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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205380

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Subject(s)
Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/psychology , Panic , Suicide/psychology , Aging/physiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Loneliness/psychology
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 903, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to control the corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have adopted social quarantine policies, with older adults in Wuhan suffering the longest and most severe conditions. But few studies have explored the impact of this on the mental health of older adults in Wuhan. The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in the residential status and mental health of this group when 1 year after the social isolation policies in Wuhan. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted to assess the questionnaire of older adults in a total of 21 streets in 5 central and 2 distant urban districts of Wuhan. Using a self-compiled living status questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the General Anxiety Disorder-7, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale, our survey evaluated the living status, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, loneliness and social support of all the participants. RESULTS: A total of 400 valid samples were obtained. One year after experiencing social isolation, older adults had not changed much from their pre-epidemic living status and mostly lived with their partners. They had satisfactory social support (33.86 ± 6.92) and low levels of depression (3.12 ± 4.30), anxiety (1.52 ± 3.19) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (21.41 ± 7.39), but there were moderate levels of loneliness (38.27 ± 9.31). Among them, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly higher (ps < 0.05) in older adults who were COVID-19 close contacts while experiencing social isolation. CONCLUSION: One year after experiencing Wuhan's harsh social isolation, older adults in the Wuhan community did not experience significant symptoms of depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress, but loneliness has increased and the mental health of older adults who were COVID-19 close contacts needs attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Aged , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Loneliness/psychology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275973, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119392

ABSTRACT

The US population faced stressors associated with suicide brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the relationship between stressors and suicidal ideation in the context of the pandemic may inform policies and programs to prevent suicidality and suicide. We compared suicidal ideation between two cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of adults in the United States: the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 2020 COVID-19 and Life Stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-being (CLIMB) study (conducted March 31 to April 13). We estimated the association between stressors and suicidal ideation in bivariable and multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance to generate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR). Suicidal ideation increased from 3.4% in the 2017-2018 NHANES to 16.3% in the 2020 CLIMB survey, and from 5.8% to 26.4% among participants in low-income households. In the multivariable model, difficulty paying rent (aPR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and feeling alone (aPR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4) were associated with suicidal ideation but job loss was not (aPR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.6 to 1.2). Suicidal ideation increased by 12.9 percentage points and was almost 4.8 times higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Suicidal ideation was more prevalent among people facing difficulty paying rent (31.5%), job loss (24.1%), and loneliness (25.1%), with each stressor associated with suicidal ideation in bivariable models. Difficulty paying rent and loneliness were most associated with suicidal ideation. Policies and programs to support people experiencing economic precarity and loneliness may contribute to suicide prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(6)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119338

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between boredom proneness, loneliness, and smartphone addiction among Lebanese young adults and examine the mediating role of depression, anxiety, and stress in this association.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2020 during the lockdown period of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. An online survey was completed by 461 young adults aged 18 to 29 years.Results: The results showed that 66 of 134 males (49.3%, scores ≥ 31) and 143 of 327 females (43.7%, scores ≥ 33) had smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was significantly associated with higher boredom proneness (P < .001), anxiety (P = .012), and loneliness (P = .025). Anxiety mediated the association between boredom proneness and smartphone addiction and between loneliness and smartphone addiction, whereas depression and stress did not mediate the association between boredom/loneliness and smartphone addiction.Conclusions: Smartphone addiction is highly associated with psychological disorders, and screening strategies are needed to minimize addiction. This study emphasizes the importance of investigating the relation between smartphone addiction and psychological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Male , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Boredom , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
5.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 57(12): 2481-2490, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cross-sectional studies found high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and loneliness during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reported increases were lower in longitudinal population-based findings. Studies including positive outcomes are rare. This study analyzed changes in mental health symptoms, loneliness, and satisfaction. METHODS: Respondents of the German Socio-Economic Panel (N = 6038) were surveyed pre-pandemic (2017/2019) and during the first (June 2020) and second wave (January and February 2021) of the pandemic. Self-report screeners assessed depression and anxiety symptoms, loneliness, life and health satisfaction. Difference scores were analysed using ANCOVAs focusing on time, gender, age groups. RESULTS: Depression and anxiety symptoms and health satisfaction increased from pre-pandemic to the first wave, but declined in the second pandemic wave. Loneliness increased and life satisfaction decreased during the first and the second wave of the pandemic. Young adults and women reported more distress and loneliness, even after controlling for pre-pandemic scores, education, and income. All effects remained stable when controlling for self-reported previous diagnosis of depression or region of residence. CONCLUSION: Increases and decreases in mental health symptoms and health satisfaction showed little variation. Of concern are the strong increases of loneliness and decreased life satisfaction being important targets for interventions. Main risk factors are young age and female gender.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Young Adult , Humans , Female , Loneliness/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114900, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116853

