological problems. The aim of this study was to use Bartholomew and Horowitz's model (Bartholomew and Horowitz in J Pers Soc Psychol 61(2): 226, 2019) to test a sample of Italian individuals to determine the mediation role of loneliness and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms in the relationship between attachment styles and mental health issues in the context of the pandemic. METHOD: A cross-sectional research study was conducted using a sample of 330 Italian participants (82.1% women; mean age = 34.3 years; SD = 13.16) who completed online self-reported measures of attachment styles (RQ), loneliness (RULS), COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms (C-19ASS) and mental health problems (GHQ-12). Serial mediation analyses were performed, and bootstrap tests were included. RESULTS: Our results supported the hypothesized model with respect to each attachment style (p < 0.001). In particular, insecure attachment styles predict mental health problems both directly and indirectly, through loneliness and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms. In addition, loneliness directly influences mental health problems and also mediates the relationship between insecure attachment styles and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms which, in turn, positively predict mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the importance of attachment in people's processes of adapting to experiences during the coronavirus pandemic. The study makes an important contribution to developing effective prevention and intervention strategies to support people's wellbeing in the context of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health , Object Attachment , Pandemics
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736923

ABSTRACT

Having an autistic child significantly impairs the functioning of the family, including the wellbeing of the parents. The aim of this study was to assess whether loneliness mediates the relationship between perceived stress and the severity of depressive symptoms in the studied sample of parents. This cross-sectional study involved 39 parents of autistic children and 45 parents of non-autistic children. They completed a set of tests: a survey on sociodemographic and clinical data and psychometric questionnaires, i.e., Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), and Perceived Stress Questionnaire (KPS). A rise in external and intrapsychic stress, independently, was linked to a rise in the severity of depressive symptoms. The severity of depression, loneliness and stress was higher among parents of autistic children compared with parents of non-autistic children. Intrapsychic stress exhibited an indirect effect through loneliness on the worsening of depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Loneliness , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Stress, Psychological
12.
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e056368, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing concern that the restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to increased loneliness and mental disorders, which are considered a major public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess loneliness, anxiety, depression and irritability in the Polish population during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. The study participants completed an online questionnaire using the computer-assisted web interview technique. Data were collected using Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. SETTING: Poland. PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted between 6 October and 12 October 2020, in a representative sample of 890 Polish residents. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported loneliness; sociodemographic and COVID-19 pandemic factors associated with loneliness, anxiety, depression and irritability. RESULTS: The analyses showed a moderately high degree of loneliness in 22%, symptoms of anxiety in 27%, depression in 14% and irritability in 33% of the respondents. The increasing severity of anxiety, depression and irritation in the study group was accompanied by higher loneliness. Generally, younger people, both tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those who experienced home quarantine, scored higher in both scales. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to identify those most vulnerable to loneliness, anxiety and depression during a crisis to assess health needs and proactively allocate resources during and after the pandemic. Loneliness, anxiety, depression and irritability are important factors to consider in a population of younger, disadvantaged people, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, people who were quarantined at home, and people who believe that their physical and mental health is worse than in the pre-pandemic period. It is important to cater for the mental health of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic and to promote psychological interventions to improve mental well-being in potentially vulnerable social groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness , Mental Health , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 299: 114881, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730112

ABSTRACT

Studies show that older adults were lonelier during versus before the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be due in part to guidelines particularly recommending that older adults stay at home, given their elevated risk of COVID-19 complications. However, little is known about the extent to which this population experienced greater intensity in momentary loneliness during versus before the pandemic, and how this relates to their real-time contexts. Here, we build upon recent findings from the Chicago Health and Activity Space in Real-Time (CHART) study that revealed associations between momentary contexts and loneliness among older adults. We analyze ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) from both pre- and during COVID-19 among a subsample of CHART respondents (N = 110 older adults age 65-88 in 2020). Pre-pandemic data were collected across three waves from April 2018-October 2019, and pandemic data were collected across three additional waves from June-September 2020. Participants responded to smartphone "pings" (five per day for 7 days per wave; N = 5596 and N = 7826 before and during the pandemic, respectively) by reporting their momentary loneliness and context (e.g., home). Findings from multi-level regression models suggest that respondents were lonelier in mid-2020 than in years prior, as well as when at home and alone; they were also more likely to be at home during the pandemic. However, the loneliness-inducing effects of being at home (vs. outside the home) and alone (vs. with others) were weaker during versus before COVID-19. Results provide important nuance to broader trends in loneliness among older adults during the pandemic. Specifically, older adults may have adopted new technologies to support social connectedness. It is also possible that, during a time in which social and physical distancing characterized public health guidelines, these contexts grew less isolating as they became a shared experience, or that publicly shared spaces provided fewer opportunities for social engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715386

ABSTRACT

(1) The COVID-19 pandemic poses threats to human life and health around the world. This study attempts to determine the correlation between loneliness and satisfaction with life among nursing students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia and to seek predictors of social and emotional loneliness among the students. (2) A total of 756 nursing students from Poland, Spain and Slovakia took part in the study. A diagnostic survey was applied as the research method, and the data were collected with the sense of loneliness measurement scale (de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale-DJGLS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). (3) The mean age of the participants was 21.20 years (SD = 1.97). A correlation analysis revealed statistically significant, negative correlations, with an average and high strength, between the general sense of loneliness and its components (social loneliness and emotional loneliness) and satisfaction with life among students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia. A regression analysis showed one's satisfaction with life to be a predictor of a sense of loneliness among nursing students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia in the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. (4) Students with a stronger sense of loneliness also feel lower life satisfaction. It is important to take preventive and prophylactic actions concerning loneliness among students during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715306