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated psychosocial predictors of psychosis-risk, depression, anxiety, and stress in Croatia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given Croatia's recent transgenerational war trauma and the relative lack of available prodromal data, this study presents a unique opportunity to examine the impact of loneliness and other psychosocial factors on psychosis-risk and mental health in this population. 404 Croatian participants completed an anonymous online survey of physical and mental health questions. 48 participants met the criteria for elevated psychosis-risk on prodromal questionnaire (PQ-16). Loneliness had a significant impact on psychosis-risk. Exposure to trauma was associated with psychosis-risk and loneliness, while domestic abuse/violence was associated only with the distress surrounding psychotic-like symptoms. COVID concern was also associated with psychosis-risk. Lastly, the associations between psychosis-risk and depression, anxiety, and stress were robust. These findings highlight the important role of loneliness in psychosis-proneness in Croatia. Depression, anxiety, and stress were also closely related to elevated psychosis-risk. Loneliness is a highly salient issue for individuals with psychosis and it is important to target loneliness within a multi-faceted psychosocial intervention for those at risk for schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Croatia/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277247, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109329

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Worldwide, loneliness is one of the most common psychological phenomena among older adults, adversely affecting their physical and mental health conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to assess changes in the prevalence of loneliness in the two timeframes (first and second waves of COVID-19 in Bangladesh) and identify its correlates in pooled data. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021), overlapping with the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The survey was conducted remotely through telephone interviews among 2077 (1032 in the 2020-survey and 1045 in the 2021-survey) older Bangladeshi adults aged 60 years and above. Loneliness was measured using the 3-item UCLA Loneliness scale. The binary logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with loneliness in pooled data. RESULTS: We found a decline in the loneliness prevalence among the participants in two survey rounds (51.5% in 2021 versus 45.7% in 2020; P = 0.008), corresponding to 33% lower odds in the 2021-survey (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84). Still, nearly half of the participants were found to be lonely in the latest survey. We also found that, compared to their respective counterparts, the odds of loneliness were significantly higher among the participants without a partner (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.20-2.08), with a monthly family income less than 5000 BDT (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.58-3.47), who lived alone (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.34-3.51), with poor memory or concentration (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.23-2.03), and suffering from non-communicable chronic conditions (AOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.23-1.95). Various COVID-19-related characteristics, such as concern about COVID-19 (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 0.94-1.73), overwhelm by COVID-19 (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.06), difficulty earning (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.59), and receiving routine medical care during COVID-19 (AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.61-2.68), and perception that the participants required additional care during the pandemic (AOR 2.93, 95% CI 2.27-3.79) were also associated with significantly higher odds of loneliness. However, the odds of loneliness were significantly lower among the participants with formal schooling (AOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and with a family of more than four members (AOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a decreased prevalence of loneliness among Bangladeshi older adults during the ongoing pandemic. However, the prevalence is still very high. The findings suggest the need for mental health interventions that may include improving social interactions increasing opportunities for meaningful social connections with family and community members and providing psychosocial support to the vulnerable population including older adults during the pandemic. It also suggests that policymakers and public health practitioners should emphasise providing mental health services at the peripheral level where the majority of older adults reside.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 230: 103759, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected almost every aspect of people's lives, especially, their physical and mental well-being. The degree of its impact, however, is different from place-to-place and person-to-person. Although there is a growing literature on the variable impact of the pandemic on the quality of sleep, loneliness, and mood across different populations (e.g., students, health-workers), little is known about how COVID-19-specific anxiety affects the loneliness feeling and sleep quality among students and employees, specifically, in a low-resource region like Bangladesh. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-related anxiety on the feeling of loneliness and sleep quality of students and professionals in Bangladesh. Additionally, we were interested in comparing the level of COVID-specific anxiety, loneliness, and quality of sleep between these two groups. In total, 211 Bangladeshi students and professionals participated in an online survey in August 2021 when the restriction was still in place. Measures of COVID-19 anxiety, loneliness, and sleep quality scales were used. Regression analysis indicated that overall loneliness and poor sleep quality were strongly predicted by COVID-specific anxiety regardless of being a student or professional. Almost half of the study population (48.3 %) felt severe loneliness and 70.01 % were bad sleepers. Mann-Whitney U test revealed that professionals felt more emotionally lonely, had a higher level of COVID-19-specific anxiety, and had poorer sleep quality than students. A better support structure should be implemented to help the population, particularly, the professionals to lessen their COVID-19-related anxiety and loneliness, and promote better sleep for alleviating stress and improved well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Sleep Quality , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099558

ABSTRACT

Loneliness is associated with depression, sleep disturbance, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and it is a global public health problem. Since physical and mental health have a great impact on loneliness, middle-aged and elderly people who are blind or visually impaired may be more affected by loneliness. Previous research has confirmed that effective social support can enhance physical and mental health and alleviate the negative effects of life stress. Therefore, in this study, we applied a cross-sectional design where data were collected using questionnaires completed in person, by phone, or online for a total of 456 middle-aged and elderly people with visual impairment. We found that the enrolled participants who were unemployed, lacked a stable source of income, lived alone, or were unable to move independently were prone to experiencing high levels of loneliness and low social support, which highlights the necessity of interventions such as counseling to alleviate the sense of loneliness in such groups. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social support measures to reduce the sense of loneliness should be highly encouraged to ensure that middle-aged and elderly people with visual impairment can continue to live independently, and social support seems to be an important factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vision, Low , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Support , Depression/psychology
10.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e76, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to delineate the role of preexisting depression for changes in common mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using mixed-effects linear regression models, we analyzed data on the course of depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2) symptoms as well as loneliness (three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a subset of the Socio-Economic Panel Study, a large and nationally representative household panel study from Germany. Participants were assessed during the first COVID-19 wave in Germany (March 31 to July 4, 2020; n = 6,694) and prospectively followed up at the peak of the second COVID-19 wave (January 18 to February 15, 2021; n = 6,038). RESULTS: Overall, anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased, whereas loneliness increased from the first to the second COVID-19 wave. However, depressive symptoms increased and the surge in loneliness was steeper in those with versus without clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2019 or a history of a depressive disorder before the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety symptoms remained stable throughout the pandemic in individuals with versus without clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2019. Pre-pandemic depression was associated with overall higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and loneliness across both assessments. The stringency of lockdown measures did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of depressive symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic are at increased risk to experience an escalation of mental health problems due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, they might particularly profit from targeted prevention and early intervention programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Loneliness/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Sampling Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Germany/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090143