ABSTRACT

The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction, especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. Addiction to the Internet is often linked with an increase in the feeling of loneliness. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during adolescence. However, in excess, it can lead to suicidal ideation. Addiction to the Internet is also linked to an increased suicide risk. We questioned ourselves on the impact of the feeling of loneliness on the link between an excessive use of the Internet by adolescents and the risks of suicidal ideation. We attempted to find an answer to this question by performing a systematic review of the literature. We found no result matching our search criteria. We noted the absence of studies with regards to the interaction between the feeling of loneliness, addiction to the Internet and the risk of suicidal ideation amongst adolescents. We established a theoretical model which could be used as a lead for future research. We insist on the importance that studies need to be conducted in this domain, in order to enable us to establish efficient preventive measures for the risks of suicidal ideation amongst adolescents.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Emotions , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Loneliness/psychology , Models, Theoretical , Risk Factors
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702557

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, residents of the Bronx, New York experienced one of the first significant community COVID-19 outbreaks in the United States. Focusing on intensive longitudinal data from 78 Bronx-based older adults, we used a multi-method approach to (1) examine 2019 to early pandemic (February-June 2020) changes in momentary psychological well-being of Einstein Aging Study (EAS) participants and (2) to contextualize these changes with community distress scores collected from public Twitter posts posted in Bronx County. We found increases in mean loneliness from 2019 to 2020; and participants that were higher in neuroticism had greater increases in thought unpleasantness and feeling depressed. Twitter-based Bronx community scores of anxiety, depressivity, and negatively-valenced affect showed elevated levels in 2020 weeks relative to 2019. Integration of EAS participant data and community data showed week-to-week fluctuations across 2019 and 2020. Results highlight how community-level data can characterize a rapidly changing environment to supplement individual-level data at no additional burden to individual participants.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/pathology , Loneliness , Social Media , Affect , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2696, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699590

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 stressors and psychological stress response are important correlates of suicide risks under the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 stress, its impact on mental health and associated risk factors among the general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 in July 2020 throughout Taiwan. A nationwide population-based survey was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interview system with a stratified, proportional randomization method for the survey. The questionnaire comprised demographic variables, psychological distress assessed by the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale and independent psychosocial variables including COVID-19 stressors, loneliness, suicidality, and health-related self-efficacy. In total, 2094 respondents completed the survey (female 51%). The COVID-19 stress was experienced among 45.4% of the participants, with the most prevalent stressors related to daily life and job/financial concerns. Higher levels of suicidality, loneliness, and a lower level of self-efficacy had significantly higher odds of having COVID-19 stress. The structural equation model revealed that COVID-19 stress was moderately associated with psychological distress and mediated by other psychosocial risk factors. The findings call for more attention on strategies of stress management and mental health promotion for the public to prevent larger scales of psychological consequences in future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Self Efficacy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Suicide/psychology , Taiwan/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(3)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694791

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between loneliness and self-reported delay or avoidance of medical care among community-dwelling older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Analyses of data from a nationally representative survey administered in June of 2020, in COVID-19 module of the Health and Retirement Study. Bivariate and multivariable analyses determined associations of loneliness with the likelihood of, reasons for, and types of care delay or avoidance. RESULTS: The rate of care delay or avoidance since March of 2020 was 29.1% among all respondents (n = 1997), and 10.1% higher for lonely (n = 1,150%, 57.6%) versus non-lonely respondents (33.5% vs. 23.4%; odds ratio = 1.59, p = 0.003 after covariate adjustment). The differences were considerably larger among several subgroups such as those with emotional/psychiatric problems. Lonely older adults were more likely to cite "Decided it could wait," "Was afraid to go," and "Couldn't afford it" as reasons for delayed or avoided care. Both groups reported dental care and doctor's visit as the two most common care delayed or avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with a higher likelihood of delaying or avoiding medical care among older adults during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Independent Living , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Geriatr Nurs ; 44: 131-136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Assess well-being among older adults through secondary analysis measured during an annual survey in 2018, 2019, and 2020, to determine trends from before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Mailed surveys sent annually included measures related to various psychosocial factors. MAIN FINDINGS: Response rates were 29% in 2018, 25% in 2019, and 24% in 2020. Most respondents reported average or high resilience (89% 2018-2020), high purpose (64% in 2018 and 2019, 63% in 2020), moderate optimism (46% in 2019, 44% in 2020) and low stress (88% in 2019 and 2020). Reported loneliness increased 13% from 2018 to 2020. In 2020, only 45% reported high comfort with technology, decreasing with age (>75). PRINCIPAL CONCLUSION: Psychosocial well-being of respondents were doing well despite changes related to COVID-19. However, increased loneliness may negatively impact long-term health outcomes; thus, a focus on technology options to stay socially connected and access healthcare are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness , Resilience, Psychological , Aged , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
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