ABSTRACT

Few studies have examined social media and technology use during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Therefore, the main research question and objective of this study was to examine similarities and differences in the influences of mobile technology and social media use on Canadians among different age groups and across gender during the COVID-19 pandemic. From June through October 2021, 204 persons completed a 72-item online survey. Survey questions encompassed COVID-19 pandemic experiences and technology use. Standardized measures including the Psychological Wellbeing measure, eHeals, and the UCLA V3 Loneliness scale were collected to examine the psychological influences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings showed that males under 50 years were most likely to self-isolate compared to the other demographic results of the study. Males reported using technology less than females but were more likely to report using technology to share information regarding COVID-19. Respondents under 50 years were also more likely to use smartphones/mobile phones as their most used mobile technology device, whereas respondents over 50 were more split between smartphones/mobile phones and computers/tablets as their most used device. Males scored higher on the UCLA loneliness scale and lower on the Psychological Wellbeing sub-scores compared to females. Further research should explore additional demographics in relation to broader aspects of digital skills across different age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Technology
12.
Health Psychol ; 41(11): 817-825, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated debate as to whether community-level behavioral restrictions are worth the emotional costs of such restrictions. Using a longitudinal design, we juxtaposed the relative impacts of state-level restrictions and case counts with person-level direct and media-based exposures on distress, loneliness, and traumatic stress symptoms (TSS) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. METHOD: From March 18, 2020 to April 18, 2020 and September 9, 2020 to October 16, 2020, a representative probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 5,594) completed surveys of their psychological responses and personal direct and media-based exposures to the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey data were merged with publicly available data on the stringency of state-level mitigation policies (e.g., school/business closures) during this period and longitudinal case/death counts for each state. RESULTS: Three multilevel models (outcomes: distress, loneliness, TSS) were constructed. Measurements of dependent variables (Level 1) were nested within respondents (Level 2) who were nested within states (Level 3). State-level mitigation, cases, or deaths were not associated with any dependent variables (all p's > .05). However, person-level exposures, including having contracted COVID-19 oneself (distress b = .22, p < .001; loneliness b = .13, p = .03; TSS b = .18, p = .001), knowing others who were sick (distress b = .04, p < .001; loneliness b = .02, p < .001; TSS b = .05, p < .001) or died (distress b = .10, p = .001; loneliness b = .10, p = .003; TSS b = .16, p < .001), and exposure to pandemic-related media (distress b = .12, p < .001; loneliness b = .09, p < .001; TSS b = .16, p < .001), were positively associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Personal exposures to COVID-19 are more strongly associated with psychological outcomes than statewide mitigations levied to stop disease spread. Results may inform public health response planning for future disease outbreaks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115447, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069699

ABSTRACT

Loneliness among older adults is a public health problem that has received particular attention since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies to date have however found a rather modest psychosocial impact of the pandemic on older adults, and scarce research has analyzed this impact using a comprehensive equity lens. The present study used an intersectional approach to examine social inequalities in loneliness before and during the early phase of the pandemic among older adults receiving eldercare in Sweden. The study population (analytical N = 205,529) came from two waves (2019 and 2020) of a total population survey to all older adult (>65 years of age) home care recipients and nursing home residents in Sweden. Loneliness was self-reported by a single-item measure, and survey data were linked to population register data on age, gender, residential setting, income, and country of birth. Additive binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence differences and discriminatory accuracy according to an analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy (AIHDA) approach. Results showed inequalities in loneliness arising particularly in the intersection of country of birth, income, and residential setting. The inequalities widened slightly but ubiquitously following the emergence of the pandemic in 2020, with particularly nursing home residents emerging as a risk group. The discriminatory accuracy of inequalities was consistently low to moderate throughout the analyses but increased marginally during the pandemic in 2020. The study illustrates how social inequalities engenders heterogeneity in the psychosocial risk of older adults before and during the pandemic. These findings should stimulate more nuanced and equity-oriented depictions, research and policies about loneliness among older adults in the peri-pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066043

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify the frequency of loneliness and to examine the factors associated with loneliness among homeless individuals in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were taken from the 'national survey on the psychiatric and somatic health of homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic'. The data collection took place from 26th July to 17th September 2021 (the analytical sample included n = 491 observations). The well-established UCLA-3 tool was used to quantify loneliness. Independent variables included sex, age, marital status, the existence of children and pets, level of education, country of origin, duration of homelessness, alcohol and drug consumption, mental health concerns and concerns regarding COVID-19 illness. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the predictors of loneliness. RESULTS: The frequency of loneliness was 41.7% for the total sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis stratified by gender showed that a higher likelihood of loneliness was associated with being born in Germany, being middle aged (40 to 49 years compared to 18 to 29 years), having mental health problems and a short period of homelessness (1 month compared to longer periods) among women. In men, a higher likelihood of loneliness was associated with a higher fear of COVID-19 and a short period of homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a high frequency rate of loneliness among homeless individuals. The study results highlight the associations between some explanatory variables (i.e., the duration of homelessness and mental health problems). Identifying the factors associated with loneliness may help to adequately address the problems of homeless individuals at risk of loneliness. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114876, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061782

ABSTRACT

Information seeking has generally been seen as an adaptive response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it may also result in negative outcomes on mental health. The present study tests whether reporting COVID-related information seeking throughout the pandemic is associated with subsequently poorer mental health outcomes. A quota-based, non-probability-sampling methodology was used to recruit a nationally representative sample. COVID-related information seeking was assessed at six waves along with symptoms of depression, anxiety, mental wellbeing and loneliness (N = 1945). Hierarchical linear modelling was used to assess the relationship between COVID-related information seeking and mental health outcomes. Information seeking was found to reduce over time. Overall, women, older and higher socioeconomic group individuals reported higher levels of information seeking. At waves 1-4 (March-June 2020) the majority of participants reported that they sought information on Covid 1-5 times per day, this decreased to less than once per day in waves 5 and 6 (July-November 2020). Higher levels of information seeking were associated with poorer mental health outcomes, particularly clinically significant levels of anxiety. Use of a non-probability sampling method may have been a study limitation, nevertheless, reducing or managing information seeking behaviour may be one method to reduce anxiety during pandemics and other public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Female , Pandemics , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Information Seeking Behavior , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(8): 1122-1131, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on mental health. The social distancing and stay-at-home orders have likely also impacted loneliness, social isolation, and social support. Older adults, particularly those with comorbidities such as cancer, have a greater potential to be impacted. Here we assessed loneliness, social isolation, and social support in older adults undergoing active cancer treatment during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mixed methods study in which quantitative data and qualitative response items were collected in parallel was conducted in 100 older adults with cancer. Participants completed a survey by telephone with a series of validated questionnaires to assess the domains of loneliness, social isolation, and social support as well as several open-ended questions. Baseline demographics and geriatric assessments were summarized using descriptive statistics. Bivariate associations between social isolation and loneliness and social support and loneliness were described using Spearman correlation coefficients. Conventional content analysis was performed on the open-ended questions. RESULTS: In a population of older adults with cancer, 3% were noted to be severely lonely, although 27% percent screened positive as having at least one indicator of loneliness by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Three Item Loneliness Scale. There was a significant positive correlation between loneliness and social isolation (r = +0.52, p < 0.05) as well as significant negative correlation between loneliness and social support (r = -0.49, p < 0.05). There was also a significant negative correlation between loneliness and emotional support (r = -0.43, p < 0.05). There was no significant association between loneliness and markers of geriatric impairments, including comorbidities, G8 score or cognition. DISCUSSION: Reassuringly, in this cohort we found relatively low rates of loneliness and social isolation and high rates of social support. Consistent with prior studies, loneliness, social isolation, and social support were found to be interrelated domains; however, they were not significantly associated with markers of geriatric impairments. Future studies are needed to study if cancer diagnosis and treatment may mediate changes in loneliness, social isolation, and social support in the context of the pandemic as well as beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Neoplasms/therapy
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the mental health and social behavior of people around the world. Due to epidemiological restrictions, the period of forced isolation contributed to the feeling of loneliness. The aim of the research is to identify factors and conditions associated to the feeling of loneliness in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was conducted among 262 people from the north-eastern Polish area, using an online survey. The diagnostic survey method was used, using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Measurement Scale, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the WHOQoL-Bref questionnaire. RESULTS: A statistically significant relationship was observed between the feeling of loneliness and areas of quality of life, especially psychological and social, generalized self-efficacy and marital status and way of living (p < 0.05). Higher levels of stress, social distancing, restrictions at work, health status were significantly correlated with an increase in loneliness. Remote work was associated with a lower assessment of the quality of life in the psychological field (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of loneliness were significantly more likely to affect people living alone and not in a relationship. Higher levels of loneliness were significantly associated with lower quality of life in the social and psychological domains, lower levels of self-efficacy, and remote work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology
18.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(5): 305-310, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social isolation and loneliness are known contributors to all-cause mortality as well as a range of physical and mental health conditions. Therefore, this article reviews current literature pertaining to the effects of social isolation and loneliness on physical and mental health during the current COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Social isolation and loneliness contribute to a myriad of physical and mental health conditions. Specifically social isolation and loneliness contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. However, most research indicated that poor lifestyle factors explained most of the association. Social isolation and loneliness are also associated with cognitive problems including dementia, immune system problems, and mental health conditions. Further social isolation and loneliness also spur behavioral issues that significantly affect physical and mental health. SUMMARY: Evidence suggests that social isolation and loneliness have significant consequences on the physical and mental health of the individual and that the move toward ending all protections against COVID-19 has significant implications for the vulnerable. Further the similarities between the effects of social isolation and loneliness are compared to some of the conditions evident in long-COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology
19.
J Affect Disord ; 319: 446-461, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020-2021, many European countries put in place temporary lockdown measures due to the increase in COVID-19 cases, although such measures have negative psychological effects. As pre-existing mental disorders are a risk factor of negative psychological consequences during pandemics, it is important to identify specific predictors of psychological distress caused by restrictive measures in patients with history of depressive episodes. The aims of this study were i) to determine whether depressive, anxious symptomatology and suicidal ideation (i.e. mental health outcomes) were influenced by stay-at-home orders, and ii) to identify the psychosocial dimensions that influenced these mental health outcomes in patients with pre-existing depression during/after COVID-19-related restrictions. METHODS: This study concerned 296 psychiatric patients with history of depressive episode in the 2 years before the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants received a computerized form to self-measure depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety (5 times during 2020-2021, two lockdown periods and three non- lockdown periods). Loneliness, boredom, habits, substance consumption, and access to psychiatric care also were self-reported. RESULTS: Loneliness and boredom were independent risk factors of anxiety and depression, and their changes dynamically affected the psychological state. Suicidal ideation was mostly driven by depressive symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the need to target these dimensions in the most vulnerable patients in order to prevent the psychological consequences of the repeated COVID-19-related restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Boredom , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 752, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Minimal research has leveraged qualitative data methods to gain a better understanding of the experiences and needs of older adults (OAs) and care partners of OAs with and without Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and AD-related dementias (AD/ADRD) during the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we: 1) quantitatively evaluated the psychosocial health of community-dwelling OAs; 2) quantitatively evaluated the perceived stress of care partners for OAs; 3) qualitatively characterized the experiences and needs of community-dwelling OAs and their care partners; and 4) explored differences in the experiences of care partners of OAs with and without AD/ADRD during the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic in the New York metropolitan area. METHODS: In this mixed-methods study, telephone interviews were conducted with 26 OAs and 29 care partners (16 of whom cared for OAs with AD/ADRD) from April to July 2020. Quantitative data included: demographics; clinical characteristics (Katz Index of independence in activities of daily living (Katz ADL) and the Lawton-Brody instrumental activities of daily living scale (Lawton-Brody)); and psychosocial health: stress was assessed via the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), social isolation via the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS), loneliness via the DeJong Loneliness Scale (DeJong), and depression and anxiety via the Patient Health Questionnaire-Anxiety and Depression (PHQ). Qualitative questions focused on uncovering the experiences and needs of OAs and their care partners. RESULTS: OAs (N = 26) were mostly female (57.7%), and White (76.9%), average age of 81.42 years. While OAs were independent (M = 5.60, Katz ADL) and highly functional (M = 6.92, Lawton-Brody), and expressed low levels of loneliness, stress, depression and anxiety (M = 1.95 on DeJong; M = 12.67 on PSS; M = 1.05 on PHQ depression; and M = 1.09 on PHQ anxiety), open-ended questions elicited themes of fear and worry. Care partners (N = 29) were mostly female (75.9%), White (72.4%), and married (72.4%), and reported moderate stress (M = 16.52 on the PSS), as well as a psychological impact of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, OAs reported minimal stress and loneliness; this may have been related to their reports of frequent interaction with family, even if only virtually. By contrast, care partners were moderately stressed and worried, potentially more than usual due to the additional challenges they face when trying to meet their loved ones' needs during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Pandemics
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